Difference between revisions of "Forms of direct democracy in the American states"

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The seven generally acknowledged forms of [[direct democracy]] are:
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{{bb}}The '''seven generally acknowledged forms of [[direct democracy]]''' are the [[legislatively-referred constitutional amendment]], the [[legislatively-referred state statute]], the [[initiated state statute]] (direct or indirect), the [[initiated constitutional amendment]], the [[veto referendum]] (sometimes called the [[citizen referendum]] or the [[statute referendum]]), the [[statute affirmation]] (available only in Nevada), and statewide [[recall]].
  
* The [[legislatively-referred constitutional amendment]].
+
* Eight states enable the six most common forms of direct democracy.  Those states are [[Arizona]], [[California]], [[Colorado]], [[Michigan]], [[Montana]], [[Nevada]] (which also has the statute affirmation), [[North Dakota]] and [[Oregon]].
* The [[legislatively-referred state statute]]
+
* The chart below doesn't include the [[statute affirmation]] as a category since it is only available in one state.  The chart also doesn't include the form of direct democracy under which [[Petitions to impanel grand juries|citizen petitions can be used to impanel grand juries]], an option that exists in six states.
* The [[initiated state statute]].  This can be either direct or [[indirect initiated state statute|indirect]].
+
* [[Delaware]] is the only state whose citizens are not empowered to ratify or reject legislatively-referred constitutional amendments at the ballot box.
* The [[initiated constitutional amendment]].
+
* Note that research on which states allow {{lrssfull}}s and under what terms has not been verified by multiple sources and in the view of Ballotpedia staff as of March 2011, needs additional exploration.<ref>Readers who are familiar with laws governing {{lrssfull}}s in one or more states can help Ballotpedia's research on this by sending an email to [mailto:editor@ballotpedia.org Editor@ballotpedia.org].  Thank you!</ref>
* The [[veto referendum]], sometimes called the [[citizen referendum]] or the [[statute referendum]].
+
* The [[statute affirmation]] (available only in Nevada)
+
* The [[recall]].
+
  
The chart below doesn't include the [[statute affirmation]] as a category since it is only available in one state.
+
{|class="wikitable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" style="background:none" style="width:80%;"
<br>
+
|-
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | State
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Legislatively referred statute
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Legislatively referred amendment
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Initiated statute (direct or indirect)
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Initiated amendment
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Veto referendum
 +
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Recall
  
{|class="wikitable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" background-color:white"
 
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | State
+
| [[Alabama]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Legislatively-referred<br> state statute
+
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Legislatively-referred<br> constitutional amendment
+
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Initiated state statute
+
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Initiated constitutional amendment
+
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Veto referendum
+
! style="background-color:#CCCCFF" | Recall
+
  
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
| [[Alabama]] || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>'''
+
| [[Alaska]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
 
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Arizona]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
 
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Arkansas]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
 
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[California]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
 
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Colorado]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Connecticut]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Delaware]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Florida]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Georgia]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Hawaii]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Idaho]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Illinois]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} (Limited) || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Indiana]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Iowa]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Kansas]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Kentucky]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Louisiana]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Maine]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Maryland]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Massachusetts]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Michigan]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Minnesota]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Mississippi]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Missouri]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Montana]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Nebraska]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Nevada]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[New Hampshire]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[New Jersey]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[New Mexico]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[New York]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[North Carolina]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[North Dakota]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Ohio]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Oklahoma]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Oregon]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Pennsylvania]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Rhode Island]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[South Carolina]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[South Dakota]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Tennessee]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Texas]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Utah]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Vermont]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Virginia]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 +
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Washington]] || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
| [[Alaska]] || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes (indirect)</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>'''
+
| [[West Virginia]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}}
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
| [[Arizona]] || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>'''
+
| [[Wisconsin]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
 +
| [[Wyoming]] || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{defeated}} || align="center" | {{approved}} || align="center" | {{approved}}
 
|-valign="top"
 
|-valign="top"
| [[Arkansas]] || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>'''
+
|style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | TOTALS || align="center" | '''24''' || align="center" | '''49''' || align="center" | '''21''' || align="center" | '''18''' || align="center" | '''25''' || align="center" | '''18'''  
| [[Wyoming]] || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:red"><center>No</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>''' || '''<span style="color:blue"><center>Yes</center></span>'''
+
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 +
{{Wayback
 +
|ref = [http://web.archive.org/web/20130907103702/http://ddleague-usa.net/statesDD.htm Chart of direct democracy options available by state]
 +
|date = September 7, 2013
 +
}}
  
* [http://www.ddleague-usa.net/statesDD.htm Chart of direct democracy options available by state]
+
==References==
 +
{{reflist}}
  
[[Category:Essays on Ballotpedia]]
+
{{Types of ballot measures}}
 +
[[Category:Ballot measures]]

Latest revision as of 23:47, 28 March 2014

Ballot Basics
BallotInfo.png
Amendments
Citizen initiatives
Indirect initiative
Legislative referrals
Statutes
Citizen initiatives
Indirect initiative
Legislative referrals
Advisory question
Automatic ballot referral
Bond issue
Combined
Commission referred
Recall
Veto referendum

The seven generally acknowledged forms of direct democracy are the legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, the legislatively-referred state statute, the initiated state statute (direct or indirect), the initiated constitutional amendment, the veto referendum (sometimes called the citizen referendum or the statute referendum), the statute affirmation (available only in Nevada), and statewide recall.

State Legislatively referred statute Legislatively referred amendment Initiated statute (direct or indirect) Initiated amendment Veto referendum Recall
Alabama Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Alaska Defeatedd Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Approveda
Arizona Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Arkansas Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
California Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Colorado Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Connecticut Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Delaware Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Florida Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd
Georgia Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
Hawaii Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Idaho Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Approveda
Illinois Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda (Limited) Defeatedd Defeatedd
Indiana Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Iowa Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Kansas Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
Kentucky Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Louisiana Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
Maine Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd
Maryland Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd
Massachusetts Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Michigan Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Minnesota Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
Mississippi Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd
Missouri Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Montana Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Nebraska Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Nevada Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
New Hampshire Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
New Jersey Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
New Mexico Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd
New York Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
North Carolina Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
North Dakota Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Ohio Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Oklahoma Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Oregon Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda
Pennsylvania Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Rhode Island Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
South Carolina Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
South Dakota Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd
Tennessee Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Texas Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Utah Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd
Vermont Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Virginia Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Washington Approveda Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Approveda
West Virginia Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd
Wisconsin Defeatedd Approveda Defeatedd Defeatedd Defeatedd Approveda
Wyoming Defeatedd Approveda Approveda Defeatedd Approveda Approveda
TOTALS 24 49 21 18 25 18

External links

Chart of direct democracy options available by state
The Internet Archive's Wayback Machine was used to recall this version of the website from September 7, 2013.


References

  1. Readers who are familiar with laws governing legislatively-referred state statutes in one or more states can help Ballotpedia's research on this by sending an email to Editor@ballotpedia.org. Thank you!