Difference between revisions of "Distribution requirement"

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{{TOCnestright}}A '''distribution requirement''' is a legislative mandate requiring that petitions for a candidate or a ballot measure must be signed by voters from different political subdivisions in order for the candidate or ballot measure to be certified for the ballot.  A distribution requirement is a way of requiring that "widespread support" for the candidate or ballot measure be demonstrated via the evidence of registered voters from a variety of political subdivisions signing petitions for that candidate or ballot measure.
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{{TOCnestright}}A '''distribution requirement''' is a [[statute|statutory]] or [[constitutional amendment|constitutional mandate]] requiring that [[petition|petitions]] for a [[ballot measure]] or a candidate must be signed by voters from different political subdivisions in order for the ballot measure or candidate to qualify for the ballot.  
  
==States with distribution requirements==
+
Where there are distribution requirements for initiative petitions, the political jurisdiction varies.  In some states, the distribution requirement is spread out over a state's counties (Arkansas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Ohio, Wyoming).  In other states, it is calculated based on state legislative districts (Alaska, Montana, Utah) or U.S. Congressional districts (Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada).
  
*[[Alaska signature requirements|Alaska]].  Signatures from each of 30 districts to be at least equal to seven percent of the voters who voted in each of these districts in the last general election.  An older requirement, changed with the passage in 2004 of the [[Alaska Distribution Requirement for Initiatives (2004)|Distribution Requirement for Initiatives Act]] in 2004, was that at least one voter needed to sign from each of at least 27 districts.
+
==Arguments==
  
*[[Arkansas Initiative and Referendum Law|Arkansas]].  5% in 15 of 75 counties.
+
===For===
  
*[[Florida Initiative and Referendum Law|Florida]].  8% in 12 of 23 congressional districts.
+
Supporters of distribution requirements have argued:
  
*[[Maryland signature requirements|Maryland]]. No more than half of required signatures may be from any one county or Baltimore City.  
+
* Distribution requirements are a way of demonstrating widespread support for a ballot measure or candidate because registered voters from a variety of political subdivisions signed petitions for the ballot measure.
  
*[[Massachusetts Initiative and Referendum Law|Massachusetts]].  No more than one-quarter of the certified signatures may come from any one county.
+
* Voters have approved of distribution requirements, or tougher distribution requirements.  Examples include [[Alaska Distribution Requirement for Initiatives, Measure 1 (2004)]], [[Wyoming Signature Distribution Requirements, Amendment B (1998)|Wyoming Amendment B (1998)]], [[Montana C-37, Distribution Requirements for Constitutional Initiatives (2002)|Montana C-37, Distribution Requirements for Constitutional Initiatives (2002)]] and [[Montana C-38, Distribution Requirements for Statutory Initiatives (2002)|Montana C-38, Distribution Requirements for Statutory Initiatives (2002)]].  (A federal court later said that Montana's C-37 and C-38 were unconstitutional.)
  
*[[Mississippi Initiative and Referendum Law|Mississippi]].  20% from each congressional district.
+
===Against===
  
*[[Missouri Initiative and Referendum Law|Missouri]].  Sponsors must collect a minimum threshold of signatures in 6 out of Missouri's 9 U.S. congressional districts.
+
Those who argue against distribution requirements have mentioned these considerations:
  
*[[Montana Initiative and Referendum Law|Montana]].  For a statute, 5% in 34 of 50 legislative districts. For an amendment, 10% in 40 out of the 50 state legislative districts.
+
* Distribution requirements can significantly drive up the cost of petition drives by forcing signatures to be collected in sparsely populated areas.
 +
* Federal courts have ruled that these requirements are so onerous on the free speech rights of petition proponents that they violate the constitution.  
 +
* Courts have ruled that distribution requirements violate the equal protection clause – one person, one vote – because they require distribution over subdivisions that aren’t equal in population.
 +
* Distribution requirements diminish the voice of voters in certain districts while unfairly amplifying the voice of voters in others.
 +
* Voters have rejected efforts to impose distribution requirements or to make distribution requirements tougher. Examples include [[Wyoming Initiative Process, Constitutional Amendment B (2008)|Wyoming Amendment B (2008)]] and [[Colorado Citizen-Initiated State Laws, Referendum O (2008)]].
  
