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|Campaign website = http://www.reelectedtowns.com/
 
|Campaign website = http://www.reelectedtowns.com/
 
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}}{{tnr}}'''Edolphus "Ed" Towns''' (b. July 21, 1934) was a [[Democratic]] member of the [[United States House of Representatives]] from [[New York]]. Towns was elected by voters from [[New York's 10th congressional district]].
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}}{{tnr}}'''Edolphus "Ed" Towns''' (b. July 21, 1934) was a [[Democratic]] member of the [[United States House of Representatives]] from [[New York]]. Towns was elected by voters from [[New York's 10th Congressional District]].
  
 
In April 2012, Towns announced he would not run for re-election in [[United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 2012|2012]] after 15 terms in office.<ref name="retire"/>
 
In April 2012, Towns announced he would not run for re-election in [[United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 2012|2012]] after 15 terms in office.<ref name="retire"/>
  
Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by ''GovTrack'', Towns is a "[[GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking|moderate Democratic leader]]".<ref>[http://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/edolphus_towns/400409 ''Gov Track'' "Towns" Accessed May 15, 2012]</ref>
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Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by ''GovTrack'', Towns is a "[[GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking|moderate Democratic leader]]."<ref>[http://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/edolphus_towns/400409 ''GovTrack'', "Towns" accessed May 15, 2012]</ref>
 
==Biography==
 
==Biography==
 
{{Retired candidate submit info}}
 
{{Retired candidate submit info}}
Towns was born in Chadbourn, [[North Carolina]]. He earned a B.S. from [[North Carolina]] Agricultural and Technical State University in 1956, and a M.S.W. from Adelphi University in 1973.<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=t000326 ''Biographical Directory of the United States Congress'' "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"]</ref>
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Towns was born in Chadbourn, [[North Carolina]]. He earned a B.S. from [[North Carolina]] Agricultural and Technical State University in 1956, and a M.S.W. from Adelphi University in 1973.<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=t000326 ''Biographical Directory of the United States Congress'', "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"]</ref>
 
==Career==
 
==Career==
After earning his B.A., Towns served in the U.S. Army from 1956-1958. Towns subsequently worked as an educator at Fordham University as well as a social worker. He also served as deputy president of the Borough of Brooklyn from 1976-1982.<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=t000326 ''Biographical Directory of the United States Congress'' "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"]</ref>
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After earning his B.A., Towns served in the U.S. Army from 1956-1958. Towns subsequently worked as an educator at Fordham University as well as a social worker. He also served as deputy president of the Borough of Brooklyn from 1976-1982.<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=t000326 ''Biographical Directory of the United States Congress'', "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"]</ref>
  
 
==Committee assignments==
 
==Committee assignments==
 
===U.S. House===
 
===U.S. House===
 
====2011-2012====
 
====2011-2012====
Towns served on the following committees:<ref>[http://towns.house.gov/about-me/committees-and-caucuses ''U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns'' "Committees and Caucuses"]</ref>
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Towns served on the following committees:<ref>[http://towns.house.gov/about-me/committees-and-caucuses ''U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns'', "Committees and Caucuses"]</ref>
 
*[[United States House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce|Energy and Commerce Committee]]
 
*[[United States House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce|Energy and Commerce Committee]]
 
**Subcommittee on Health
 
**Subcommittee on Health
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===Specific votes===
 
===Specific votes===
 
====Fiscal Cliff====
 
====Fiscal Cliff====
{{Support vote}}
+
{{Yea vote}}
Towns voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels.  He was one of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257/167 vote on January 1, 2013.<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2012/roll659.xml ''U.S. House'' "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff" Accessed January 4, 2013.]</ref>
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Towns voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels.  He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2012/roll659.xml ''U.S. House'', "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013]</ref>
  
 
==Elections==
 
==Elections==
 
===2012===
 
===2012===
:: ''See also: [[New York's 10th congressional district elections, 2012]]''
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:: ''See also: [[New York's 10th Congressional District elections, 2012]]''
  
