Hillary Clinton

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Hillary Rodham Clinton
Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
Former U.S. Secretary of State
In office
January 21, 2009-February 1, 2013
Elections and appointments
NominatedDecember 1, 2008
ConfirmedJanuary 21, 2009
AppointedJanuary 21, 2009
Appointed byBarack Obama
Prior offices
United States Senator
First Lady of the United States
First Lady of Arkansas
1979-1981, 1983-1992
High schoolMaine South High School
Bachelor'sWellesly College
J.D.Yale Law School
Date of birthOctober 26, 1947
Place of birthChicago, IL
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (b. October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois) was a previous Secretary of State of the United States of America from 2009-2013. She is also a former Democratic member of the U.S. Senate from the state of New York. Clinton served in the Senate from 2001-2009. She was the first former First Lady to serve in the U.S. Senate and in a president's cabinet.[1]

Hillary is the wife of President Bill Clinton and served as the First Lady during President Clinton's two terms. She also ran in the democratic presidential primary in 2008 against Barack Obama.[2] She has not announced her intentions for the 2016 presidential election despite being considered a top contender.[3]


Born in Chicago, Illinois, Clinton attended Maine East High School until being redistricted during her senior year to Maine South High School.[4] She went on to earn a degree from Wellesley College before attaining a J.D. from Yale Law School. She met future husband Bill Clinton at Yale.[2]

As a high schooler, Clinton was an active Republican, even campaigning for Barry Goldwater in 1968, but after her first year at Wellesley she changed her views to become a Democrat.[5] She stayed politically active throughout her college years, working for Walter Mondale and George McGovern's presidential campaign.[2]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Clinton's academic, professional and political career:[2]

  • 1969: Graduated from Wellesley College
  • 1973: Earned J.D. from Yale Law School
  • 1973-1974: Attorney for the Children's Defense Fund
  • 1974: Member of the presidential impeachment inquiry staff during the Watergate Scandal
  • 1974-1977: Director of Legal Aid Clinic and Assistant Professor at University of Arkansas School of Law
  • 1976-1979: Attorney at Rose Law Firm
  • 1978: Member of board of directors of Legal Services Corp.
  • 1979-1980: Assistant Professor at University of Arkansas School of Law
  • 1979-1992: Partner at Rose Law Firm
  • 1979: Chairperson of the Rural Health Advisory Committee
  • 1983: Director Arkansas Education Standards Committee
  • 1992-2001: First Lady of the United States
  • 1993: Leader of Task Force on National Health Care Reform
  • 2001-2009: United States Senator from New York
  • 2003: Author of "Living History"
  • 2007: Presidential candidate for 2008 democratic primary
  • 2008: Suspended presidential campaign
  • 2009-2013: U.S. Secretary of State

Confirmation vote

Clinton was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 94-2 on January 21, 2009. Jim DeMint and David Vitter voted against her confirmation.[6]

Hillary Rodham Clinton confirmation vote, January 21, 2009
Party Votes for Approveda Votes against Defeatedd Total votes
Democratic Party Democrats 53 0 53
Republican Party Republicans 39 2 41
Independent Independents 0 0 0
Total Votes 92 2 94


U.S. Secretary of State


On October 15, 2012, Clinton claimed responsibility for the security of the diplomatic mission to Libya that was attacked on September 11, 2012. The attack left four Americans dead, including Ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens.[7] A State Department employee, Eric Nordstrom, claimed at a congressional hearing on October 11, that his request for more security to be present in Libya was denied by his superiors prior to the attack.[8] Clinton was also under fire because of the initial classification of the attack by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice as a spontaneous response to an anti-Muslim video instead of a planned terrorist attack.[7] On December 19, the State Department announced the forced leave of four officials after an independent report was produced suggesting the officials "showed a lack of ownership of Benghazi's security issues."[9] Clinton was summoned before congressional committees on January 23 to testify on her knowledge of the attack. During the heated testimony, Clinton said of the requests for more security, "I didn't see those requests. They didn't come to me."[10]

On August 20, 2013, the State Department announced the reassignment of the four officials placed on leave. Representative Darrell Issa responded by stating, "Instead of accountability, the State Department offered a charade that included false reports of firings and resignations and now ends in a game of musical chairs where no one misses a single day on the State Department payroll."[11] Following the conclusion of a State Department investigation into Benghazi on September 16, Issa was not satisfied with the findings and stated, "We can certainly have Mrs. Clinton back; our view is that we need to get to the facts."[12]

