Difference between revisions of "How gubernatorial vacancies are filled"

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Text replace - " reelection " to " re-election ")
Line 1: Line 1:
{{SEO quality|Month=August 2013|Reason=first in line of succession map out of date}}
 
 
=Main=
 
=Main=
 
{{TOC maker|1H=Main|1.1=Acting governor|1.1.1=Permanent Acting Governor|1.1.2=Temporary Acting Governor|1.2=Creating vacancies|1.2.1=Physical and mental health|1.2.2=Impeachment|2H=Vacancy procedures across states|3H=Find your state|4H=More analysis}}Each state has some constitutionally prescribed method for filling vacancies in the office of [[governor]]. In the 45 states with a [[Lieutenant Governor|lieutenant governor]], that individual is the first in the line of succession, with the exception of Arkansas, where there is a constitutionally designated [[Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas|lieutenant governor]], but he is not the first in the line of succession. Instead, the the president of the [[Arkansas Senate|Arkansas Senate]] is the first to succeed. Whether additional offices in the line of succession are named in the constitution or by statute varies among states.  
 
{{TOC maker|1H=Main|1.1=Acting governor|1.1.1=Permanent Acting Governor|1.1.2=Temporary Acting Governor|1.2=Creating vacancies|1.2.1=Physical and mental health|1.2.2=Impeachment|2H=Vacancy procedures across states|3H=Find your state|4H=More analysis}}Each state has some constitutionally prescribed method for filling vacancies in the office of [[governor]]. In the 45 states with a [[Lieutenant Governor|lieutenant governor]], that individual is the first in the line of succession, with the exception of Arkansas, where there is a constitutionally designated [[Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas|lieutenant governor]], but he is not the first in the line of succession. Instead, the the president of the [[Arkansas Senate|Arkansas Senate]] is the first to succeed. Whether additional offices in the line of succession are named in the constitution or by statute varies among states.  

Revision as of 10:58, 27 January 2014

Main

Contents
1 Main
1.1 Acting governor
1.1.1 Permanent Acting Governor
1.1.2 Temporary Acting Governor
1.2 Creating vacancies
1.2.1 Physical and mental health
1.2.2 Impeachment
2 Vacancy procedures across states
3 Find your state
4 More analysis
Each state has some constitutionally prescribed method for filling vacancies in the office of governor. In the 45 states with a lieutenant governor, that individual is the first in the line of succession, with the exception of Arkansas, where there is a constitutionally designated lieutenant governor, but he is not the first in the line of succession. Instead, the the president of the Arkansas Senate is the first to succeed. Whether additional offices in the line of succession are named in the constitution or by statute varies among states.

Among those states where no such title as lieutenant governor exists, plus the unique case of Arkansas, the primary successor to the governor varies. Officers first in line to succeed the governor in case of a vacancy are:

This map shows who is first in line to fill vacancies in the office of governor in each state.

Governor of AlaskaGovernor of CaliforniaGovernor of NevadaGovernor of IdahoGovernor of WashingtonGovernor of MontanaGovernor of OregonGovernor of WyomingGovernor of UtahGovernor of ArizonaGovernor of New MexicoGovernor of ColoradoGovernor of TexasGovernor of OklahomaGovernor of KansasGovernor of HawaiiGovernor of NebraskaGovernor of South DakotaGovernor of North DakotaGovernor of LouisianaGovernor of ArkansasGovernor of MissouriGovernor of IowaGovernor of MinnesotaGovernor of MississippiGovernor of AlabamaGovernor of TennesseeGovernor of KentuckyGovernor of IndianaGovernor of IllinoisGovernor of WisconsinGovernor of MichiganGovernor of MichiganGovernor of OhioGovernor of FloridaGovernor of GeorgiaGovernor of South CarolinaGovernor of North CarolinaGovernor of VirginiaGovernor of West VirginiaGovernor of PennsylvaniaGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of New YorkGovernor of VermontGovernor of VermontGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of MissouriGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareBallotpedia- Gubernatorial Vacancies.jpg

Overall, the constitutional rules for who comes second in line for the governor's seat are much more complex than that of first in line. Common second-in-lines include:

  • The President of the Senate (Pro Tempore)
  • The Speaker of the House
  • The Secretary of State

However, 7 states leave the decision specifically law and another 7 states decline any mention. This map shows who is a generalized version of who is second in line to fill vacancies in the office of governor in each state according to state constitutions.

