Difference between revisions of "Hillary Clinton"
|Line 1:||Line 1:|
|Project = Congress
|Project = Congress
|Name = Hillary
|Name = Hillary Clinton
|Profile picture = Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
|Profile picture = Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
|Position = Former U.S. Secretary of State
|Position = Former U.S. Secretary of State
Revision as of 12:40, 19 December 2013
|Former U.S. Secretary of State|
|January 21, 2009-February 1, 2013|
|Elections and appointments|
|Nominated||December 1, 2008|
|Confirmed||January 21, 2009|
|Appointed||January 21, 2009|
|Appointed by||Barack Obama|
|United States Senator|
|First Lady of the United States|
|First Lady of Arkansas|
|High school||Maine South High School|
|J.D.||Yale Law School|
|Date of birth||October 26, 1947|
|Place of birth||Chicago, IL|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Confirmation vote
- 4 Issues
- 5 Elections
- 5.1 2016 presidential candidacy
- 5.1.1 Overview
- 5.1.2 Preparation
- 5.1.3 Public statements about possible run
- 5.1.4 Comments on possible campaign
- 5.1.5 Issues
- 5.1.6 Fundraising
- 5.1.7 Public opinion polls
- 5.1 2016 presidential candidacy
- 6 Campaign donors
- 7 Analysis
- 8 Personal
- 9 Recent news
- 10 External links
- 11 References
Hillary is the wife of President Bill Clinton and served as the First Lady during President Clinton's two terms. She also ran in the Democratic presidential primary in 2008 against Barack Obama. She has not announced her intentions for the 2016 presidential election despite being considered a top contender.
Born in Chicago, Illinois, Clinton attended Maine East High School until being redistricted during her senior year to Maine South High School. She went on to earn a degree from Wellesley College before attaining a J.D. from Yale Law School. She met future husband Bill Clinton at Yale.
As a high schooler, Clinton was an active Republican, even campaigning for Barry Goldwater in 1968. After her first year at Wellesley she changed her views, and she become a Democrat. She stayed politically active throughout her college years, working for Walter Mondale and George McGovern's presidential campaign.
Below is an abbreviated outline of Clinton's academic, professional and political career:
- 1969: Graduated from Wellesley College
- 1973: Earned J.D. from Yale Law School
- 1973-1974: Attorney for the Children's Defense Fund
- 1974: Member of the presidential impeachment inquiry staff during the Watergate Scandal
- 1974-1977: Director of Legal Aid Clinic and Assistant Professor at University of Arkansas School of Law
- 1976-1979: Attorney at Rose Law Firm
- 1978: Member of board of directors of Legal Services Corp.
- 1979-1980: Assistant Professor at University of Arkansas School of Law
- 1979-1992: Partner at Rose Law Firm
- 1979: Chairperson of the Rural Health Advisory Committee
- 1983: Director Arkansas Education Standards Committee
- 1992-2001: First Lady of the United States
- 1993: Leader of Task Force on National Health Care Reform
- 2001-2009: United States Senator from New York
- 2003: Author of "Living History"
- 2007: Presidential candidate for 2008 Democratic primary
- 2008: Suspended presidential campaign
- 2009-2013: U.S. Secretary of State
|Hillary Rodham Clinton confirmation vote, January 21, 2009|
|Party||Votes for||Votes against||Total votes|
U.S. Secretary of State
On October 15, 2012, Clinton claimed responsibility for the security of the diplomatic mission to Libya that was attacked on September 11, 2012. The attack left four Americans dead, including Ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens. A State Department employee, Eric Nordstrom, claimed at a congressional hearing on October 11, that his request for more security to be present in Libya was denied by his superiors prior to the attack. Clinton was also under fire because of the initial classification of the attack by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice as a spontaneous response to an anti-Muslim video instead of a planned terrorist attack. On December 19, the State Department announced the forced leave of four officials after an independent report was produced suggesting the officials "showed a lack of ownership of Benghazi's security issues." Clinton was summoned before congressional committees on January 23 to testify on her knowledge of the attack. During the heated testimony, Clinton said of the requests for more security, "I didn't see those requests. They didn't come to me."