U.S. Senator

Legislative action

Troubled Asset Relief Program

Voted "Yes" Clinton voted in support of HR 1424 - Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. The bill passed the Senate on October 1, 2008 by a vote of 74-25 The bill authorized the formation of the Troubled Asset Relief Program for the Treasury Secretary to buy troubled assets from financial institutions. Voting was split in both parties.[13]

Secure Fence Act

Voted "Yes" Clinton voted in support of HR 6061 - Secure Fence Act of 2006. The bill passed on September 29, 2006 by a vote of 80-19. The bill authorized the construction of 700 miles of additional fencing along the United States-Mexico border. The Democratic Party split on the vote.[14]

Iraq War

Voted "Yes" Clinton voted in support of HJ Res 114 - Use of Military Force Against Iraq. The resolution passed on October 11, 2002 by a vote of 77-23. The resolution authorized the use of the United States military against Iraq. The Democratic Party split on the vote.[15]

No Child Left Behind

Voted "Yes" Clinton voted in support of HR 1 - No Child Left Behind Act. The bill passed on December 18, 2001 by a vote of 87-10. The bill implemented annual testing of students and cut funding to schools that achieved sub-standard test results. The bill was largely supported by both parties.[16]

Patriot Act

Voted "Yes" Clinton voted in support of HR 3162 - USA Patriot Act of 2001. The bill passed on October 25, 2001 by a vote of 98-1. The bill allowed law enforcement more authority in searching homes, tapping phone lines and tracking internet information while searching for suspected terrorists.[17]

First Lady of the United States

Task Force on National Health Reform

Clinton was chosen by her husband, President Bill Clinton, to lead the Task Force on National Health Reform following his inauguration in 1993. She worked with, among others, the secretaries of the Health and Human Services, Defense, Treasury, Commerce and Veteran Affairs to shape a universal health care plan for America.[18] In September 1993, President Clinton gave a speech on the health care plan to Congress, which faced immediate criticism from Republicans and the health care industry.[19]The 1,342 page plan was not released until late October, and in the following months, the plan continued to lose support. The health care industry released an ad campaign criticizing the proposal called "Harry and Louise," which focused on the increased bureaucracy and mandates of the bill. The bill underwent many changes during its time in multiple committees, and there was little support left when it went to the Senate floor in July 1994.[20] In September 1994, Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell declared the bill dead. Opponents referred to it and similar proposals as "Hillarycare" for years following it's failure. In the mid-term election that followed, Democrats lost control in both the House and the Senate.[21]



On November 7, 2006, Hillary Clinton won re-election to the United States Senate. She defeated John Spencer (R), Howie Hawkins (G), Jeffrey T. Russell (L), Roger Calero (Socialist Workers) and William Van Auken (Socialist Equality) in the general election.[22]

U.S. Senate, New York General Election, 2006
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngHillary Clinton incumbent 64% 3,008,428
     Republican John Spencer 29.6% 1,392,189
     Green Howie Hawkins 1.2% 55,469
     Libertarian Jeffrey T. Russell 0.4% 20,996
     Socialist Workers Roger Calero 0.1% 6,967
     Socialist Equality William Van Auken 0.1% 6,004
     N/A Blank/Scattering 4.5% 210,579
Total Votes 4,700,632


On November 7, 2000, Hillary Clinton won election to the United States Senate. She defeated Rick Lazio (R), Mark J. Dunau (G), Jeffrey E. Graham (Independence), John O. Adefope (Right to Life), John Clifton (L), Louis P. Wein (Constitution) and Jacob J. Perasso (Socialist Workers) in the general election.[23]

U.S. Senate, New York General Election, 2000
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngHillary Clinton 53.8% 3,747,310
     Republican Rick Lazio 41.9% 2,915,730
     Green Mark J. Dunau 0.6% 40,991
     Independence Jeffrey E. Graham 0.6% 43,181
     Right to Life John O. Adefope 0.3% 21,439
     Libertarian John Clifton 0.1% 4,734
     Constitution Louis P. Wein 0% 3,414
     Socialist Workers Jacob J. Perasso 0% 3,040
     N/A Blank/Scattering 2.6% 179,823
Total Votes 6,959,662

Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Clinton is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Clinton raised a total of $83,177,405 during that time period. This information was last updated on September 20, 2013.[24]

Hillary Clinton's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2006 U.S. Senate (New York) Won $51,567,732
2000 U.S. Senate (New York) Won $31,609,673
Grand Total Raised $83,177,405


File:Hillary Clinton-2012 donor breakdown.jpg
Above is a breakdown of funds for the 2006 election, according to source.