Towns did not seek re-election in the [[U.S. Congress elections, 2012|2012 election]] for the [[U.S. House elections, 2012|U.S. House]], representing [[United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 2012|New York's]] [[New York's 10th congressional district elections, 2012|10th District]].<ref name="bp">[http://www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/34/48/all_barroncongress_2011_12_02_bk.html?comm=1 ''Brooklyn Papers'' "Barron makes the fight against Rep. Ed Towns a three-way," Accessed December 22, 2011]</ref> After a drawn-out [[Redistricting in New York|redistricting]] process, Towns announced in April 2012 that he would not run for re-election.<ref name="retire">[http://atr.rollcall.com/new-york-democratic-rep-edolphus-towns-retiring/ ''Roll Call'' "New York: Edolphus Towns Retiring After 15 Terms," April 15, 2012]</ref><ref>[http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/27/judge-moves-congressional-primary-date-to-june/ ''New York Times'' "Judge Moves Congressional Primary Date to June," January 27, 2012]</ref>
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Towns did not seek re-election in the [[U.S. Congress elections, 2012|2012 election]] for the [[U.S. House elections, 2012|U.S. House]], representing [[United States House of Representatives elections in New York, 2012|New York's]] [[New York's 10th Congressional District elections, 2012|10th District]].<ref name="bp">[http://www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/34/48/all_barroncongress_2011_12_02_bk.html?comm=1 ''Brooklyn Papers'', "Barron makes the fight against Rep. Ed Towns a three-way," accessed December 22, 2011]</ref> After a drawn-out [[Redistricting in New York|redistricting]] process, Towns announced in April 2012 that he would not run for re-election.<ref name="retire">[http://atr.rollcall.com/new-york-democratic-rep-edolphus-towns-retiring/ ''Roll Call'', "New York: Edolphus Towns Retiring After 15 Terms," April 15, 2012]</ref><ref>[http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/27/judge-moves-congressional-primary-date-to-june/ ''New York Times'', "Judge Moves Congressional Primary Date to June," January 27, 2012]</ref>
  
According to a March 30, 2012 article from ''The Washington Post,'' that notes the top 10 incumbents who could lose their primaries, Towns was the 7th most likely incumbent to lose his primary.<ref name="post">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/post/the-next-jean-schmidt-the-top-10-house-incumbents-who-could-lose-their-primaries/2012/03/30/gIQA5dOalS_blog.html ''The Washingotn Post'' "The next Jean Schmidt? The top 10 House incumbents who could lose their primaries" Accessed April 1, 2012]</ref> The article cites competition from challengers [[New York State Assembly|state Assemblyman]] [[Hakeem Jeffries]] and City Councilman [[Charles Barron]] as the main reason behind Towns vulnerability in the [[New York's 10th congressional district elections, 2012|primary]].<ref name="post"/>
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According to a March 30, 2012 article from ''The Washington Post'', that notes the top 10 incumbents who could lose their primaries, Towns was the 7th most likely incumbent to lose his primary.<ref name="post">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/post/the-next-jean-schmidt-the-top-10-house-incumbents-who-could-lose-their-primaries/2012/03/30/gIQA5dOalS_blog.html ''The Washingotn Post'', "The next Jean Schmidt? The top 10 House incumbents who could lose their primaries" accessed April 1, 2012]</ref> The article cites competition from challengers [[New York State Assembly|state Assemblyman]] [[Hakeem Jeffries]] and City Councilman [[Charles Barron]] as the main reason behind Towns vulnerability in the [[New York's 10th Congressional District elections, 2012|primary]].<ref name="post"/>
  
 
===2010===
 
===2010===
On November 2, 2010, Towns was re-elected to the [[United States House]] for a fifteenth term. He defeated Diana Muniz ([[Republican|R]]), and Ernest Johnson ([[Conservative Party|Conservative]]).<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2010election.pdf ''U.S. Congress House Clerk'' "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"]</ref>  
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On November 2, 2010, Towns was re-elected to the [[United States House]] for a fifteenth term. He defeated Diana Muniz ([[Republican|R]]), and Ernest Johnson ([[Conservative Party|Conservative]]).<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2010election.pdf ''U.S. Congress House Clerk'', "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"]</ref>  
  