*[[Nebraska Initiative and Referendum Law|Nebraska]].  In Nebraska, signatures over a threshold determined by whether the petition is for a [[statute]] or a [[constitutional amendment]] must be collected in a minimum of 40% (or 38) of Nebraska's 93 counties.
+
==Requirements by state==
 +
<!--Carry over law page sections to signature pages when reformatting this section (User:TylerM)-->
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These charts show distribution requirements for initiative signatures.  In some states, candidate qualification petitions and recall petitions also have a distribution requirement.  Those requirements are not displayed below.
  
*[[Ohio Initiative and Referendum Law|Ohio]].  In Ohio, signatures for both amendments and statutes must be obtained from at least 44 of the 88 counties of the state.
+
===States with===
  
*[[Utah Initiative and Referendum Law|Utah]]. For direct initiatives, proponents must gather 10% of the vote cast in at least 20 of Utah's 29 counties. For indirect initiatives, proponents must gather 5% in at least 20 of 29 counties.
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{|class="wikitable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" style="background:none" style="width:80%;"
 +
|-
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | State
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Requirement for initiated statute
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Requirement for initiated amendment
  
*[[Laws governing the initiative process in Wyoming|Wyoming]].  15% of total votes cast in the last election from at least 2/3 of the counties.  If [[Wyoming Constitutional Amendment B (2008)]] passes, the new requirement will be 15% of votes cast in the last election from 2/3rds of the state's thirty state senate districts.
+
|-
 +
| [[Alaska signature requirements|Alaska]]
 +
| Signatures from 7% of those who voted in the previous general election in at least 75% of the state’s 40 [[Alaska House of Representatives|state house districts]].
 +
| align="center" | NA
  
==States without distribution requirements==
+
|-
 +
| [[Arkansas signature requirements|Arkansas]]
 +
| 4% of votes cast for governor in each of at least 15 of 75 counties
 +
| 5% of votes cast for governor in each of at least 15 of 75 counties
  
*[[Arizona Initiative and Referendum Law|Arizona]], [[California Initiative and Referendum Law|California]], [[Colorado Initiative and Referendum Law|Colorado]], [[Idaho Initiative and Referendum Law|Idaho]], [[Maine Initiative and Referendum Law|Maine]], [[Michigan Initiative and Referendum Law|Michigan]], [[Laws governing the initiative process in Nevada|Nevada]], [[North Dakota Initiative and Referendum Law|North Dakota]], [[Oklahoma Initiative and Referendum Law|Oklahoma]], [[Oregon Initiative and Referendum Law|Oregon]], [[South Dakota Initiative and Referendum Law|South Dakota]] and [[Laws governing the initiative process in Washington|Washington]].
+
|-
 +
| [[Florida signature requirements|Florida]]
 +
| align="center" | NA
 +
| 8% in at least 13 of Florida's 25 congressional districts
  
==Legal challenges to distribution requirements==
+
|-
 +
| [[Massachusetts signature requirements|Massachusetts]]
 +
| No more than 25% of signatures may be from one county
 +
| No more than 25% of signatures may be from one county
  
* In 1969, in the case of ''[[Moore v. Ogilvie]]'', the [[Judgepedia:Supreme Court of the United States|U.S. Supreme Court]] struck down an [[Illinois]] distribution requirement saying that it "applies a rigid, arbitrary formula to sparsely settled counties and populous counties alike, and thus discriminates against the residents of the populous counties in the exercise of their political rights in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."  
+
|-
 +
| [[Mississippi signature requirements|Mississippi]]
 +
| align="center" | NA
 +
| "The signatures of the qualified electors from any congressional district shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) of the total number of signatures required to qualify an initiative petition for placement upon the ballot. If an initiative petition contains signatures from a single congressional district which exceed one-fifth (1/5) of the total number of required signatures, the excess number of signatures from that congressional district shall not be considered by the Secretary of State in determining whether the petition qualifies for placement on the ballot." ([[Article XV, Mississippi Constitution#Section 273|Section 273, Paragraph (3), Mississippi Constitution]])
  