Governor of AlaskaGovernor of CaliforniaGovernor of NevadaGovernor of IdahoGovernor of WashingtonGovernor of MontanaGovernor of OregonGovernor of WyomingGovernor of UtahGovernor of ArizonaGovernor of New MexicoGovernor of ColoradoGovernor of TexasGovernor of OklahomaGovernor of KansasGovernor of HawaiiGovernor of NebraskaGovernor of South DakotaGovernor of North DakotaGovernor of LouisianaGovernor of ArkansasGovernor of MissouriGovernor of IowaGovernor of MinnesotaGovernor of MississippiGovernor of AlabamaGovernor of TennesseeGovernor of KentuckyGovernor of IndianaGovernor of IllinoisGovernor of WisconsinGovernor of MichiganGovernor of MichiganGovernor of OhioGovernor of FloridaGovernor of GeorgiaGovernor of South CarolinaGovernor of North CarolinaGovernor of VirginiaGovernor of West VirginiaGovernor of PennsylvaniaGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of New YorkGovernor of VermontGovernor of VermontGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of MissouriGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareGovernor second in line.jpg

Vacancy procedures usually address the length of absence at which a temporary vacancy becomes a permanent vacancy. In many cases, the governor may temporarily surrender if powers while traveling outside the state or during periods of injury or illness. In such cases, the lieutenant governor or the governor's primary successor usually becomes a temporary "acting governor."

Vacancy procedures may also detail:

  • whether the officer who succeeds to the governorship has the full powers of the elected governor he replaced
  • situations in which an appointed governor completes the current term and situations under which a special election is called
  • whether the individual who replaces the elected governor must belong to same party as the governor
  • the privilege of governors who are resigning voluntarily, often to accept a higher office, to name their own replacement
  • procedure when a governor-elect dies, resigns, or is otherwise unavailable to take the oath of office
  • procedures for removing a governor against his will. This includes impeachment, recall, and removal on grounds of mental or physical unfitness for the office. In recent years, Illinois successfully impeached Rod Blagojevich for corruption and the citizens of California successfully recalled Gray Davis.

Acting governor

In most states, if a governor permanently leaves office due to death, resignation, etc., his successor will become governor. However, in many states, the successor will instead assume the office of "acting governor". The term "acting governor" is used by various states to describe two different situations.

  1. In some states, the "acting governor" is an officer who was not elected to the position but exercises the powers of the governor due to a vacancy. In these states, acting governors may fill either a temporary vacancy in the office (due to illness, out-of-state travel, etc.) or a permanent vacancy (due to death, resignation, etc.). (See West Virginia)
  2. In others, the "acting governor" exercises the powers of the governor temporarily when the elected governor is unable to perform his duties. In these states, the successor of a governor who has left office permanently simply becomes governor. (See Virginia)

Permanent acting governor

It is relatively uncommon for an acting governor to arise in response to a permanent vacancy -- one where the incumbent is not expected to return to office -- in the office of governor. In states where it does occur, a special election to choose a new governor typically follows if there is more than a year left on the former governor's term. The list below highlights a few examples of states where an acting governor may hold power following the permanent departure of a governor from office:

Temporary acting governor

In many states, acting governors only occur in response to temporary vacancies in the office of governor -- that is, when the governor cannot exercise his office temporarily due to illness, some other disability, or being absent from the state. When the governor is not expected to return to office, the next in line for the office becomes governor himself, not an "acting" officer. The list below highlights a few of these states:

Creating vacancies

In addition to death and resignation, there are a number of ways a governor can willingly or unwillingly vacate their office.

Physical and mental health

A vacancy can occur if the governor is unable to exercise his office due to physical or mental incapacitation. Such vacancies are typically considered temporary; usually, the governor's designated successor will become acting governor until the incumbent recovers. In some states, the vacancy may become permanent if the incapacity lasts beyond a certain period of time, or if the state's supreme court or legislature declares the office vacant. Here are two examples of health-related vacancy procedures:

Impeachment

All states have some sort of impeachment procedure to try and, if necessary, remove officers of the state government from their posts due to unlawful activity. In most cases, impeachment procedures mirror that of the federal government, under which the House of Representatives impeaches an officer (formally accuses him of a crime), while the Senate tries him.

When a governor is removed from office following an impeachment trial, the next officer in the gubernatorial line of succession becomes governor.

