Difference between revisions of "Common Core State Standards Initiative"

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(Claims and criticisms)
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* [http://www.ncsl.org/aboutus.aspx National Conference of State Legislatures]
 
* [http://www.ncsl.org/aboutus.aspx National Conference of State Legislatures]
 
* [http://www.ed.gov/ U.S. Department of Education]
 
* [http://www.ed.gov/ U.S. Department of Education]
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===Additional reading===
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* [http://www.usnews.com/news/special-reports/a-guide-to-common-core/articles/2014/03/04/common-core-myths-and-facts ''U.S. News and World Report'', "Common Core: Myths and Facts," March 4, 2014]
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====Support of Common Core====
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* [http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Quotes-from-Supporters.pdf ''Common Core State Standards Initiative'', "Quotes from Supporters"]
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* [http://www.businessforcore.org/5-common-core-supporters-hear/ ''U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation'', "5 Common Core Supporters That You Should Hear"]
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====Criticisms of Common Core====
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* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/05/02/6-reasons-to-reject-common-core-k-3-standards-and-6-axioms-to-guide-policy/ ''Washington Post'', "6 reasons to reject Common Core K-3 standards — and 6 rules to guide policy," May 2, 2014]
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* [http://dianeravitch.net/category/common-core/ ''Diane Ravitch's Blog'', "Common Core"]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 16:31, 28 August 2014

Policypedia
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Education policy in the U.S.
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See also
Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English-language arts and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school.[1]

These benchmarks were developed by a working group assembled by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers from 2008 through 2009. Since their finalization in 2009, the Common Core standards have drawn attention among groups concerned about several different elements included in the reforms, such as the impact of standardized testing on academic achievement.

Standards

Common Core logo.jpg

The Common Core State Standards Initiative outlines standards in English-language arts (ELA) and mathematics that stress literacy and college or career readiness no later than the end of high school. These standards also define the content that should be taught at each grade level from kindergarten through 12th grade.[1]

English-language arts

The ELA standards feature five essential components:[2]

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking and listening
  • Language and media and technology
  • Keyboarding

States can choose to adopt cursive as an optional English-language arts standard. Seven states opted-in to the sixth standard, including: California, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, North Carolina and Utah. Indiana, however, withdrew from Common Core entirely on March 24, 2014.[3]

Mathematics

The mathematics standards mandate the teaching of eight specific principles:[4]

  • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
  • Reason abstractly and quantitatively
  • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
  • Model with mathematics
  • Use appropriate tools strategically
  • Attend to precision
  • Look for and make use of structure
  • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

The standards for kindergarten through sixth grade include operations and algebraic thinking, numbers and operations in base 10, measurement and data and geometry. In grades six through eight, students are to learn the number system, expressions and equations, geometry and statistics and probability. The six conceptual categories for high school students to understand are number and quantity, algebra, functions, modeling, geometry and statistics and probability.[4]

Assessment

The developers of Common Core are building a universal computer-based assessment for implementation in the 2014-2015 school year. The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers consortium and the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium are developing this online assessment.[5][6]

Implementation

Implementation of Common Core standards takes place at the state level, which the National Governors Association recommended in its 2008 report, Benchmarking for Success: Ensuring U.S. Students Receive a World-Class Education. The report notes that "because benchmarking is also-and most critically-about improving policy, states must take the lead."[7] This state-level focus arose because state education officials already possess authority over assessments, curriculum development and teacher standards. At the time of publication, the NGA found that 16 states had already adopted standards akin to Common Core as requirements for high school graduation.[7]

Another reason for the report's focus on state implementation was a concern about public perception. Federal involvement in education standards has proven controversial. The United States Senate rejected history standards developed under the presidential administrations of George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton by a 99-1 vote in 1995. This overwhelming rejection primarily resulted from concerns that the federal government would exceed its constitutional limits in dealing with educational issues.[8] Parents and education advocates also protested implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 due to the frequency and types of tests mandated by the law.[9]