* In 2001, in the case of ''[[Idaho Coalition United for Bears v. Cenarrusa]]'', a federal judge declared that Idaho's distribution requirement for initiatives was unconstitutional on the grounds that the restrictions violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 2003, the decision was appealed by the state of Idaho to [[United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit]].  The higher court affirmed the lower court's ruling.
+
|-
 +
| [[Missouri signature requirements|Missouri]]
 +
| 5% of votes cast in last gubernatorial election from 6 of 9 congressional districts
 +
| 8% of votes cast in last gubernatorial election from 6 of 9 congressional districts
  
* In 2002, in the case of ''[[Gallivan v. Walker]]'', the [[Utah Supreme Court]] struck down [[Utah]]'s distribution requirement, declaring that the initiative right is a "fundamental right implicit in a free society" and that the distribution requirement impinged on it. 
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|-
 +
| [[Montana signature requirements|Montana]]
 +
| 5% of qualified voters in each of 34 [[Montana State Legislature|state legislative]] districts
 +
| 10% of qualified voters in each of 40 [[Montana State Legislature|state legislative]] districts
  
* In the 2005 federal court case [[Montana PIRG v. Johnson]], a distribution requirement in Montana was declared unconstitutional.
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|-
 +
| [[Nebraska signature requirements|Nebraska]]
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| 5% of registered voters in 38 of 93 counties<ref name=NEsigs>The number of registered voters for the purposes of making this calculation is the number of registered voters in the county as of the filing deadline for signatures</ref>
 +
| 5% of registered voters in 38 of 93 counties<ref name=NEsigs/>
  
* In December 2006, [[Nevada]]'s distribution requirement was declared unconstitutional by the [[United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|Ninth Circuit]] in the case of ''[[ACLU v. Lomax]]''.  In 2007, the [[Nevada State Legislature]] passed a new distribution requirement in [[Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007)|Nevada Senate Bill 549]], which according to the ACLU is "virtually identical" to the law struck down in ACLU v. Lomax.  On September 28, 2008, U.S. District Court Judge Philip Pro invalidated [[Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007)]], saying it is unconstitutional, and ordering Secretary of State Ross Miller not to enforce it.<ref>[http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_10592088 ''Mercury News'', "Federal judge strikes down Nev. ballot measure law", September 29, 2008]</ref>,<ref>[http://www.lvrj.com/opinion/30085029.html ''Las Vegas Review Journal'', "EDITORIAL: Petition requirements", October 2, 2008]</ref>
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|-
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| [[Nevada signature requirements|Nevada]]
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| 10% of total votes cast in most recent general election in each of Nevada's congressional districts, plus at least 18 signatures from Clark County<ref name=nvsigs>[http://nvsos.gov/index.aspx?page=75 Nevada signature requirements]</ref>
 +
| 10% of total votes cast in most recent general election in each of Nevada's congressional districts, plus at least 18 signatures from Clark County<ref name=nvsigs/>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ohio signature requirements|Ohio]]
 +
| 1.5% of votes cast for most recent gubernatorial election in each of 44 of Ohio's 88 counties
 +
| 5% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in each of 44 of Ohio's 88 counties
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[Utah signature requirements|Utah]]
 +
| '''Direct:''' 10% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in at least 26 of 29 [[Utah State Senate|state senate]] districts.<br>'''Indirect:''' 5% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in at least 26 of 29 [[Utah State Senate|state senate]] districts.<ref>[http://www.citizensincharge.org/files/2010report-utah.pdf Utah signature requirements]</ref>
 +
| align="center" | NA
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[Wyoming signature requirements|Wyoming]]
 +
| 15% of residents in at least 2/3 of Utah's 33 counties
 +
| align="center" | NA
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===States without===
 +
 