Vacancy procedures across states

Contents
1 Main
2 Vacancy procedures across states
3 Find your state
4 More analysis
How gubernatorial vacancies are filled
State Constitutional source First in line Second in line Word count of vacancy provision(s)
AlabamaArticle V, Sections 127-128Lieutenant GovernorPresident pro tem. of the Senate404
AlaskaArticle III, Sections 9-14Lieutenant GovernorN/A255
ArizonaArticle V, Section 6Secretary of StateAttorney General223
ArkansasArticle VI, Sections 12-14President of the SenateSpeaker of the House288
CaliforniaArticle V, Section 10Lieutenant GovernorN/A105
ColoradoArticle IV, Sections 13Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate1099
ConnecticutArticle IV, Section 18Lieutenant GovernorPresident pro tem. of the Senate385
DelawareArticle III, Section 20Lieutenant GovernorSecretary of State674
FloridaArticle IV, Section 3Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law173
GeorgiaSection I, Paragraph VLieutenant GovernorSpeaker of the House of Representatives299
HawaiiArticle V, Section 4Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law155
IdahoArticle IV, Sections 12 and 14Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate Pro Tempore182
IllinoisArticle V, Section 6Lieutenant Governorelected Attorney General229
IndianaArticle 5, Section 10Lieutenant GovernorThe speaker of the house of representatives685
IowaArticle IV, Section IVLieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate461
KansasArticle 1, Section 11Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law167
KentuckyArticle 6, Section 84Lieutenant GovernorN/A261
LouisianaArticle IV, Section 14Lieutenant GovernorElected Secretary of the State78
MaineArticle IV, Sections 14 and 15President of the SenateSpeaker of the House of Representatives856
MarylandArticle II, Sections 6 and 7Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate842
MassachusettsArticle LV of the Amendments to the Massachusetts ConstitutionLieutenant GovernorSecretary of the Commonwealth556
MichiganArticle V, Section 26Lieutenant GovernorElected Secretary of State218
MinnesotaArticle V, Section 5Lieutenant GovernorThe last elected Presiding Officer of the Senate157
MississippiArticle V, Section 131Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate Pro Tempore324
MissouriArticle IV, Sections 11(a), (b), and (c)Lieutenant GovernorPresident Pro Tempore of the Senate619
MontanaArticle VI, Section 14Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law379
NebraskaArticle IV, Section 16Lieutenant GovernorSpeaker of the Legislature197
NevadaArticle 5, Section 18Lieutenant GovernorN/A107
New HampshireExecutive Power, Section 49 and 49aPresident of the SenateSpeaker of the House of Representatives933
New JerseyArticle V, Section I, paragraph 6Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate197
New MexicoArticle V, Section 7Lieutenant GovernorSecretary of State305
New YorkArticle IV, Sections 5 and 6Lieutenant GovernorTemporary President of the Senate455
North CarolinaArticle III, Section 3Lieutenant GovernorN/A345
North DakotaArticle V, Section 11Lieutenant GovernorSecretary of State65
OhioArticle III, Sections 15, 17, and 22Lieutenant GovernorPresident of the Senate603
OklahomaArticle VI, Sections 15 and 16Lieutenant Governorpresident, pro tempore, of the Senate235
OregonArticle V, Section 8aSecretary of StateState Treasurer264
PennsylvaniaArticle IV, Section 13 and 14Lieutenant GovernorPresident pro tempore of the Senate232
Rhode IslandArticle IX, Sections 9 and 10Lieutenant GovernorSpeaker of the House of Representatives108
South CarolinaArticle IV, Sections 6 and 7
& Article IV, Section 11 and 12
Lieutenant GovernorN/A586
South DakotaArticle IV, Section 6Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law188
TennesseeArticle III, Section 4
& Article III, Section 12
Speaker of the SenateSpeaker of the House of Representatives197
TexasArticle 4, Section 3a
& Article 4, Section 16
Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law495
UtahArticle VII, Section 11Lieutenant GovernorPresident pro tempore of the Senate171
VermontChapter II, Section 24Lieutenant GovernorAs prescribed by law162
VirginiaArticle V, Section 16Lieutenant GovernorAttorney General707
WashingtonArticle III, Section 10Lieutenant GovernorSecretary of State378
West VirginiaArticle VII, Section 16President of the SenateSpeaker of the House of Delegates133
WisconsinArticle V, Sections 7 and 8Lieutenant GovernorSecretary of State226
WyomingArticle 4, Section 6Secretary of StateN/A51