Each state handles its own timelines and budgetary concerns during implementation of Common Core standards. The recommended timetable from approval by state officials to conducting evaluations based on Common Core standards is three years. This schedule can be difficult to follow since implementation requires professional training, curriculum adaptation to meet standards and evaluation development. Legislators and education officials also have to determine if there is sufficient funding to handle implementation.[10]

Adoption of Common Core standards

The authority to adopt new state education standards varies across the states. Though most states leave such decisions to the state board of education, others give that power to a chief state education officer or leave the final approval to the state legislature. The list below details which authority was in charge of adopting Common Core standards in the states.[11]

State Board of Education (or equivalent)


Chief Education Officer (or equivalent)

Final review or approval by state legislature

States that adopted

A total of 43 states have approved Common Core standards as of July 15, 2014. Alaska, Nebraska, Texas and Virginia have not adopted the standards. Indiana, Oklahoma and South Carolina adopted the Common Core standards but repealed them in 2014. Minnesota has only adopted the English-language arts requirements from the Common Core standards.

Forty states adopted the standards in 2010, five states adopted Common Core in 2011 and Wyoming adopted it in 2012. This list details when states adopted the Common Core State Standards:[11][12]

2010




2011

2012

States that withdrew

2014

Reaction

Public reaction

Despite a majority of states adopting Common Core, public backlash against Common Core standards has become a frequent occurrence. On September 19, 2013, a group of parents in California protested the state's adoption of Common Core when Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited their city.[13] Duncan later drew criticism in November 2013, when he described the opposition to Common Core as "white suburban moms who — all of a sudden — their child isn’t as brilliant as they thought they were, and their school isn’t quite as good as they thought they were," to a group of state school superintendents.[14] On November 18, 2013, some parents in South Carolina and New York chose to keep their children home from school as part of a "National Common Core Protest Day" to demonstrate opposition to Common Core's "one-size-fits all curriculum" and standardized testing methods.[15][16] On December 8, 2013, the Buffalo Teachers Federation protested outside the residence of a state education regent in response to Common Core implementation and its emphasis on continually testing students.[17]

Polling

Common Core approval rating
Poll Total approve Total disapproveNo opinion/Not heard ofMargin of ErrorSample Size
Education Next/Knowledge Network (May-June, 2014)
23%11%66%+/-22,633
PDK/Gallup (May 29, 2014-June 20, 2014)
27%49%24%+/-4.61,001
NBC News/Wall Street Journal (June 11-15, 2014)
59%31%10%+/-3.11,000
UConn Poll (April 22-30, 2014)
14%16%70%+/-31,006
McLaughlin and Associates (April 7-13, 2014)
35%33%32%+/-3.11,000
Gallup (April 3-9, 2014)
35%28%37%+/-5639
Achieve (November 14-18, 2013)
22%24%54%+/-3.5800
AVERAGES 30.71% 27.43% 41.86% +/-3.47 1,154.14
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

Several of the firms that conducted this polling separated their inquiry about Common Core into two separate questions. The first question asked if the respondents had heard of Common Core prior to the pollster asking about it. The second question asked what the respondents thought of Common Core. Six of the seven pollsters did not ask the respondents who had not heard of Common Core what they thought of the reforms. In those cases, the "No opinion/Not heard of" column adds together both the respondents who answered that they had not heard of Common Core in the first question with the respondents who answered that they had no opinion of Common Core in the second question, and uses the total number of poll participants to determine the percentages.

The NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll conducted in June 2014 was the only poll that did include the "not heard of" respondents in the "approve/disapprove" follow-up question, thereby making it impossible to determine what percentage of respondents had not heard of Common Core prior to the pollster's questions. As a result, the NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll's published data includes only the percentage of respondents who stated that they approved, disapproved or had no opinion on Common Core. This may explain the disparity between the percentages for that poll and the other polls.

