Ed Markey

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Ed Markey
Ed Markey.jpg
U.S. Senate, Massachusetts
In office
July 16, 2013-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 2
PredecessorJohn Kerry (D)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionJune 25, 2013
First electedNovember 2, 1976
Next primarySeptember 9, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$9,144,397
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
U.S. House, Massachusetts, District 5
1976 - 2013
Massachusetts House of Representatives
High schoolMalden Catholic High School, MA
Bachelor'sBoston College
J.D.Boston College Law School
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Army Reserve
Years of service1968-1973
Date of birthJuly 11, 1946
Place of birthMalden, Massachusetts
Net worth$1,552,012.50
Office website
Campaign website
Ed Markey (b. July 11, 1946, in Malden, MA) is a Democratic member of the U.S. Senate from the state of Massachusetts. Markey was first elected to the Senate in 2013.

Markey previously was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Massachusetts' 5th Congressional District. Markey was first elected to the House in a 1976 special election replacing Rep. Tobert Macdonald after his death.[1]Markey was serving his nineteenth consecutive term, having won re-election on November 6, 2012 when he won the special election for John Kerry's vacant U.S. Senate seat.[2] Markey also previously served Massachusetts' 7th congressional district but due to 2010 redistricting he now represents district 3.[3]

Markey won election to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts for the seat vacated by John Kerry. He won the nomination in the Democratic primary on April 30, 2013 and defeated Gabriel Gomez and Richard Heos (I) in the general election on June 25, 2013.[4][5]

He is set to run for re-election to the U.S. Senate in 2014. If he runs, he will seek the Democratic nomination in the primary election. The general election took place November 4, 2014.

Prior to his election to the House, Markey served in the United States Military Reserves from 1968-1973.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Markey is a more moderate left of center Democratic Party vote. As a result, he may break with the Democratic Party line more than his fellow members.


After earning his bachelor's degree, Markey joined the U.S. Army Reserve. A year after earning his J.D., Markey entered politics as a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives.


Below is an abbreviated outline of Markey's academic, professional and political career:[6]

Committee assignments

U.S. Senate


Markey serves on the following committees:[7][8]

  • Commerce, Science, and Transportation
    • Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet
    • Subcommittee on Competitiveness, Innovation, and Export Promotion
    • Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard
    • Subcommittee on Science and Space
    • Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security
  • Environment and Public Works
  • Foreign Relations
    • Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • Subcommittee on European Affairs
    • Subcommittee on International Development and Foreign Assistance, Economic Affairs and International Environmental Protection, and Peace Corps - Chair
  • Small Business and Entrepreneurship

U.S. House



Markey was a member of the following House committees:[9][10]

Key votes

113th Congress


The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 224 out of the 3215 introduced bills (7 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session.[11] The Senate confirmed 13,949 out of 18,323 executive nominations received (76.1 percent). For more information pertaining to Markey's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[12]

Note: Markey won special election to the Senate seat in June 2013. His record reflects both his votes in the House and the Senate for the 113th Congress.

National security

Committee vote on Syria

See also: United States involvement in Syria

Neutral/Abstain On September 4, 2013, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee narrowly approved an authorization for President Obama to use limited force against Syria.[13][14]

The vote came after a three-hour briefing with top Obama administration officials, including Secretary of State John Kerry and James Clapper, the director of national intelligence.[15]

Of the nine Democratic members and eight Republican members that make up the committee, seven Democrats members and three Republicans voted in favor, while five Republicans and two Democrats opposed the authorization.[15] Markey was the only member of the committee to dodge the yes-no vote by voting "present."[16][17]


Farm bill

Nay3.png On February 4, 2014, the Democratic controlled Senate approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[18] It passed the Senate with a vote of 68-32. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[19] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[19] Markey was one of nine Democratic senators who voted against the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 16, 2014, the Democratic-controlled Senate approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[20][21] The Senate voted 72-26 for the 1,582 page bill, with 17 Republicans and 55 Democrats voting in favor of the bill.[21] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[22] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts. Markey voted with the Democratic Party in favor of the bill.[20][21]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "Yes" During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[23] The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Markey voted with the Democratic Party for the bill.[24]


Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Markey voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[25] The vote largely followed party lines.[26]

Social issues


Neutral/Abstain Markey did not vote on HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[27]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Markey voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257-167 vote on January 1, 2013.[28]


On The Issues Vote Match

Ed Markey's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Markey is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Markey received a score of 74 percent on personal issues and 8 percent on economic issues.[29]

Note: We are working to resolve inaccuracies with this information. Thank you for your patience.