On August 20, 2013, the State Department announced the reassignment of the four officials placed on leave. Representative Darrell Issa responded by stating, "Instead of accountability, the State Department offered a charade that included false reports of firings and resignations and now ends in a game of musical chairs where no one misses a single day on the State Department payroll." Following the conclusion of a State Department investigation into Benghazi on September 16, Issa was not satisfied with the findings and stated, "We can certainly have Mrs. Clinton back; our view is that we need to get to the facts."
Troubled Asset Relief Program
Clinton voted in support of HR 1424 - Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. The bill passed the Senate on October 1, 2008, by a vote of 74-25 The bill authorized the formation of the Troubled Asset Relief Program for the Treasury Secretary to buy troubled assets from financial institutions. Voting was split in both parties.
Secure Fence Act
Clinton voted in support of HR 6061 - Secure Fence Act of 2006. The bill passed on September 29, 2006, by a vote of 80-19. The bill authorized the construction of 700 miles of additional fencing along the United States-Mexico border. The Democratic Party split on the vote.
Clinton voted in support of HJ Res 114 - Use of Military Force Against Iraq. The resolution passed on October 11, 2002, by a vote of 77-23. The resolution authorized the use of the United States military against Iraq. The Democratic Party split on the vote.
No Child Left Behind
Clinton voted in support of HR 1 - No Child Left Behind Act. The bill passed on December 18, 2001, by a vote of 87-10. The bill implemented annual testing of students and cut funding to schools that achieved sub-standard test results. The bill was largely supported by both parties.
Clinton voted in support of HR 3162 - USA Patriot Act of 2001. The bill passed on October 25, 2001, by a vote of 98-1. The bill allowed law enforcement more authority in searching homes, tapping phone lines and tracking internet information while searching for suspected terrorists.
First Lady of the United States
Task Force on National Health Reform
Clinton was chosen by her husband, President Bill Clinton, to lead the Task Force on National Health Reform following his inauguration in 1993. She worked with, among others, the secretaries of the Health and Human Services, Defense, Treasury, Commerce and Veteran Affairs to shape a universal health care plan for America. In September 1993, President Clinton gave a speech on the health care plan to Congress, which faced immediate criticism from Republicans and the health care industry.The 1,342 page plan was not released until late October, and in the following months, the plan continued to lose support. The health care industry released an ad campaign criticizing the proposal called "Harry and Louise," which focused on the increased bureaucracy and mandates of the bill. The bill underwent many changes during its time in multiple committees, and there was little support left when it went to the Senate floor in July 1994. In September 1994, Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell declared the bill dead. Opponents referred to it and similar proposals as "Hillarycare" for years following its failure. In the mid-term election that followed, Democrats lost control in both the House and the Senate.
2016 presidential candidacy
On September 5, 2014, Clinton announced she would make a decision about her presidential candidacy after January 1, 2015. She stated, "I am going to be making a decision … probably after the first of the year about whether I’m going to run again or not."
However, the Ready for Hillary Super PAC was formed in January 2013 to lay the groundwork for Clinton's candidacy. The PAC and Clinton's spokesperson have denied any contact between the two regarding a possible run. According to an August 29, 2013 Washington Post report, the super PAC Priorities USA, a main fundraiser for Barack Obama's re-election campaign, is positioning itself to be the main media and advertising arm for a Clinton campaign in 2016. When the U.S. was in its formative years, a secretary of state ascending to the presidency was commonplace, but the last secretary of state to be elected to the nation's highest office was James Buchanan in 1856.
Clinton visited Iowa on September 14, 2014, for the first time since losing her presidential primary bid in 2008, as a headliner to Sen. Tom Harkin's final steak fry before his retirement. As a previous U.S. secretary of state, she also gained extensive foreign affairs experience. Since retiring, she has been an active speaker around the country. Both Hillary and Bill Clinton actively sought support of African Americans during 2013, speaking at Howard University's commencement ceremony, at the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington, at political strategist Bill Lynch's and former Representative William H. Gray III's memorial services and to the Delta Sigma Theta sorority. Their speeches often touched on the issue of voting rights since the Supreme Court's ruling, striking down part of the Voting Rights Act in June 2013.