Celebrity reaction

Several celebrities and well-known figures have weighed in on the debate over Common Core. Stand-up comedian and actor Louis C.K. criticized the new curriculum on Twitter and added that its implementation "feels like a dark time."[18] Actors Chuck Norris and Matt Damon have also leveled public criticisms at Common Core. Norris argued that the reforms would increase the power of the federal government over education, while Damon suggested that the new standards reduce teacher autonomy in the classroom. Judy Blume, Maya Angelou and Jules Feiffer signed a public letter with more than 120 other children book authors and illustrators to denounce the increased use of standardized testing.[19]

In contrast, former professional basketball player Isiah Thomas wrote an article extolling the rising academic performance standards brought about by Common Core.[20] Actress Eva Longoria and musician John Legend's personal foundations have funded television advertisements promoting the new standards.[21]

Claims and criticisms

Supporters

Supporters of Common Core standards promote the idea that American schools need more rigorous standards to stay competitive in the global economy. They also argue that ineffective education costs taxpayers more money and that better standards could prevent the need to spend money on things such as remedial courses for high school students. Military members in favor of Common Core have said it gives them peace of mind to know their children will have the same educational background as they move from state to state. Other supporters say Common Core gives teachers, parents, students, community members and political figures the information they need to help students achieve success, as the standards set a clear progression of learning for each grade.[22][23][24][25][26]

Supporters of Common Core include:

Criticisms

Criticisms of Common Core standards range from concerns about excessive government involvement to concerns about the impacts of standardization and mandatory testing on student success. Some critics believe education should be decided at the local level, allowing school districts to have control over curriculum instead of the state or federal governments. Others criticize the relationship between the standards and bureaucrats without educational backgrounds and worry that such involvement could damage public education. The privacy of testing data has also been cited as a concern, especially from parents. Though states are not required to use systems to track student data, critics have noted the possibility of education officials data mining student information if states do decide to use tracking systems.[27][28][29][30][31]

Critics of Common Core include:

Timeline

[edit]