On The Issues organization logo.


Herr files ethics complaint

Brian Herr (R) issued a statement on March 17, 2014, saying he has filed a complaint against Markey with the Senate ethics committee.[30][31] Herr accused Markey of using his position to manipulate stock.[30] Markey has been under fire for writing letters to federal regulators urging an investigation into the nutritional supplement firm Herbalife.[30]

"All you have to do is connect the dots to easily see that Sen. Markey used his public office to manipulate the stock of a publicly traded company in order to financially benefit a campaign donor," Herr said.[30]

Campaign themes


On his campaign website, Markey listed 12 issues. They are:[32]

  • Civil Rights

Excerpt: "Ed Markey believes in an America that fully respects and protects the civil rights guaranteed by our Constitution, and which does not discriminate against any person on the basis of race, national origin, religion, sex, or sexual orientation."

  • Economic Development

Excerpt: "Ed Markey understands that one of the most important roles the federal government can play is that of economic engine, leveraging public with private funds to revitalize urban and suburban areas. From his earliest days as a member of Congress, Ed Markey has worked tirelessly to secure targeted economic development dollars for downtown redevelopment and other projects important to the communities in the 7th District."

  • Energy Independence

Ed Markey, "Markey: GOP Wants No More Clean Energy Solutions"

Excerpt: "An environmental champion, Ed Markey has provided pioneering leadership in protection our environment, in the fight against global warming and in creating a roadmap for energy independence in the United States."

  • Health

Excerpt: "Ed Markey believes that all Americans deserve access to high quality healthcare and is committed to making universal healthcare a reality."

  • Homeland Security

Excerpt: "In 2003, the House of Representatives established the Select Committee on Homeland Security, and Ed Markey was chosen by the leadership to serve on this important new panel. His appointment reflected years of work he had undertaken prior to September 11, 2001, to try to increase terrorism preparedness at critical infrastructure such as nuclear power plants and LNG facilities."

  • Human Rights

Excerpt: "Ed Markey believes that America's foreign policy should respect and uphold internationally-recognized principles of human rights. Our country has an important leadership role to play in providing hope to those around the world who are denied the right to vote in free and fair elections, the right to organize politically, the right of citizens to engage in political dissent and peaceful protest."

  • Immigration

Excerpt: "As the grandson of Irish immigrants, Ed Markey appreciates how America has, generation after generation, renewed itself by assimilating new immigrants into this great country. America continues to draw strength, vitality, and energy every day from a process of assimilating cultures, religions, and ethnic backgrounds of every kind from around the world."

  • Nuclear Weapons

Excerpt: "Ed Markey believes that it should be a paramount concern of the nations of the world that we reduce and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapons from the face of the planet."

  • Privacy

Excerpt: "Ed Markey is one of the most vigorous champions of consumer privacy protection in Congress."

  • Telecommunications

Excerpt: "Ed Markey is the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet and has served on that panel since his first election in 1976. In this capacity, Ed has worked on every major telecommunications law passed in the last 30 years."

  • Veterans

Excerpt: "Ed Markey believes that the VA was created to serve all veterans, not just those veterans it can "afford" to serve. All veterans, regardless of income, have earned the right to high-quality health care services."

  • War in Iraq

Excerpt: "But as we now know, the Bush Administration never cared whether or not there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. The fact that Saddam Hussein is gone is good. But it was not worth a single American life to invade Iraq since Saddam Hussein did not have an active nuclear weapons program."[32]



General election

General candidates: Markey v. Gomez
Poll Ed Markey Gabriel GomezUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
June 6-9, 2013
Suffolk University
June 6-9, 2013
Public Policy Polling
June 3-4, 2013
New England College
June 1-2, 2013
Yougov America
May 30-June 4, 2013
Public Policy Polling
May 13-15, 2013
May 5-7, 2013
May5-6, 2013
Suffolk University/News 7
May 4-7, 2013
Public Policy Polling
May 3, 2013
AVERAGES 47.3% 38.8% 13.8% +/-3.99 701
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

General candidates: Markey v. Gomez
Poll Ed Markey Gabriel GomezUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Suffolk University
June 19-22
Western New England University
June 16-20, 2013
New England College
June 18-20, 2013
Emerson College
June 19-20, 2013
UMass Lowell-Boston Herald (dead link)
June 15-19, 2013
McLaughlin & Associates
June 17-19, 2013
June 16-17, 2013
Boston Globe
June 11-14, 2013
Harper Polling
June 10-11, 2013
AVERAGES 51.22% 39.78% 8.44% +/-3.74 752.33
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