Find your state

Contents
1. Main
2. Vacancy procedures across states
3. Find your state
4. More analysis
AlabamaAlaskaArizona
ArkansasCaliforniaColorado
ConnecticutDelawareFlorida
GeorgiaHawaiiIdaho
IllinoisIndianaIowa
KansasKentuckyLouisiana
MaineMarylandMassachusetts
MichiganMinnesotaMississippi
MissouriMontanaNebraska
NevadaNew Hampshire
New MexicoNew Jersey
New YorkNorth Carolina
North DakotaOhioOklahoma
OregonPennsylvaniaRhode Island
South CarolinaSouth Dakota
TennesseeTexasUtah
VermontVirginiaWashington
West VirginiaWisconsinWyoming

Alabama

Alabama
See also: Governor of Alabama

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Sections 127 and 128.

In the event that the elected Governor is unable to complete her term, the Lieutenant Governor of Alabama succeeds the Governor and has the same full powers as the elected Governor. The Lieutenant Governor also becomes "Acting Governor" at any time when the elected Governor is unable to discharge the office for 20 consecutive days, yet does not vacate the office. Because Alabama elects her Governor and Lieutenant Governor on separate tickets, it is theoretically possible for the governorship of the state to change parties without an election occurring.

Any two other Constitutional officers, excluding the individual who would succeed the Governor, may also file a affidavit with the Alabama Supreme Court to the effect that sitting governor is of unsound mind, in which case the Supreme Court shall hear testimony and deliver a verdict.

Alaska

Alaska
See also: Governor of Alaska

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article III, Sections 9 to 14.

In the event that the elected Governor is unable to complete her term, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska succeeds the Governor and has the same full powers as the elected Governor. The Lieutenant Governor also becomes "Acting Governor" at any time when the elected Governor is unable to discharge the office, yet does not vacate the office. If the elected governor is continually unable to discharge the office for six months, the office is deemed vacant and the lieutenant governor succeeds to the office.

In the event that a governor-elect dies, resigns, is disqualified, or otherwise does not take office, the individual elected as lieutenant governor shall become the governor.

At any time that the lieutenant governor takes over as the governor, she or he serves as the governor for the entire remaining term.

Arizona

Arizona
See also: Governor of Arizona

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article 5, Section 6.

As Arizona is among the minority of U.S. States with no lieutenant governor, the vacancy rules for the governor's office are somewhat more complex than other states. In the event that the governor is unable to discharge the office for any reason, the Arizona Secretary of State succeeds if two conditions are met; the Secretary of State must be serving as an elected officer and must meet the requirements to hold the governorship.

If either of those criteria does not hold, then the Attorney General of Arizona, the Treasurer of Arizona, and the State Superintendent of Public Instruction are, in descending order, the next offices to ascend to the governorship, subject to the same criteria as the Secretary of State.

Any of those offices must resign in order to assume the governorship. Legally, taking the governor's oath of office is treated as an official resignation from the previous office held. Whenever the Secretary of State or any other officer becomes the Governor, she has the full powers and emoluments of the office and serves until the next election.

The same line of succession holds when disability or absence means the governor is temporarily unable to discharge the office.

Arkansas

Arkansas
See also: Governor of Arkansas

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article 6, Sections 12 to 14.

If the elected governor resigns, dies, is removed, or is otherwise unable to discharge the office, the President of the Senate is the first to succeed, serving as the governor until an election is held and having the full powers of the governorship. The Senate President is also the first in line to serve as the Acting Governor, if the elected officer is temporarily disabled or absent.

After the Senate President, the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives ascends to the office. Arkansas is unusual in that there is a Constitutionally designated Lieutenant Governor, but he is not the first in the line of succession.

Regardless of which officer becomes the Acting Governor, if the next scheduled general election is more than 12 months away, the Acting Governor must call a special election, with a minimum of 60 days notice, run according to the same rules that administer a regular election.

California

California
See also: Governor of California

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 10.

If the governor is unable to discharge the office, either temporarily of permanently, the Lieutenant Governor of California fills the office. After that, the legislature sets the order of precedence for filling gubernatorial vacancies.

Disputes over the line of succession are under the sole jurisdiction of the California Supreme Court.

Colorado

Colorado
See also: Governor of Colorado

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Section 13.