  • August 27, 2014:
    • Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal (R) files a lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Education claiming that it used federal funds and regulations to promote the adoption of the Common Core State Standards among the states. The lawsuit argued that the federal government's use of the $4.35 billion Race to the Top fund "effectively forces States down a path toward a national curriculum."[32] The department required Phase 2 applicants for Race to the Top grants to commit to "adoption of a common set of K-12 standards" and also spent $372 million to help develop Common Core-aligned exams.[33][34] After the lawsuit was filed, Jindal issued a statement arguing that, "The federal government has hijacked and destroyed the Common Core initiative. [...] Common Core is the latest effort by big government disciples to strip away state rights and put Washington, D.C., in control of everything."[35]
    • The School District of Lee County School Board in Florida votes 3-2 to opt-out from statewide standardized tests, which are aligned with the Common Core State Standards. Superintendent Nancy Graham criticized the ruling and stated that, "This will hurt children." Board member Don Armstrong, who voted for the withdrawal, argued, "Sometimes it takes an act of civil disobedience to move forward. [...] We cannot allow the fear to hold us back." The board did not decide on a replacement for the examinations or whether its ruling would impact area charter schools. After the vote, board attorney Keith Martin acknowledged that the consequences of the vote were unclear and that Governor Rick Scott (R) could decide to remove the school board from power since the Common Core-aligned tests are state-mandated.[36] School District of Lee County is the ninth-largest school district in Florida, serving 83,895 students during the 2011-2012 school year.[37]
  • August 19, 2014: Judge Todd Hernandez of the 19th Judicial District rules against Governor Bobby Jindal (R), who filed a lawsuit against the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) on July 29, 2014. The lawsuit against BESE claimed that it had improperly delegated its constitutional authority to the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and that BESE had violated state contracting law when purchasing Common Core-aligned testing materials. Jindal's lawsuit came in response to a lawsuit filed by the Choice Foundation on July 22, 2014, and joined by BESE on July 29, 2014, which sought to stop Jindal's executive order to withdraw Louisiana from Common Core and to suspend contracts to buy Common Core testing materials. Hernandez's ruling lifted Jindal's suspension on the purchase of testing materials and argued that the governor had failed to produce evidence that BESE had violated state law. Jindal's chief of staff, Kyle Plotkin, indicated that the governor intended to appeal the ruling.[38]
  • July 29, 2014: Governor Bobby Jindal (R) files a lawsuit against the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education claiming that it improperly delegated its constitutional authority to the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers.[41] This came in response to a lawsuit filed the Choice Foundation on July 22, 2014, which alleged that Jindal's executive order to withdraw Louisiana from Common Core and to suspend contracts to buy Common Core testing materials exceeded his authority. The Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education voted 6-4 to join that lawsuit on July 29, 2014, shortly before Jindal filed his lawsuit.[42][43]
  • July 22, 2014:
    • The Choice Foundation, along with a number of parents and teachers, files a lawsuit against Governor Bobby Jindal, claiming his executive order to withdraw Louisiana from Common Core and to suspend contracts to buy Common Core testing materials exceeded his authority. The lawsuit calls for a preliminary injunction in order to allow the state to continue using Common Core standards for the 2014-2015 school year. A hearing was scheduled for August 4, 2014. The Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) said resolving the issue of who determines the content of state tests was critical. Until the hearing, teachers will not know what tests their students will need to take at the end of the school year.[45]
    • North Carolina Governor Pat McCrory (R) signs a bill into law that requires the state's Common Core curriculum standards be re-written. The bill was passed by the North Carolina State Senate on July 10, 2014, and by the North Carolina House of Representatives on July 16, 2014. Common Core standards will remain in place until the re-written standards are completed.[46]
  • July 16, 2014:
    • The North Carolina House of Representatives passes a bill with a vote of 71-34 ordering the State Board of Education to rewrite the Common Core standards and the state's Common Core-aligned curriculum. The North Carolina State Senate passed the bill on July 10, 2014, and Governor Pat McCrory (R) announced he would sign the bill. In addition to mandating the re-writing of the state's curriculum, the bill forms a "standards advisory commission" with the purpose of recommending curriculum changes to the state board. The commission will be appointed by a mixture of the governor, legislative leaders and the state board. Although an earlier version of the bill prevented the state board from using any questions or other materials from the Common Core-aligned exams, the final bill did allow the new state curriculum to include questions or materials determined to be effective. The Common Core-aligned standards and curriculum will remain in place until their replacements are completed.[51][52][53]
    • The Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) offers a compromise to Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal (R), who issued an executive order withdrawing Louisiana from Common Core on June 18, 2014. In its compromise, the BESE agreed to issue a request for a new testing contract for standardized tests for the 2014-2015 school year. The state had previously planned on using Common Core-aligned examinations developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers testing consortium, but State Commissioner of Administration Kristy Nichols halted that process after determining that the terms of the purchasing contract may have violated state law due to the lack of a competitive bidding process. The BESE's concession on issuing a new request came with several conditions, including that the terms of the new request be set by the BESE, not Gov. Jindal and the test questions in both math and English language arts "shall be identical to questions administered to at least four million American public school children" and "fully measure nationally recognized content standards." Gov. Jindal would also need to agree to sign a purchasing contract that met these standards within 90 days. After issuing his executive order, Gov. Jindal had called for a return to the state's LEAP and iLEAP mathematics and English language arts tests.[54]
  • July 15, 2014:
    • New Jersey Governor Chris Christie (R) issues an executive order reducing the impact of student standardized test scores on teacher evaluations for the next two school years. Test scores will count for 10 percent of a teacher's evaluation during the 2014-2015 school year and for 20 percent of the evaluation during the 2015-2016 school year. Prior to the executive order, test scores would have counted for 30 percent of a teacher's evaluation beginning in the 2014-2015 school year. The executive order also established a task force to review the Common Core-aligned exams created by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers testing consortium, along with other potential standardized tests.[55]
    • The Oklahoma Supreme Court rules 8-1 to uphold a law passed by the Oklahoma State Legislature and signed by Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin (R) on June 5, 2014, withdrawing the state from Common Core. The lawsuit challenging the withdrawal was filed on June 25, 2014, by a group of parents, teachers and four Oklahoma State Board of Education members. The plaintiffs alleged that the enacted law would give the state legislature authority to set education standards, a power which is not vested in the legislature by the Oklahoma Constitution. The lawsuit was organized by the National Associations of State Boards of Education.[56]
  • July 14, 2014: Missouri Governor Jay Nixon (D) signs a bill forming a committee of parents and educators charged with establishing two new sets of education standards for Missouri to be implementated during the 2016-2017 school year.[57] One set of standards will be used for grades K-5, and the other will be used for grades 6-12. The Missouri General Assembly passed the bill on May 15, 2014, and Gov. Nixon waited until the last possible day to sign the bill into law. Until the 2016-2017 school year, Missouri school districts will continue to implement and follow the Common Core State Standards.[58][59]
  • July 13, 2014:
    • The American Federation of Teachers issues a resolution criticizing the implementation of Common Core as "flawed and hasty" at its annual convention. Although the resolution confirmed that "the American Federation of Teachers will continue to support the promise of CCSS," it also rejected "low-level standardized testing" along with "excessive testing and test preparation." The resolution noted that the new standards were threatened by both "inadequate resources" and "a political agenda to privatize public education."[60] The resolution followed earlier comments made by AFT President Randi Weingarten comparing the implementation of Common Core across the United States unfavorably to the Healthcare.gov website rollout on November 4, 2013. At the convention, AFT also issued a resolution calling for the resignation of United States Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan if he does not enact an "improvement plan" laid out in the resolution.[61][62] This followed a call by the National Education Association's Representative Assembly for Duncan's resignation on July 4, 2014.