The OnMessage poll from May 5-7, 2013 was commissioned jointly by the Gomez campaign and National Republican Senatorial Committee.[33]

Democratic primary

Democratic primary candidates: Markey v. Lynch
Poll Ed Markey Stephen LynchUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Released by Stephen Lynch campaign
April 24, 2013
Western New England Univ
April 11-18, 2013
Public Policy Polling
March 26-27,2013
Mass Inc./WBUR
March 19-21,2013
UMass Lowell/Boston Herald
March 2-March 5, 2013
MassINC Polling Group
February 11-13
Public Policy Polling
January 29-30
AVERAGES 43.79% 25.77% 26.93% +/-4.14 637.43
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

The UMASS Lowell/Boston Herald poll also indicated that, if the June 25 general election were held on that date, March 6th, Ed Markey would defeat state Representative Daniel Winslow by 23 percentage points, former Navy SEAL Gabriel Gomez by 19.5 percentage points, and former US attorney Michael Sullivan by 17 points.[34]

MassINC Polling Group Poll

With respect to the demographics of the MassINC poll, questions regarding the Democratic primary were only asked to respondents who classified themselves as Democrat or Independent/Unenrolled. Based on the information provided in the poll, 36% of the respondents were Democrat and 53% were Independent/Unenrolled.[35]



See also: United States Senate elections in Massachusetts, 2014

Markey is set to run for re-election to the U.S. Senate in 2014. If he runs, he will seek the Democratic nomination in the primary election. The general election took place November 4, 2014.


See also: United States Senate special election in Massachusetts, 2013

Markey won election to the United States Senate seat vacated by John Kerry, after his confirmation by the U.S. Senate to Secretary of State.[36][37]

Markey and Stephen Lynch participated in six debates. Three focused on general issues and the each of the remaining three focused on a different topic. One centered on jobs, another on domestic issues, and the final one centered on foreign affairs. The debates were held throughout the state including locations in Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, and New Bedford.[38]

Markey won the nomination in the Democratic primary on April 30, 2013, defeating challenger Stephen Lynch. The general election was held on June 25, 2013.[39] He defeatedGabriel Gomez and Richard Heos (I) in the general election to win the seat.[4]

U.S. Senate, Massachusetts Special General Election, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEd Markey 54.9% 645,429
     Republican Gabriel Gomez 44.7% 525,307
     Twelve Visions Party Richard Heos 0.4% 4,550
Total Votes 1,175,286
Source: Election Results from Massachusetts Elections Division


  • American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council 93
"When it comes to fighting for the middle class and securing adequate federal funding for the essential public services that Massachusetts needs and we provide, we know we can always count on Ed Markey."[40]
  • Markey's campaign released a list of over 100 state politicians on April 25, 2013.[41]
The list included House Speaker Robert DeLeo, Attorney General Martha Coakley and Treasurer Steven Grossman.[41] It also included 17 state senators, 63 state representatives and 18 mayors – including all the mayors and state legislators in the 5th Congressional District, which Markey represents.[41]
  • On April 27, 2013 Caroline Kennedy announced her endorsement for Markey.
In a press-release Markey stated, "I'm so proud to have the support of Caroline Kennedy, a friend and passionate advocate for our children, families, and seniors. I share Caroline's commitment to taking on big fights for the people of Massachusetts, and in the Senate I will fight to defend President Obama's historic health care reform law, protect a woman's right to choose, and ensure all people have access to the opportunities to succeed in the 21st century."[42]


See also: Redistricting in Massachusetts and United States House of Representatives elections in Massachusetts, 2012

Markey ran for re-election in 2012. He has been redistricted and sought re-election in the 5th Congressional District of Massachusetts. He faced no opposition in the Democratic primary on September 6, 2012.[43]

U.S. House, Massachusetts District 5 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEd Markey Incumbent 70.7% 257,490
     Republican Tom Tierney 22.8% 82,944
     N/A All Others 0.2% 675
     N/A Blank Votes 6.3% 23,092
Total Votes 364,201
Source: Massachusetts Secretary of State "Return of Votes"

Full history

Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Markey is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Markey raised a total of $9,144,397 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[62]

Ed Markey's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 5) Won $1,091,666
2010 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $1,535,340
2008 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $1,454,661
2006 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $942,520
2004 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $2,840,650
2002 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $688,471
2000 U.S. House (Massachusetts, District 7) Won $591,089
Grand Total Raised $9,144,397