If the office of the governor is vacant, temporarily or permanently, for any reason, the lieutenant governor takes over all the duties and responsibilities of the office. Once the lieutenant governor assumes the governor, as acting governor, she will appoint a replacement for the now-empty lieutenant governorship.

If the actual elected lieutenant governor is unable to discharge the office or if both the governor's and lieutenant governor's offices are vacant, the position(s) shall be filled by the highest ranking member of the General Assembly who belong to the same party as the elected officer who vacated her position.

In reference to either the governor or lieutenant governor being unfit for office due to physical or mental illness, the office holder may either deliver a written statement to legislature declaring himself no longer able to serve, or the Colorado Supreme Court may hold a hearing to deem the office holder not physically or mentally fit for office.

Additionally, if an appointed governor serves more than half of a four year term, for purposes of applying term limits, he shall be considered to have served a full term.

Should a Governor-elect fail to qualify within the alloted time, the office shall be declared vacant, under Article XII, Section 10.

Connecticut

Connecticut
See also: Governor of Connecticut

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article IV, Sections 18, 19, and 21.

Under any circumstances where the elected governor is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, the elected lieutenant governor shall, as soon as he takes the oath of office, become the governor and hold the office until the next regularly scheduled election.

When the office of the lieutenant governor is vacant, it shall be filled the President Pro Tempore of the Connecticut State Senate.

Delaware

Delaware
See also: Governor of Delaware

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article III, Section 20.

The Lieutenant Governor of Delaware is the first in line to become either the Acting Governor of the Governor in the event that the elected officer is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, either temporarily or permanently. If the lieutenant governorship is likewise vacant, the descending order of succession is the Delaware Secretary of State, the Attorney General of Delaware, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House.

Any of these officers who takes over the governor's duties is understood to have given up her previous office.

In te event of physical or mental inability to discharge the office, the governor may deliver a written statement to the Assembly to that effect. Alternately, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Delaware, the President of the Medical Society of Delaware and the Commissioner of the Department of Mental Health, acting unanimously, may declare the governor unfit. In either of these events, the lieutenant governor becomes the Acting Governor, pending a vote of the Assembly to make the appointment permanent (§ 20).

Florida

Florida
See also: Governor of Florida

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Section 3.

If the office of the governor is vacant, temporarily or permanently, for any reason, the lieutenant governor takes over all the duties and responsibilities of the office. Once the lieutenant governor assumes the governorship, as acting governor, she will appoint a replacement for the now-empty lieutenant governorship.

If the actual elected lieutenant governor is unable to discharge the office or if both the governor's and lieutenant governor's offices are vacant, the position(s) shall be filled by the highest ranking member(s) of the General Assembly who belong to the same party as the elected officer(s) who vacated her position.

In reference to either the governor or lieutenant governor being unfit for office due to physical or mental illness, the office holder may either deliver a written statement to legislature declaring himself no longer able to serve, or the Florida Supreme Court may hold a hearing to deem the office holder not physically or mentally fit for office.

Additionally, if an appointed governor serves more than half of a four year term, for purposes of applying term limits, he shall be considered to have served a full term.

Georgia

Georgia
See also: Governor of Georgia

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Section I, Paragraph V.

At any point that the Governor or Governor-elect is temporarily or permanently unable to discharge the office, the Lieutenant Governor or the Lieutenant Governor-elect assumes to office, with the same powers as the Governor.

In cases where the Lieutenant Governor takes over when the Governor is permanently unable to fulfill the duties of the office, the Lieutenant Governor, as Acting Governor, will hold the office until the next General Election in most cases. Exceptions are when the particular gubernatorial term would have expired anyway less than 90 days after the Election and when the Governorship is left vacant less than 30 days before a General Election. In those cases, the Lieutenant Governor simply completes the elected term.

If the Lieutenant Governor's seat is left vacant during the any term, then it remains empty for the remainder of the current term of office. If both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor vacate their seat, the Speaker of the House of the Representatives schedules a special election and serves as Acting Governor until that date.

Removing a Constitutional officer for disability is governed by Article V, Section IV. Any four Constitutional officers may petition the Georgia Supreme Court regarding the fitness for office of a fifth officer. That officer shall have a hearing with the testimony of no less than three board certified physicians, one of whom must be a psychiatrist, before being deemed unfit or removed. The Supreme Court may make a determination of either temporary or permanent disability; in the case of the former, they shall also determine when the Governor may resume the office.