    • At the American Federation of Teachers convention, New York City United Federation of Teachers President Michael Mulgrew made a speech supporting the AFT resolution but denouncing critics of the Common Core State Standards. Although he acknowledged the frustration of classroom teachers over the implementation of the standards, he insisted, "Standards are our tool. Those are the tools of teachers. [...] The standards are ours. Tests are ours. [...] They took our standards away from us, we're going to take them back from them. [...] If someone takes something from me, I'm going to grab it right back out of their cold, twisted, sick hands and say it is mine. You do not take what is mine. And I'm going to punch you in the face and push you in the dirt because this is the teachers. These are our tools, and you sick people need to deal with us and the children we teach."[63][64] New York City United Federation of Teachers spokesperson Dick Riley supported the comments when contacted by the New York Daily News, stating "In the context of the resolution, the meaning is clear (as was the resulting applause)."[65]
  • July 10, 2014: The North Carolina State Senate passes a bill with a vote of 33-12 ordering the State Board of Education to rewrite the Common Core standards and the state's Common Core-aligned curriculum. The bill also forms a "standards advisory commission" with the purpose of recommending curriculum changes to the state board. The commission will be appointed by a mixture of the governor, legislative leaders and the state board. Although an earlier version of the bill prevented the state board from using any questions or other materials from the Common Core-aligned exams, the final bill did allow the new state curriculum to include questions or materials determined to be effective. The Common Core-aligned standards and curriculum will remain in place until their replacements are completed.[66]
  • July 4, 2014: The National Education Association's Representative Assembly elects Lily Eskelsen García as the union's new president, beginning on September 1, 2014. García succeeds Dennis Van Roekel, who criticized Common Core's implementation as in need of a "major course correction" in February 2014, in the presidency. García supports a delay in the use of Common Core test scores for evaluating teacher performance and student readiness to continue on to higher grades, which was proposed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Nevertheless, she remains a strong advocate for the Common Core State Standards Initiative. She dismissed criticisms of the Gates Foundation as misguided and said that she would give the organization a "B+" grade for "funding ideas."[67] At the same meeting, the Representative Assembly voted to call for the resignation of United States Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan.[68]
  • June 26, 2014: Connecticut Governor Dannel P. Malloy (D) announces $15 million in additional expenditures to support Connecticut school districts implementing Common Core. The new funding followed the recommendations made by the 25-member task force Malloy established on March 11, 2014, to improve the implementation of the new standards in Connecticut.[69] Malloy's announcement included an attempt to rebrand the standards as "Connecticut Core."[70]
  • June 24, 2014: Michigan Governor Rick Snyder (R) signs a budget law requiring Michigan schools to use the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) standardized tests for the 2014-2015 school year, instead of the Common Core-aligned examinations developed by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC). However, Michigan did not withdraw its membership from SBAC. The Michigan Department of Education, which criticized the shift away from the Common Core-aligned tests, could still use exam questions developed by SBAC in the revised MEAP exams.[74]
  • June 10, 2014: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation issues a public letter in support of a two-year delay in the use of Common Core test scores for evaluating teacher performance and student readiness to continue on to higher grades.[81]
  • June 5, 2014:
    • Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin (R) signs a law withdrawing Oklahoma from Common Core. The state thereby returned to Priority Academic Student Skills, which was its previous set of standards. Superintendent of Public Instruction Janet Barresi (R) voiced her support for the withdrawal, although both Fallin and Barresi had previously supported the standards.[82]
    • South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley (R) signs a law withdrawing South Carolina from Common Core. The law will allow implementation of Common Core to continue through the 2014-2015 school year, but the state government will be required to replace it with new standards by the start of the 2015-2016 school year.[83]
    • The North Carolina State Senate voted 33-15 for an alternate bill to withdraw from Common Core. The primary difference between the House and Senate bills is that the Senate bill would allow the Academic Standards Review Commission to decide to use a modified version of the Common Core State Standards, whereas the House bill prohibits such an action.[84]
  • May 15, 2014:
    • The Missouri General Assembly passes a bill to withdraw from Common Core beginning in the 2016-2017 school year. The bill would allow implementation of Common Core to continue through the 2015-2016 school year, but the state government would be required to replace it with two new sets of standards by the start of the 2016-2017 school year. One set of standards would be used for grades K-5 and the other would be for grades 6-12.[89] The Missouri House of Representatives voted 135-10 and the Missouri State Senate voted 23-6 to pass the bill.[90] Missouri Governor Jay Nixon (D) has until July 14, 2014, to decide whether to sign or veto the bill.[91]
    • Georgia Governor Nathan Deal (R) issues an executive order stating that, "no educational standards shall be imposed on Georgia by the federal government" and that, "all decisions regarding curriculum and instruction shall be made at the local level." The executive order also includes a prohibition on the sharing of "personally identifiable" student information with the federal government.[92]
  • May 2, 2014: Education textbook and media conglomerate Pearson wins the contract to develop standardized tests aligned with Common Core for the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers.[97] The contract pays Pearson $24 per student tested and estimates that between 5.5 million and 10 million students will undergo testing each year. The contract therefore has an estimated maximum value of $240 million per year.[98] Pearson was the only organization to file a bid for the contract after its competitor, the American Institutes for Research, protested the fairness and legality of the bidding process.[99] PARCC used the New Mexico Public Education Department as its purchasing agent for the contract, and AIR filed an official protest against the bidding process with the New Mexico state government. The state purchasing office later dismissed the protest.[100]
  • April 2, 2014: The Maryland General Assembly votes to approve two bills related to Common Core. HB 1164 created a work group of parents and educators to advise the implementation of the new standards, and it was passed by the Maryland State Senate by a vote of 46-1. The Maryland House of Delegates had already passed it by a vote of 127-8 on March 17, 2014. HB 1167 delayed the use of Common Core-aligned test scores in teacher and administrator evaluations for two years, and it was passed by the state Senate by a vote of 47-0. Similar to HB 1164, the House of Delegates approved it earlier by a vote of 128-0 on March 15, 2014.[101][102]
  • March 24, 2014: Indiana Governor Mike Pence (R) signs a law withdrawing Indiana from Common Core. Indiana thereby became the first state to withdraw from the standards, although Thomas B. Fordham Institute National Policy Director Michael Brickman dismissed the importance of the change, arguing that Indiana's standards were still closely-aligned with the Common Core State Standards.[103]
  • March 17 2014: The Florida Department of Education awards a six-year, $220 million contract to develop a replacement for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests to The American Institutes for Research. In 2013, Florida had planned to use the Common Core-aligned exams developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers before Governor Rick Scott (R) announced the state's withdrawal from PAARC and its intention to consider other options for its new exams.[104]
  • March 11, 2014: Connecticut Governor Dannel P. Malloy (D) issues an executive order creating a 25-member task force intended to improve the implementation of Common Core in Connecticut and to address the concerns raised by state residents and educators.[107]
  • March 5, 2014: The New York State Assembly voted 117-10 to pass a bill delaying implementation of significant portions of Common Core.[108] The New York State United Teachers union expressed its support for the changes following the vote, especially a measure requiring a two-year delay before Common Core test scores could be used for evaluating teacher performance.[109]
  • February 19, 2014: National Education Association President Dennis Van Roekel criticized the implementation of Common Core, arguing that the effectiveness of the standards would be lessened in the absence of a "major course correction" to salvage the beneficial elements of Common Core.[110] From 2008 through 2013, the NEA Foundation for the Improvement of Education received $4,484,177 in grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[23]
  • January 25, 2014: The New York State United Teachers union's board withdrew its support the Common Core State Standards as they were implemented in New York. After the unanimous decision, President Richard Iannuzzi stated, "We’ll have to be the first to say it’s failed."[112]