Top recipients of lobbyist contributions

On a list of Top 10 Recipients of Contributions from Lobbyists in 2013 from OpenSecrets.org, Markey ranked 1st on the list with $183,340 in lobbyist contributions.[63]

U.S. Senate Special Election

U.S. Rep. Markey raised about $4.8 million from the time he announced he would be running in the special election race to April 2013.[64] Markey's Democratic rival, fellow U.S. Rep. Stephen Lynch reported raising approximately $1.5 million since entering the race in late January, adding to the $745,000 left over from his last House race.[64]

After beginning with more than $3 million in his congressional campaign account at the start of the campaign, Markey had a total of $7.8 million on hand in early April. After spending about $3.2 million, his account was left with about $4.6 million as of April 10, 2013.[64] According to reports, more than 53 percent of the money raised by Markey came from outside of the state, with only approximately 47 percent coming from Massachusetts donors. According to Markey's campaign, approximately 83 percent of the more than 18,000 individuals who contributed to his campaign gave $100 or less.[64]

Lynch reported spending more than $1.7 million through April 10 and had more than $514,000 left in his account for the final stretch.[64] According to his campaign, about 93 percent of the approximately 3,300 individual donors live in Massachusetts and approximately 45 percent of those who donated to his campaign gave $100 or less.[64]


Breakdown of the source of Markey's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Markey won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Markey's campaign committee raised a total of $1,091,666 and spent $1,110,492.[65]

Cost per vote

Markey spent $4.31 per vote received in 2012.


Breakdown of the source of Markey's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Markey won re-election to the U.S. House in 2010. During that re-election cycle, Markey's campaign committee raised a total of $1,535,340 and spent $1,291,210.[66]

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Markey's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $883,025 and $2,221,000. That averages to $1,552,012.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic senators in 2012 of $13,566,333.[67] Between 2004 and 2012, Markey's calculated net worth[68] increased by an average of 5 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[69]

Ed Markey Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2004 to 2012:42%
Average annual growth:5%[70]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[71]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Markey is a "moderate Democratic leader" as of June 24, 2013.[72]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[73]

Markey most often votes with:

Markey least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Markey missed 897 of 21,702 roll call votes from Jan 1977 to Mar 2013, which is 4.1% of votes during that period. This is worse than the median of 2.2% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[74]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Markey paid his congressional staff a total of $1,229,246 in 2011. He ranked 4th on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 4th overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Massachusetts ranked 2nd in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[75]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year, National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted, as compared to other members, in the previous year. More information about the analysis process can be found on the vote ratings page.


According to the data released in 2013, Markey was ranked the 15th most liberal representative during 2012.[76]


According to the data released in 2012, Ed Markey was ranked the 41st most liberal representative during 2011.[77]

Voting with party

June 2013

Markey voted with the Democratic Party 90.7% of the time, which ranked 154 among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[78]


Markey is married to Dr. Susan Blumenthal.[79]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Ed + Markey + Massachusetts + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Ed Markey News Feed

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See also

External links


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  4. 4.0 4.1 [WCVB TV, "Massachusetts U.S. Senate Special Election Results," accessed June 25, 2013 WCVB.com, "Special Election Results" accessed June 25, 2013]
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  62. Open Secrets, "Ed Markey," accessed May 16, 2013
  63. Open Secrets, "Top Recipients of Lobbyists Cash in 2013," accessed July 3, 2013
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 64.4 64.5 Seattle PI, "Democratic Rep. Markey raises $4.8M for Senate bid," accessed April 22, 2013
  65. Open Secrets, " 2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  66. Open Secrets, "Edward J. Markey 2010 Election Cycle," accessed December 2, 2011
  67. OpenSecrets, "Markey, (D-MA), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  68. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  69. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  70. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  71. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  72. GovTrack, "Markey," accessed June 24, 2013
  73. OpenCongress, "Ed Markey," accessed August 5, 2013
  74. GovTrack, "Ed Markey," accessed April 2013
  75. html LegiStorm, "Ed Markey" accessed 2012
  76. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," accessed February 26, 2013
  77. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  78. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  79. Official House website, "About Ed," accessed December 2, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Mo Cowan (D)
United States Senate - Massachusetts
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Niki Tsongas
U.S. House of Representatives - Massachusetts, 5th District
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Torbert H. Macdonald
U.S. House of Representatives - Massachusetts, 7th District
Succeeded by
Michael Capuano
Preceded by
Massachusetts House of Representatives
Succeeded by