 +
* [[Arizona signature requirements|Arizona]]
 +
* [[California signature requirements|California]]
 +
* [[Colorado signature requirements|Colorado]]
 +
* [[Idaho signature requirements|Idaho]]
 +
* [[Maine signature requirements|Maine]]
 +
* [[Michigan signature requirements|Michigan]]
 +
* [[North Dakota signature requirements|North Dakota]]
 +
* [[Oklahoma signature requirements|Oklahoma]]
 +
* [[Oregon signature requirements|Oregon]]
 +
* [[South Dakota signature requirements|South Dakota]]
 +
* [[Washington signature requirements|Washington]]
 +
 
 +
==Lawsuits==
 +
 
 +
* In 1969, in the case of ''[[Moore v. Ogilvie]]'', the [[Judgepedia:Supreme Court of the United States|U.S. Supreme Court]] struck down an [[Illinois]] county-based distribution requirement saying that it "applies a rigid, arbitrary formula to sparsely settled counties and populous counties alike, and thus discriminates against the residents of the populous counties in the exercise of their political rights in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."
 +
 
 +
* In 2001, in the case of ''[[Idaho Coalition United for Bears v. Cenarrusa]]'', a federal judge declared that Idaho's county-based distribution requirement for initiatives was unconstitutional on the grounds that the restrictions violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 2003, the decision was appealed by the state of Idaho to [[United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit]].  The higher court affirmed the lower court's ruling.
 +
 
 +
* In 2002, in the case of ''[[Gallivan v. Walker]]'', the [[Utah Supreme Court]] struck down [[Utah]]'s county-based distribution requirement, declaring that the initiative right is a "fundamental right implicit in a free society" and that the distribution requirement impinged on it. The [[Utah State Legislature]] then replaced the county-based distribution requirement with a state senate district-based requirement, which is currently in effect.
 +
 
 +
* In the 2005 federal court case [[Montana PIRG v. Johnson]], a county-based distribution requirement in Montana was declared unconstitutional. 
 +
 
 +
* In December 2006, [[Nevada]]'s county-based distribution requirement was declared unconstitutional by the [[United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|Ninth Circuit]] in the case of ''[[ACLU v. Lomax]]''.  In 2007, the [[Nevada State Legislature]] passed a new distribution requirement in [[Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007)|Nevada Senate Bill 549]], which according to the ACLU is "virtually identical" to the law struck down in ACLU v. Lomax.  On September 28, 2008, U.S. District Court Judge Philip Pro invalidated [[Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007)]], saying it is unconstitutional, and ordering Secretary of State Ross Miller not to enforce it.<ref>[http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_10592088 ''Mercury News'', "Federal judge strikes down Nev. ballot measure law," September 29, 2008]</ref><ref>[http://www.lvrj.com/opinion/30085029.html ''Las Vegas Review Journal'', "EDITORIAL: Petition requirements," October 2, 2008]</ref> Later, the Nevada State Legislature enacted a distribution requirement based on U.S. Congressional districts, rather than counties. 
 +
 
 +
* ''[[Citizens in Charge v. Gale]]''.  This lawsuit in federal court is pending.  It challenges the state's county-based distribution requirement for candidate petitions in Nebraska, among other challenge to Nebraska petition law.
  
 
Petition sponsors in states with distribution requirements face the difficult decision of whether to comply with a requirement that may be unconstitutional, or filing a federal lawsuit.  Since the costs of such litigation can easily exceed $100,000, and since the litigation might take years, as a practical matter, most petition sponsors elect to comply with a law that may be unconstitutional.
 
