Forms of direct democracy in the American states
The seven generally acknowledged forms of direct democracy are the legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, the legislatively-referred state statute, the initiated state statute (direct or indirect), the initiated constitutional amendment, the veto referendum (sometimes called the citizen referendum or the statute referendum), the statute affirmation (available only in Nevada), and statewide recall.
- Eight states enable the six most common forms of direct democracy. Those seven states are Arizona, California, Colorado, Michigan, Montana, Nevada (which also has the statute affirmation), North Dakota and Oregon.
- The chart below doesn't include the statute affirmation as a category since it is only available in one state.
- Delaware is the only state whose citizens are not empowered to ratify or reject legislatively-referred constitutional amendments at the ballot box.
- Note that research on which states allow legislatively-referred state statutes and under what terms has not been verified by multiple sources and in the view of Ballotpedia staff as of March 2011, needs additional exploration.
|State||Legislatively referred statute||Legislatively referred amendment||Initiated statute (direct or indirect)||Initiated amendment||Veto referendum||Recall|
- Readers who are familiar with laws governing legislatively-referred state statutes in one or more states can help Ballotpedia's research on this by sending an email to Leslie.Graves@ballotpedia.org. Thank you!