Clinton announced on July 4, 2014, that all of the speaking fees from events at colleges and universities since she stepped down as secretary of state have been donated to the Clinton Foundation.
2014 midterm support
Clinton's team announced an extensive tour throughout the U.S. leading up to the 2014 midterm elections with the purpose of helping the Senate maintain a Democratic majority and to show her support in key 2016 presidential states. Scheduled stops included campaigning for Alison Lundergan Grimes (KY), a family friend of the Clintons through Grimes' father, Bruce Braley (IA), Staci Appel (IA), Sens. Kay Hagan (D-NC) and Mark Udall (D-CO), Senate challenger Michelle Nunn and at a New Hampshire women's candidate event for Sen. Jeanne Shaheen and Governor Maggie Hassan.
"Hard Choices" memoir
On June 10, 2014, Clinton released a new book, titled "Hard Choices." The book focuses on Clinton's four years as Barack Obama's Secretary of State. She began a months-long book tour upon its release including speaking events and television appearances. Some notable events during the book tour were as follows:
- When discussing the book the day prior to its release, Clinton defended the high speaking fees she collects because when Bill Clinton's presidency she claimed the family "came out of the White House not only dead broke but in debt." Pro-Republican research group American Rising attacked the comments, suggesting they "reveal someone who is extremely out of touch with financial reality facing Americans."
- Both CNN and NBC cancelled film plans on the life of Clinton in September 2013. CNN planned to film a documentary until the director, Charles Ferguson, dropped out of the project. NBC cancelled a mini-series in early stages of development. Both companies felt pressure from the Republican National Committee who believed the networks were putting their "thumb on the scales" for the 2016 election.
- The production company Lionsgate announced talks to film a movie which, "portrays Rodham as a young lawyer on the committee involved in President Richard Nixon's impeachment, as well as shows her juggling a diverging career path with her unresolved feelings for future president Bill Clinton." James Ponsoldt was rumored to be named as a potential director.
- Clinton made the cover of TIME magazine in January 2014 with the title of the article being "Can Anyone Stop Hillary?"
Public statements about possible run
- October 4, 2013: Clinton hinted at a timeline for announcing a run. "I want to think seriously about it; I probably won’t begin thinking about it until sometime next year. I will think about it because it’s something on a lot of people’s minds. And it’s on my mind as well. But I want us to think more broadly," Clinton said.
- October 31, 2013: According to sources in attendance at a reception in Scotland earlier in October, Clinton remained noncommittal about a run. When asked by reporters about a possible run, Clinton replied: "I haven’t made up my mind yet." When her answer was sarcastically called unsatisfactory, Clinton added: "Yes, it is unsatisfactory. I'm minded to do it."
- November 21, 2013: During a speech in Philadelphia, a heckler yelled, "Hillary '16!" Clinton responded by stating, "That’s funny. Well there are some hecklers that I would never say anything bad about."
- September 5, 2014: While addressing a crowd in Mexico, Clinton claimed, "I do have a unique vantage point and set of experiences about what makes the United States operate well and what doesn't, and what a president can do and should be doing."
Comments on possible campaign
- On August 11, 2014, Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT) claimed he wasn't comfortable the public's endorsement of Clinton as the next Democratic presidential candidate, explaining, "I’m not quite sure that the political process is one in which we anoint people."
- On May 22, 2014, Sen. Debbie Stabenow, (D-MI) announced her endorsement of Clinton for the presidency, stating, "We need President Hillary Clinton. That's why I am honored to formally announce my renewed and unreserved support for Clinton as she considers a 2016 presidential bid."
- President Barack Obama commented on both Clinton and Joe Biden when asked to compare them on December 6, 2013, stating, "both Hillary and Joe would make outstanding presidents, and possess the qualities that are needed to be outstanding presidents."