Petition sponsors in states with distribution requirements face the difficult decision of whether to comply with a requirement that may be unconstitutional, or filing a federal lawsuit.  Since the costs of such litigation can easily exceed $100,000, and since the litigation might take years, as a practical matter, most petition sponsors elect to comply with a law that may be unconstitutional.
 +
 +
==Statutory proposals==
 +
 +
===Colorado===
 +
 +
{{defeated}} '''[http://www.leg.state.co.us/CLICS/CLICS2010A/csl.nsf/fsbillcont3/630FF1CB1DB20786872576B700584A7D?Open&file=SCR003_rn2. SCR 3]:''' This law would have added a [[distribution requirement]] to the petition process for {{icafull}}s in Colorado, which currently does not have one.  Specifically, it would have:
 +
* Required that 5% of the minimum total number of signatures on petitions must be gathered from residents in each of Colorado's U.S. Congressional districts.
 +
* Required a [[supermajority vote|60% supermajority vote]] to pass an {{icafull}}, with the exception that it would only take a simple majority vote to repeal provisions of the [[Colorado Constitution]] in existence prior to the 2011 odd-year election or to certain amendments related to [[Colorado State and Local Debt Limitations, Amendment 61 (2010)|Amendment 61 (2010)]].  The resolution was defeated by the [[Colorado State Senate]] on May 11, 2010 on a 20-13 vote with 2 Senators not voting<ref>[http://www.leg.state.co.us/Clics/clics2010a/csl.nsf/BillFoldersSenate?OpenFrameSet ''Colorado General Assembly'', "Senate Session Journal," May 11, 2010](See Page 1390, Lines 44 and 66)</ref>.
 +
 +
===Michigan===
 +
 +
* [[Michigan Senate Joint Resolution K (2008)]]
 +
 +
===Nevada===
 +
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* [[Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007)]]
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 51: Line 149:
 
* [[Changes in 2007 to laws governing the initiative process]]
 
* [[Changes in 2007 to laws governing the initiative process]]
 
* [[Changes in 2008 to laws governing the initiative process]]
 
* [[Changes in 2008 to laws governing the initiative process]]
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* [[Changes in 2009 to laws governing the initiative process]]
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* [[Changes in 2010 to laws governing ballot measures]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<references/>
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{{reflist}}
<hr>
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{{requirements}}
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{{Laws governing ballot measures}}
 
[[Category:Terms and definitions]]
 
[[Category:Terms and definitions]]
[[Category:States with distribution requirements]]
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[[Category:States with a distribution requirement]]
[[Category:Initiative rights]]
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[[Category:Distribution requirements]]
 
[[Category:Distribution requirements]]

Revision as of 07:54, 6 May 2014

A distribution requirement is a statutory or constitutional mandate requiring that petitions for a ballot measure or a candidate must be signed by voters from different political subdivisions in order for the ballot measure or candidate to qualify for the ballot.

Where there are distribution requirements for initiative petitions, the political jurisdiction varies. In some states, the distribution requirement is spread out over a state's counties (Arkansas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Ohio, Wyoming). In other states, it is calculated based on state legislative districts (Alaska, Montana, Utah) or U.S. Congressional districts (Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada).

Arguments

For

Supporters of distribution requirements have argued:

  • Distribution requirements are a way of demonstrating widespread support for a ballot measure or candidate because registered voters from a variety of political subdivisions signed petitions for the ballot measure.

Against

Those who argue against distribution requirements have mentioned these considerations:

  • Distribution requirements can significantly drive up the cost of petition drives by forcing signatures to be collected in sparsely populated areas.
  • Federal courts have ruled that these requirements are so onerous on the free speech rights of petition proponents that they violate the constitution.
  • Courts have ruled that distribution requirements violate the equal protection clause – one person, one vote – because they require distribution over subdivisions that aren’t equal in population.
  • Distribution requirements diminish the voice of voters in certain districts while unfairly amplifying the voice of voters in others.
  • Voters have rejected efforts to impose distribution requirements or to make distribution requirements tougher. Examples include Wyoming Amendment B (2008) and Colorado Citizen-Initiated State Laws, Referendum O (2008).

Requirements by state

These charts show distribution requirements for initiative signatures. In some states, candidate qualification petitions and recall petitions also have a distribution requirement. Those requirements are not displayed below.