 
{{Election box 2010
 
{{Election box 2010
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==Campaign donors==
 
==Campaign donors==
 
===2010===
 
===2010===
[[File:Ed_Towns_2010_Donor_Breakdown.png|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Towns' campaign funds before the 2010 election.]] Towns was re-elected to the [[U.S. House]] in 2010 for a fifteenth term. His campaign committee raised a total of $1,632,842 and spent $1,660,794.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/elections.php?cycle=2010&cid=N00001082&type=I ''Open Secrets'' "Edolphus Towns 2010 Election Data," Accessed December 15, 2011]</ref>
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[[File:Ed_Towns_2010_Donor_Breakdown.png|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Towns' campaign funds before the 2010 election.]] Towns was re-elected to the [[U.S. House]] in 2010 for a fifteenth term. His campaign committee raised a total of $1,632,842 and spent $1,660,794.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/elections.php?cycle=2010&cid=N00001082&type=I ''Open Secrets'', "Edolphus Towns 2010 Election Data," accessed December 15, 2011]</ref>
  
 
{{Congress donor box 2010
 
{{Congress donor box 2010
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===Congressional staff salaries===
 
===Congressional staff salaries===
 
::''See also: [[Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives]]''
 
::''See also: [[Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives]]''
The website ''Legistorm'' compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Towns paid his congressional staff a total of $1,063,126 in 2011. Overall, [[New York]] ranked 28th in average salary for representative staff. The average [[U.S. House of Representatives]] congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.<ref>[http://www.legistorm.com/member/2801/Rep_Edolphus_Towns.html ''LegiStorm'', "Edolphus Towns," Accessed October 2, 2012]</ref>
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The website ''Legistorm'' compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Towns paid his congressional staff a total of $1,063,126 in 2011. Overall, [[New York]] ranked 28th in average salary for representative staff. The average [[U.S. House of Representatives]] congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.<ref>[http://www.legistorm.com/member/2801/Rep_Edolphus_Towns.html ''LegiStorm'', "Edolphus Towns," accessed October 2, 2012]</ref>
  
 
===Net worth===
 
===Net worth===
:: ''See also: [[Net Worth of United States Senators and Representatives]]''
+
:: ''See also: [[Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index)]] and [[Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives]]''
 
====2011====
 
====2011====
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org - The Center for Responsive Politics'', Town's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $57,012 to $1,054,999. That averages to $556,005, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic House members in 2011 of $5,107,874. His average net worth increased by 132.15% from 2010.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00001082&year=2011 ''OpenSecrets.org'' "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2011," accessed February 21, 2013]</ref>
+
Based on [[Household net worth (Member of Congress)|congressional financial disclosure forms]] and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org'', Town's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $57,012 to $1,054,999. That averages to $556,005, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic House members in 2011 of $5,107,874. His average calculated net worth<ref>This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).</ref> increased by 132.15% from 2010.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00001082&year=2011 ''OpenSecrets'', "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2011," accessed February 21, 2013]</ref>
  
 
====2010====
 
====2010====
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org - The Center for Responsive Politics'', Towns' net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $-290,985 to $769,997. That averages to $239,506,  which is lower than the average net worth of Democrats in 2010 of $4,465,875.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00001082&year=2010 ''OpenSecrets.org'', "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2010," Accessed October 2, 2012]</ref>
+
Based on [[Household net worth (Member of Congress)|congressional financial disclosure forms]] and calculations made available by ''OpenSecrets.org'', Towns' net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $-290,985 to $769,997. That averages to $239,506,  which is lower than the average net worth of Democrats in 2010 of $4,465,875.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/CIDsummary.php?CID=N00001082&year=2010 ''OpenSecrets'', "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2010," accessed October 2, 2012]</ref>
  
 
===National Journal vote ratings===
 
===National Journal vote ratings===
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====2012====
 