- On November 4, 2013, Republican National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus stated the RNC is focusing on Clinton as the Democratic opponent in 2016, saying, "I think that we have to be very aggressive on what she’s done or hasn't done. And the things that she is famous for, like a botched health care rollout in the '90s, and Benghazi, and the things that she is involved with that are or went obviously pretty badly, we need to focus in on."
- Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel stated, "I'm behind Hillary if she runs. And I think she will. But that's up to her. If she runs, I'm in," on October 30, 2013.
- Sen. John McCain, (R-AZ) commented on a potential Clinton run for the presidency, stating, "I think she would be viewed by anyone, Republican or Democrat, as a very formidable candidate for 2016," on October 28, 2013.
- Sen. Claire McCaskill, (D-MO) stated, "Now, as I look at 2016 and think about who is best to lead this country forward, I’m proud to announce that I am Ready for Hillary," in support of the Ready for Hillary Super PAC on June 18, 2013.
- On November 3, 2013, Sen. Chuck Schumer, (D-NY) said of the Democratic Party's presidential chances, "With a strong platform and with Hillary leading the charge, we will vanquish the Ted Cruz, Tea Party Republicans in 2016 and create a generation of Democrats who will make sure the middle class gets what it needs, our country advances and the torch held by that beautiful lady in New York’s harbor burns more brightly than ever."
- Potential Republican candidate Rand Paul (R-KY) criticized Clinton in an August 24, 2014 interview, calling her a "war hawk." He stated, "I think that’s what scares the Democrats the most is that in a general election, were I to run, there’s going to be a lot of independents and even some Democrats who say we are tired of war, we’re worried that Hillary Clinton is going to get us into another Middle Eastern war because she’s so gung ho. If you want to see a transformational election in our country, let the Democrats put forward a war hawk like Hillary Clinton and you’ll see a transformation like you’ve never seen."
- On January 12, 2013, a list of Clinton's "enemies" from her 2008 presidential campaign was made public by the publishers of the book, HRC: State Secrets and the Rebirth of Hillary Clinton. Included on the list were then-Senators John Kerry and Ted Kennedy as well as current Sen. Claire McCaskill.
Going back to Bill Clinton's terms as president, News Corp., owned by Rupert Murdoch, has given over $3 million to the Clintons' political campaigns. He also held a fundraiser for Hillary during her 2006 campaign for the Senate. When asked if he would vote Clinton if she ran for president, Murdoch said, "It would depend on the Republican candidate. I could live with Hillary as president."
Ready for Hillary
The Ready for Hillary Super PAC has been organizing events across the country to garner support for a possible Clinton campaign. As of November 7, 2013, the team of 30 people has received donations from over 20,000 people. Operations began in January 2013. The super PAC raised over $4 million in 2013 and finished the year with $784,640 cash on hand after taking expenditures into account.
Public opinion polls
- According to an NBC poll released November 12, 2013, pitting Clinton against Chris Christie, 44% of adults supported Clinton while 34% supported Christie.
- Consulting company YouGov reported December 2, 2013, that for the first time in 2013, more people hold an unfavorable opinion of her than hold a favorable one. The poll claimed 48% do not hold a favorable view, while 46% view her favorably.
- A poll conducted on December 11, 2013, by Quinnipiac showed New Jersey Governor Chris Christie leading a hypothetical election by 1%. The results showed 42% of Americans supported Christie, while 41% supported Clinton. However, in a matchup between Clinton and Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul, Clinton polled at 48% to Paul's 41%.
- A McClatchy-Marist poll released December 11, 2013, showed Clinton defeating likely Democratic challenger Joe Biden 65% to 12%.
- According to a Quinnipiac poll released January 21, 2013, Clinton led Christie with 46% supporting Clinton while 38% supported Christie.
- In a Washington Post-ABC News poll released on April 29, 2014, Clinton led Republican Jeb Bush in a general election poll with 53% support to Bush's 41%.
- A Granite State Poll in New Hampshire released October 9, 2014, showed Clinton receiving 58 percent of the vote with Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) getting 18 percent of the voters' support.