States with

State Requirement for initiated statute Requirement for initiated amendment
Alaska Signatures from 7% of those who voted in the previous general election in at least 75% of the state’s 40 state house districts. NA
Arkansas 4% of votes cast for governor in each of at least 15 of 75 counties 5% of votes cast for governor in each of at least 15 of 75 counties
Florida NA 8% in at least 13 of Florida's 25 congressional districts
Massachusetts No more than 25% of signatures may be from one county No more than 25% of signatures may be from one county
Mississippi NA "The signatures of the qualified electors from any congressional district shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) of the total number of signatures required to qualify an initiative petition for placement upon the ballot. If an initiative petition contains signatures from a single congressional district which exceed one-fifth (1/5) of the total number of required signatures, the excess number of signatures from that congressional district shall not be considered by the Secretary of State in determining whether the petition qualifies for placement on the ballot." (Section 273, Paragraph (3), Mississippi Constitution)
Missouri 5% of votes cast in last gubernatorial election from 6 of 9 congressional districts 8% of votes cast in last gubernatorial election from 6 of 9 congressional districts
Montana 5% of qualified voters in each of 34 state legislative districts 10% of qualified voters in each of 40 state legislative districts
Nebraska 5% of registered voters in 38 of 93 counties[1] 5% of registered voters in 38 of 93 counties[1]
Nevada 10% of total votes cast in most recent general election in each of Nevada's congressional districts, plus at least 18 signatures from Clark County[2] 10% of total votes cast in most recent general election in each of Nevada's congressional districts, plus at least 18 signatures from Clark County[2]
Ohio 1.5% of votes cast for most recent gubernatorial election in each of 44 of Ohio's 88 counties 5% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in each of 44 of Ohio's 88 counties
Utah Direct: 10% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in at least 26 of 29 state senate districts.
Indirect: 5% of votes cast in most recent gubernatorial election in at least 26 of 29 state senate districts.[3]
NA
Wyoming 15% of residents in at least 2/3 of Utah's 33 counties NA

States without

Lawsuits

  • In 1969, in the case of Moore v. Ogilvie, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down an Illinois county-based distribution requirement saying that it "applies a rigid, arbitrary formula to sparsely settled counties and populous counties alike, and thus discriminates against the residents of the populous counties in the exercise of their political rights in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."
  • In 2002, in the case of Gallivan v. Walker, the Utah Supreme Court struck down Utah's county-based distribution requirement, declaring that the initiative right is a "fundamental right implicit in a free society" and that the distribution requirement impinged on it. The Utah State Legislature then replaced the county-based distribution requirement with a state senate district-based requirement, which is currently in effect.
  • In the 2005 federal court case Montana PIRG v. Johnson, a county-based distribution requirement in Montana was declared unconstitutional.
  • In December 2006, Nevada's county-based distribution requirement was declared unconstitutional by the Ninth Circuit in the case of ACLU v. Lomax. In 2007, the Nevada State Legislature passed a new distribution requirement in Nevada Senate Bill 549, which according to the ACLU is "virtually identical" to the law struck down in ACLU v. Lomax. On September 28, 2008, U.S. District Court Judge Philip Pro invalidated Nevada Senate Bill 549 (2007), saying it is unconstitutional, and ordering Secretary of State Ross Miller not to enforce it.[4][5] Later, the Nevada State Legislature enacted a distribution requirement based on U.S. Congressional districts, rather than counties.
  • Citizens in Charge v. Gale. This lawsuit in federal court is pending. It challenges the state's county-based distribution requirement for candidate petitions in Nebraska, among other challenge to Nebraska petition law.

Petition sponsors in states with distribution requirements face the difficult decision of whether to comply with a requirement that may be unconstitutional, or filing a federal lawsuit. Since the costs of such litigation can easily exceed $100,000, and since the litigation might take years, as a practical matter, most petition sponsors elect to comply with a law that may be unconstitutional.

Statutory proposals

Colorado

Defeatedd SCR 3: This law would have added a distribution requirement to the petition process for initiated constitutional amendments in Colorado, which currently does not have one. Specifically, it would have:

Michigan

Nevada

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 The number of registered voters for the purposes of making this calculation is the number of registered voters in the county as of the filing deadline for signatures
  2. 2.0 2.1 Nevada signature requirements
  3. Utah signature requirements
  4. Mercury News, "Federal judge strikes down Nev. ballot measure law," September 29, 2008
  5. Las Vegas Review Journal, "EDITORIAL: Petition requirements," October 2, 2008
  6. Colorado General Assembly, "Senate Session Journal," May 11, 2010(See Page 1390, Lines 44 and 66)