  • December 10, 2013: The Kansas State Board of Education votes 8-2 to withdraw from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and to replace its Common Core-aligned exams with different tests commissioned from the University of Kansas. The new exams will be used beginning in the 2015-2016 school year.[113][114]
  • November 15, 2013: At a meeting with the Council of Chief State School Officers, United States Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan describes the opposition to Common Core as "white suburban moms who — all of a sudden — their child isn’t as brilliant as they thought they were, and their school isn’t quite as good as they thought they were."[14]
  • November 14, 2013: The Alabama State Board of Education votes 7-2 to rescind a 2009 memorandum of agreement with the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. However, this vote did not withdraw Alabama from Common Core itself. Instead, it asserted that the state administration retained control over state education standards while reaffirming the state's participation in Common Core.[117] In April 2013, Alabama State Senate President Pro Tem Del Marsh (R) insisted that repeal of the standards was "off the table."[118]
  • November 4, 2013: At the National Education Writers Association conference, American Federation of Teachers President Randi Weingarten criticized the implementation of Common Core across the United States and particularly in New York. In her speech, she argued that the implementation of the new standards had been "far worse" than the Healthcare.gov website rollout.[119] From 2008 through 2013, the American Federation of Teachers Educational Foundation received $5,400,000 in grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[23]
  • October 29, 2013: The Michigan State Legislature votes to restore funding for the implementation of Common Core. Funding was halted beginning on October 1, 2013, due to an education budget bill passed on June 4, 2013.[120][121]
  • October 18, 2013: Iowa Governor Terry Branstad (R) issues an executive order renaming the Common Core-aligned standards in the state as the "Iowa Core" and stating: "The State of Iowa, not the federal government or any other organization, shall determine the content of Iowa’s state academic standards." The executive order also states, "Only aggregate student data shall be provided to the federal government to comply with federal laws."[122]
  • September 20, 2013: Arizona Governor Jan Brewer (R) issues an executive order renaming the Common Core-aligned standards in the states as "Arizona's College and Career Ready Standards" and stating that the state of Arizona retains control of its assessments and curriculum.[123]
  • September 12, 2013: The Pennsylvania State Board of Education votes 13-4 to approve a revised set of academic standards. It included the Pennsylvania Core Standards, which were modeled on the Common Core State Standards. The State Board of Education had revised the academic standards after receiving a mandate to do so from Governor Tom Corbett (R) on May 20, 2014.[124]
  • July 3, 2013: The National Education Association's Representative Assembly endorses Common Core standards, but rejects using Common Core test scores to evaluate teacher performance.[127]
  • June 4, 2013: The Michigan State Legislature approves an education budget bill with an amendment preventing state funding for the implementation of Common Core beginning on October 1, 2013.[128]
  • April 30, 2013: American Federation of Teachers President Randi Weingarten issues a press release calling for a moratorium on using Common Core test scores to evaluate teacher performance until the standards are "properly implemented and field-tested." The same press release noted that an internal poll had found that 75 percent of teachers supported the standards.[132]
  • February 15, 2013: The National Parent‑Teacher Association receives a one-year, $240,000 grant from the GE Foundation to create "state-specific assessment guides" for those states that had already adopted the Common Core State Standards.[133]