On November 7, 2006, Hillary Clinton won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated John Spencer (R), Howie Hawkins (G), Jeffrey T. Russell (L), Roger Calero (Socialist Workers) and William Van Auken (Socialist Equality) in the general election.
On November 7, 2000, Hillary Clinton won election to the United States Senate. She defeated Rick Lazio (R), Mark J. Dunau (G), Jeffrey E. Graham (Independence), John O. Adefope (Right to Life), John Clifton (L), Louis P. Wein (Constitution) and Jacob J. Perasso (Socialist Workers) in the general election.
Comprehensive donor information for Clinton is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Clinton raised a total of $83,177,405 during that time period. This information was last updated on September 20, 2013.
|Hillary Clinton's Campaign Contribution History|
|2006||U.S. Senate (New York)||$51,567,732|
|2000||U.S. Senate (New York)||$31,609,673|
|Grand Total Raised||$83,177,405|
Cost per vote
Clinton spent $13.57 per vote received in 2006.
|United States Senate, 2006 - Hillary Clinton Campaign Contributions|
|Total Raised by General Election Opponent||$5,849,610|
|Total Spent by General Election Opponent||$5,660,688|
|Top contributors to Hillary Clinton's campaign committee|
|Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee|
|Securities & Investment||$2,744,933|
Ideology and leadership
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Clinton's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $5,710,008.00 and $26,551,000.00. That averages to $16,130,504.00, which ranked sixth among members of the executive branch. Her average net worth decreased by 48.3% from 2010.
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Clinton's net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $10,740,011.00 to $51,654,000.00. That averages to $31,197,005.50, which ranked fifth among members of the executive branch.
Clinton is married to former U.S. President Bill Clinton. They have one daughter, Chelsea.
This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term Hillary + Clinton
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- Social media:
- Political profiles:
- Financial (federal level):
- Interest group ratings:
- Issue positions:
- Public statements:
- Voting record:
- Works by or about:
- Media appearances:
- Media coverage:
- NPR, "Obama Brings Hillary to Cabinet, GOP to Ariz. State House," December 1, 2008
- Biography.com, "Hillary Clinton," accessed September 5, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton all but running," September 20, 2013
- Park Ridge Public Library, "Hillary Rodham Clinton," accessed September 5, 2013
- FactCheck.org, "Hillary Worked for Goldwater?," March 27, 2008
- New York Times, "Senate Vote 6 - On the Nomination," January 21, 2009
- CNN, "Clinton: I'm responsible for diplomats' security," October 16, 2012
- CNN, "U.S. official says superiors worked against effort to boost Benghazi," October 11, 2012
- New York Times, "4 Are Out at State Dept. After Scathing Report on Benghazi Attack," December 19, 2012
- CNN, "Clinton takes on Benghazi critics, warns of more security threats," January 24, 2012
- Huffington Post, "State Department Officials Reassigned After Leave Related To Benghazi Attacks," August 20, 2013
- Politico, "Darrell Issa: I can call Hillary Clinton back," September 18, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 1424 - Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments," accessed September 24, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 6061 - Secure Fence Act of 2006," accessed September 24, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HJ Res 114 - Use of Military Force Against Iraq," accessed September 24, 2013
- Project Votes Smart, "HR 1 - No Child Left Behind Act," accessed September 24, 2013
- HR 3162 - USA Patriot Act of 2001," accessed September 24, 2013
- New York Times, "Hillary Clinton to Head Panel on Health Care," January 26, 1993
- New York Times, "CLINTON'S HEALTH PLAN; A.M.A. Rebels Over Health Plan In Major Challenge to President," September 30, 1993
- New York Times, "THE HEALTH CARE DEBATE: What Went Wrong? How the Health Care Campaign Collapsed -- A special report.; For Health Care, Times Was A Killer," August 29, 1994