====2012====
Each year ''National Journal'' publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of congress voted in the previous year. Towns tied with three other members of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 55th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.<ref>[http://www.nationaljournal.com/2012-vote-ratings ''National Journal,'' "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013]</ref>
+
Each year ''National Journal'' publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Towns tied with three other members of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 55th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.<ref>[http://www.nationaljournal.com/2012-vote-ratings ''National Journal'', "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013]</ref>
  
 
====2011====
 
====2011====
Each year ''National Journal'' publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of congress voted in the previous year. Towns ranked 38th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.<ref>[http://www.nationaljournal.com/voteratings2011/searchable-vote-ratings-tables-house-20120223 ''National Journal,'' "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," February 23, 2012]</ref>
+
Each year ''National Journal'' publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Towns ranked 38th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.<ref>[http://www.nationaljournal.com/voteratings2011/searchable-vote-ratings-tables-house-20120223 ''National Journal'', "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012]</ref>
  
===Percentage voting with party===
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===Voting with party===
 
====November 2011====
 
====November 2011====
 
{{Congress vote percent
 
{{Congress vote percent
 
|name=Ed Towns
 
|name=Ed Towns
 
|party=Democratic
 
|party=Democratic
|percent=94.8%
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|percent=94.8 percent
 
|rank=23rd
 
|rank=23rd
 
|total=192
 
|total=192
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This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term "'''Ed + Towns + New York + House'''"
 
This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term "'''Ed + Towns + New York + House'''"
 
:''All stories may not be relevant to this legislator due to the nature of the search engine.''
 
:''All stories may not be relevant to this legislator due to the nature of the search engine.''
<rss>http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=Ed+Towns+New+York+House&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=Ed Town News Feed</rss>
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{{RSS|feed=http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=Ed+Towns+New+York+House&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=Ed Town News Feed}}
  
 
==Personal==
 
==Personal==
Towns has been married to the former Gwen Forbes for more than half a century.  They have two children: a son [[Darryl Towns]] who was elected to 10 terms in the [[New York State Assembly]] before being appointed by Governor [[Andrew Cuomo]] as commissioner and chief executive of [[New York]] State Homes and Community Renewal; and a daughter Deidra. The Towns have five grandchildren.<ref>[http://towns.house.gov/about-me/full-biography ''U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns'' "Full Biography"]</ref>
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Towns has been married to the former Gwen Forbes for more than half a century.  They have two children: a son [[Darryl Towns]] who was elected to 10 terms in the [[New York State Assembly]] before being appointed by Governor [[Andrew Cuomo]] as commissioner and chief executive of [[New York]] State Homes and Community Renewal; and a daughter Deidra. The Towns have five grandchildren.<ref>[http://towns.house.gov/about-me/full-biography ''U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns'', "Full Biography"]</ref>
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 15:02, 11 August 2014

Ed Towns
Ed Towns.jpg
U.S. House, New York, District 10
Former member
In office
January 3, 1983-January 3, 2013
PartyDemocratic
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 4, 2010
First electedNovember 2, 1982
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Deputy President, Borough of Brooklyn, New York
1976-1982
Education
Bachelor'sNorth Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
Master'sAdelphi University
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Army
Years of service1956-1958
Personal
BirthdayJuly 21, 1934
Place of birthChadbourn, North Carolina
ProfessionSocial Worker
Net worth$556,005
ReligionBaptist
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Edolphus "Ed" Towns (b. July 21, 1934) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. Towns was elected by voters from New York's 10th Congressional District.

In April 2012, Towns announced he would not run for re-election in 2012 after 15 terms in office.[1]

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Towns is a "moderate Democratic leader."[2]

Biography

BallotpediaAvatar bigger (transparent background).png
The information about this individual is current as of when his or her last campaign ended. See anything that needs updating? Send a correction to our editors

Towns was born in Chadbourn, North Carolina. He earned a B.S. from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in 1956, and a M.S.W. from Adelphi University in 1973.[3]

Career

After earning his B.A., Towns served in the U.S. Army from 1956-1958. Towns subsequently worked as an educator at Fordham University as well as a social worker. He also served as deputy president of the Borough of Brooklyn from 1976-1982.[4]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2011-2012

Towns served on the following committees:[5]

Subcommittee on Commerce, Manufacturing and Trade.