  • August 3, 2012: The Utah State Board of Education votes 12-3 to withdraw from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, which develops Common Core-aligned tests.[134]
  • June 7, 2012: Erie City School District in Pennsylvania receives a four-year, $8.6 million grant from the GE Foundation. The press release accompanying the announcement stated that this was to help teachers and students prepare for Common Core standards. The district previously received a five-year, $15 million grant from the GE Foundation in 2007 as part of its "Developing Futures in Education" initiative.[136]
  • June 2012: Student Achievement Partners, a nonprofit that exists to support Common Core adoption and implementation, receives two grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation totaling $6,533,350.[137]
  • February 1, 2012: Student Achievement Partners, a nonprofit that exists to support Common Core adoption and implementation, receives a four-year, $18 million grant from the GE Foundation. The press release accompanying the announcement stated that this was the "largest corporate commitment to date for the Common Core State Standards and reflects GE's longstanding dedication to preparing American students for an increasingly competitive workforce."[139]

  • April 14, 2010: The United States Department of Education releases Phase 2 applications for Race to the Top. In order to qualify for a Phase 2 grant, states must commit to "adoption of a common set of K-12 standards [...] by August 2, 2010, or, at a minimum, by a later date in 2010 specified by the State in a high-quality plan toward which the State has made significant progress, and its commitment to implementing the standards thereafter in a well-planned way."[34] A total of 35 states and the District of Columbia apply for Phase 2 grants.[147] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation spent $2.7 million to fund the creation of applications in 24 states.[23]
  • March 10, 2010: The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers issue a revised official draft of the English-language arts and mathematics standards for public comment.[148] The revised draft received "nearly 10,000" online survey responses before the public comment review period ended.[149]
  • February 2010: The Kentucky State Board of Education votes to adopt Common Core, although the standards were not finalized at the time of the vote. Kentucky thereby became the first state to adopt the new standards.[150] From 2008 through 2013, the Kentucky Department of Education received $10,800,877 in grants from the Gates Foundation. The Gates Foundation also provided a grant of $476,553 to a foundation affiliated with the Kentucky Chamber of Commerce to promote Common Core and a grant of $501,580 to a foundation affiliated with the National Education Association to help implement Common Core in the state. An article by The Washington Post stated that the Gates Foundation spent "at least" $15 million to build support for the new standards and to improve implementation. Kentucky Commissioner of Education Terry Holliday stated in the article, "Without the Gates money, we wouldn’t have been able to do this."[23]