- World History Project, "Bill Clinton's Universal Health Care Initiative fails in Congress," accessed September 20, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton: Decision after first of year," September 5, 2014
- Washington Post, "New pro-Hillary Clinton super PAC attracts donors and worries," accessed August 5, 2013
- Washington Post, "Pro-Obama super PAC Priorities USA positions itself to support Hillary Clinton," August 29, 2013
- The Center for Public Integrity, "Hillary Clinton: the 'Citizens United' candidate," January 22, 2013
- Christian Science Monitor, "Hillary Clinton 2016: How many secretaries of State became presidents?," May 2, 2013
- The Hill, "Hillary Clinton headed to Iowa," August 18, 2014
- The Des Moines Register, "Clintons, Harkin to share stage at final steak fry," September 11, 2014
- New York Daily News, "Election 2016: A look at possible candidates and who could run in the next presidential race," August 17, 2013
- New York Times, "Eye on 2016, Clintons Rebuild Bond With Blacks," November 30, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton: ‘Fees have been donated’," July 4, 2014
- Politico, "Exclusive: Hillary Clinton plans midterm blitz," October 3, 2014
- CNN, "Hillary Clinton in 2001: We were 'dead broke,'" June 9, 2014
- Washington Post, "CNN, NBC scrap plans for Hillary Clinton programs," September 30, 2013
- Washington Post, "Another Hillary Clinton film in the works," December 3, 2013
- TIME, "Can Anyone Stop Hillary?," January 27, 2014
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton: I’ll 'think seriously' next year about running," accessed October 31, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton: I'm 'minded to do it,'" accessed October 31, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary applauds heckler at green speech," November 21, 2013
- Reuters, "Russia may need to be 'coerced' to stop bullying its neighbors: Clinton," September 5, 2014
- Politico, "Bernie Sanders: Don’t ‘anoint’ Clinton yet," August 11, 2014
- Politico, "Debbie Stabenow endorses Hillary Clinton for 2016," May 22, 2014
- USA Today, "Obama lauds both 2016 aspirants: Clinton and Biden", December 6, 2013
- Politico, "Reince Priebus: RNC homing in on Hillary Clinton for 2016," December 5, 2013
- USA Today, "Prominent Democrats join Hillary Clinton bandwagon," October 30, 2013
- Politico, "John McCain: Hillary Clinton ‘formidable’ in 2016," October 30, 2013
- Politico, "Claire McCaskill endorses Hillary Clinton for 2016," June 18, 2013
- Washington Post, "Chuck Schumer endorses Hillary Clinton for president: ‘If you run, you’ll win’," November 3, 2013
- The Hill, "Paul: Clinton too much of a ‘war hawk’," August 24, 2014
- The Hill, "Hillary's hit list," January 12, 2013
- Politico, "News Corp has given $3m to the Clintons," July 2, 2014
- Washington Post, "'Ready for Hillary' campaign off and running, even if candidate isn’t yet," November 7, 2013
- Ready for Hillary, "About 'Ready for Hillary'," accessed November 11, 2013
- Politico, "Soros, Wal-Mart scion pony up for Clinton," January 31, 2014
- USA Today, "Poll: Clinton leads Christie in early look at 2016," November 12, 2013
- YouGov, "HILLARY CLINTON’S RATINGS UNDERWATER," December 2, 2013
- Politico, "2016 poll: Chris Christie 42%, Hillary Clinton 41%," December 11, 2013
- Politico, "2016 poll: Hillary Clinton ahead of Chris Christie," January 21, 2013
- Washington Post, "Poll: GOP presidential race wide open; Hillary Clinton leads Jeb Bush in theoretical matchup," April 29, 2013
- Politico, "Hillary Clinton leads among New Hampshire Dems," October 9, 2014
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
- Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Hillary Clinton," September 2013
- Open Secrets, "2006 Election Cycle, Hillary Clinton" accessed September 20, 2013
- Gov Track, "Hillary Clinton," accessed September 17, 2013
- OpenSecrets.org, "Clinton, (D-NY), 2011"
- OpenSecrets.org, "Hillary Clinton, 2010"
|U.S. Secretary of State
| Succeeded by|
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
|U.S. Senate - New York
| Succeeded by|