Issues

Specific votes

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Towns voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[6]

Elections

2012

See also: New York's 10th Congressional District elections, 2012

Towns did not seek re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing New York's 10th District.[7] After a drawn-out redistricting process, Towns announced in April 2012 that he would not run for re-election.[1][8]

According to a March 30, 2012 article from The Washington Post, that notes the top 10 incumbents who could lose their primaries, Towns was the 7th most likely incumbent to lose his primary.[9] The article cites competition from challengers state Assemblyman Hakeem Jeffries and City Councilman Charles Barron as the main reason behind Towns vulnerability in the primary.[9]

2010

On November 2, 2010, Towns was re-elected to the United States House for a fifteenth term. He defeated Diana Muniz (R), and Ernest Johnson (Conservative).[10]

U.S. House, New York Congressional District 10 General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEd Towns Incumbent 79.7% 95,485
     Blank/Scattering 12.6% 15,115
     Republican Diana Muniz 6.2% 7,419
     Conservative 1.5% 1,853
Total Votes 119,872

Campaign donors

2010

Breakdown of the source of Towns' campaign funds before the 2010 election.
Towns was re-elected to the U.S. House in 2010 for a fifteenth term. His campaign committee raised a total of $1,632,842 and spent $1,660,794.[11]

Analysis

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Towns paid his congressional staff a total of $1,063,126 in 2011. Overall, New York ranked 28th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[12]

Net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives

2011

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Town's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $57,012 to $1,054,999. That averages to $556,005, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic House members in 2011 of $5,107,874. His average calculated net worth[13] increased by 132.15% from 2010.[14]

2010

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Towns' net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $-290,985 to $769,997. That averages to $239,506, which is lower than the average net worth of Democrats in 2010 of $4,465,875.[15]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

2012

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Towns tied with three other members of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 55th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[16]

2011

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Towns ranked 38th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[17]

Voting with party

November 2011

Ed Towns voted with the Democratic Party 94.8 percent of the time, which ranked 23rd among the 192 House Democratic members as of December 2011.[18]

Recent news

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This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term "Ed + Towns + New York + House"

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Personal

Towns has been married to the former Gwen Forbes for more than half a century. They have two children: a son Darryl Towns who was elected to 10 terms in the New York State Assembly before being appointed by Governor Andrew Cuomo as commissioner and chief executive of New York State Homes and Community Renewal; and a daughter Deidra. The Towns have five grandchildren.[19]

External links


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Roll Call, "New York: Edolphus Towns Retiring After 15 Terms," April 15, 2012
  2. GovTrack, "Towns" accessed May 15, 2012
  3. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"
  4. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "TOWNS, Edolphus, (1934 - )"
  5. U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns, "Committees and Caucuses"
  6. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  7. Brooklyn Papers, "Barron makes the fight against Rep. Ed Towns a three-way," accessed December 22, 2011
  8. New York Times, "Judge Moves Congressional Primary Date to June," January 27, 2012
  9. 9.0 9.1 The Washingotn Post, "The next Jean Schmidt? The top 10 House incumbents who could lose their primaries" accessed April 1, 2012
  10. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"
  11. Open Secrets, "Edolphus Towns 2010 Election Data," accessed December 15, 2011
  12. LegiStorm, "Edolphus Towns," accessed October 2, 2012
  13. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  14. OpenSecrets, "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2011," accessed February 21, 2013
  15. OpenSecrets, "Edolphus Towns (D-NY), 2010," accessed October 2, 2012
  16. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013
  17. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  18. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  19. U.S Congressman Edolphus "Ed" Towns, "Full Biography"
Political offices
Preceded by
Chuck Schumer
U.S. House of Representatives - New York District 10
1993–2013
Succeeded by
Jerrold Nadler
Preceded by
James H. Scheuer
U.S. House of Representatives - New York District 11
1983-1993
Succeeded by
Major Owens
Preceded by
'
Deputy President, Borough of Brooklyn, New York
1976-1982
Succeeded by
'