  • October 21, 2009: The public comment review period on the first official draft of English-language arts and mathematics standards ends. The Common Core State Standards Initiative received 988 completed surveys commenting on the proposed standards.[151]
  • September 21, 2009: The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers issue the first official draft of the English-language arts and mathematics standards for public comment.[152]
  • June 14, 2009: In the keynote address at the Governors Education Symposium, United States Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan announces that $350 million of the $4.35 billion in the Race to the Top fund will be allocated to the development of "rigorous assessments linked to the internationally benchmarked common standards." The press release following his speech noted that he was referring to standards already under development by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers as part of the Common Core State Standards Initiative.[154] The Department of Education eventually spent $372 million, $186 million each to the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, to help fund the creation of Common Core-aligned exams.[33]
  • June 1, 2009: The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers announce the establishment of the Common Core State Standards Initiative. The press release highlights that a combined 49 states and territories had agreed to participate in the creation of the standards. Alaska, Missouri, South Carolina and Texas were the four states who did not participate at that time.[155]
  • March 7, 2009: The United States Department of Education issues a press release stating that a program titled Race to the Top is in development. The announcement notes that states must implement "rigorous college- and career-ready standards and high-quality assessments that are valid and reliable for all students" in order to become eligible for a Race to the Top grant.[156] An unpublished draft of the Race to the Top program referred specifically to the Common Core State Standards still under development, but an official with the Council of Chief State School Officers requested that it be removed due to concern that it would "cause people to be real suspicious."[23]
  • February 17, 2009: President Barack Obama signs the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act into law, which provided the United States Department of Education with $4.35 billion for the Race to the Top fund, which was a competitive grant program for states that encouraged innovation and improvements in public education.[157]

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See also

External links

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Support of Common Core

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References

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