Clinton won election to the U.S. Senate in 2006. During that election cycle, Clinton's campaign committee raised a total of $51,567,723 and spent $40,828,991.[25]

Cost per vote

Clinton spent $13.57 per vote received in 2006.


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking


Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Clinton was a "rank-and-file Democrat" as a Senator.[26]

Net worth

See also: Net Worth of United States Senators and Representatives


Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Clinton's net worth as of 2011 was estimated between $5,710,008.00 and $26,551,000.00. That averages to $16,130,504.00, which ranked sixth among members of the executive branch. Her average net worth decreased by 48.3% from 2010.[27]


Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Kerry's net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $10,740,011.00 to $51,654,000.00. That averages to $31,197,005.50, which ranked fifth among members of the executive branch.[28]


Clinton is married to former U.S. President Bill Clinton. They have one daughter, Chelsea.

Recent news

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External links


  1. NPR, "Obama Brings Hillary to Cabinet, GOP to Ariz. State House," December 1, 2008
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Biography.com, "Hillary Clinton," accessed September 5, 2013
  3. Politico, "Hillary Clinton all but running," September 20, 2013
  4. Park Ridge Public Library, "Hillary Rodham Clinton," accessed September 5, 2013
  5. FactCheck.org, "Hillary Worked for Goldwater?," March 27, 2008
  6. New York Times, "Senate Vote 6 - On the Nomination," January 21, 2009
  7. 7.0 7.1 CNN, "Clinton: I'm responsible for diplomats' security," October 16, 2012
  8. CNN, "U.S. official says superiors worked against effort to boost Benghazi," October 11, 2012
  9. New York Times, "4 Are Out at State Dept. After Scathing Report on Benghazi Attack," December 19, 2012
  10. CNN, "Clinton takes on Benghazi critics, warns of more security threats," January 24, 2012
  11. Huffington Post, "State Department Officials Reassigned After Leave Related To Benghazi Attacks," August 20, 2013
  12. Politico, "Darrell Issa: I can call Hillary Clinton back," September 18, 2013
  13. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1424 - Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments," accessed September 24, 2013
  14. Project Vote Smart, "HR 6061 - Secure Fence Act of 2006," accessed September 24, 2013
  15. Project Vote Smart, "HJ Res 114 - Use of Military Force Against Iraq," accessed September 24, 2013
  16. Project Votes Smart, "HR 1 - No Child Left Behind Act," accessed September 24, 2013
  17. HR 3162 - USA Patriot Act of 2001," accessed September 24, 2013
  18. New York Times, "Hillary Clinton to Head Panel on Health Care," January 26, 1993
  19. New York Times, "CLINTON'S HEALTH PLAN; A.M.A. Rebels Over Health Plan In Major Challenge to President," September 30, 1993
  20. New York Times, "THE HEALTH CARE DEBATE: What Went Wrong? How the Health Care Campaign Collapsed -- A special report.; For Health Care, Times Was A Killer," August 29, 1994
  21. World History Project, "Bill Clinton's Universal Health Care Initiative fails in Congress," accessed September 20, 2013
  22. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  23. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  24. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Hillary Clinton," September 2013
  25. Open Secrets, "2006 Election Cycle, Hillary Clinton" accessed September 20, 2013
  26. Gov Track, "Hillary Clinton," accessed September 17, 2013
  27. OpenSecrets.org, "Clinton, (D-NY), 2011"
  28. OpenSecrets.org, "Hillary Clinton, 2010"
Political offices
Preceded by
Condoleeza Rice
U.S. Secretary of State
Succeeded by
John Kerry
Preceded by
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
U.S. Senate - New York
Succeeded by
Kirsten Gillibrand