Hawaii

Hawaii
See also: Governor of Hawaii

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article V, Section 4.

The Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii becomes acting governor upon the governor's absence from the state or disability from discharging duties, either temporarily or permanently.

Idaho

Idaho
See also: Governor of Idaho

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article IV, Sections 12 and 14.

Under Section 12, the powers of the governor devolve to the Lieutenant Governor of Idaho at any time that the Governor is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, or has been removed from the office. In such instances, the Lieutenant Governor has all the powers and emoluments as the Governor either until the latter can resume the office or until the next gubernatorial election.

Additionally, under Section 14, if both the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor's offices are both vacant, the duties of the Executive pass first to the President Pro Tem of the Senate and next the Speaker of House of the Representatives.

Illinois

Illinois
See also: Governor of Illinois

Details of vacancies are address under Article V, Section 6.

In the event of a vacancy, respectively, the Lieutenant Governor, the elected Attorney General, and then the elected Secretary of State to succeed to the office as either the Governor or the Acting Governor.

The Governor may temporarily remove himself from office by stating a serious impediment to discharging his office to the Secretary of State and to the officer who would succeed him. The Governor may resume his office the same way. Removing the Governor against his will for reasons for mental or physical health is in the hands of the Illinois Supreme Court.

Indiana

Indiana
See also: Governor of Indiana

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article 5, Section 10.

If the governor becomes incapacitated then the lieutenant governor of Indiana becomes acting-governor until his recovery. If the governor resigns, dies, or is impeached, tried, and convicted, then the lieutenant governor becomes governor.

If the office of the lieutenant governor is vacant, then the Senate Pro-Tempore becomes governor. If the office of Senate Pro-Tempore is also vacant then the senate must elect a new Pro-Tempore to fill the governor's office.

The governor may temporarily step aside if he communicates that he is unable to discharge the office to both the President Pro Tem of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The same two individuals may file a petition with the Indiana Supreme Court asking for a hearing of fitness for office for the Governor. In that case, the hearing must be held within 48 hours and the Supreme Court's decision is final.

If the Governor and Lieutenant Governor both vacate their offices, the General Assembly must meet within 48 hours and elect an Acting Governor, who must belong to the same party as the elected Governor, by a simple majority in each chamber. Until then, the Acting Governor shall be, in order of succession:

  • the President Pro Tem of the Senate
  • the Speaker of the House of Representatives
  • the State Treasurer
  • the State Auditor
  • the Secretary of State
  • the State Superintendent of Public Instruction

Iowa

Iowa
See also: Governor of Iowa

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article IV, Section IV.

Power devolves to the Lieutenant Governor at any time when the Governor is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, under Article IV, Section 4.

Section 17, also referenced statutorily in §7.14 of the Code, grants the powers and duties of the Governor to the Lieutenant Governor for the remaining portion of the term.

Section 19 governs vacancy procedure when both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor are unable to serve. Power first devolves to the President Pro Tem of the Senate and then to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. After that, the Iowa Supreme Court must call an extraordinary session of the General Assembly to choose an Acting Governor.

Kansas

Kansas
See also: Governor of Kansas

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article 1, Section 11.

At any time the Governor is unable to discharge the office, temporarily or permanently, the Lieutenant Governor shall take his place until edthe disability is removed.

If the Lieutenant Governor is also disabled, the legislature shall determine the line of succession.

Kentucky

Kentucky
See also: Governor of Kentucky

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article 6, Section 84.

Whatever the circumstances, if the elected governor is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, the duties pass to the lieutenant governor. If the governor is on trial for any reason, the Chief Justice of the Kentucky Supreme Court must be the presiding officer.

Regarding physical or mental unfitness for office, the Attorney General of Kentucky may petition the Supreme Court for a judgment that the governor must be removed either temporarily or permanently.

Louisiana

Louisiana
See also: Governor of Louisiana

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article IV, Section 14.

When a vacancy occurs in the office of governor, the order of succession shall be:

(1) the elected lieutenant governor,
(2) the elected secretary of state,
(3) the elected attorney general,
(4) the elected treasurer,
(5) the presiding officer of the Senate,
(6) the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, and then
(7) as provided by law.

The successor shall serve the remainder of the term for which the governor was elected.

Maine

Maine
See also: Governor of Maine

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Sections 14 and 15.

Maine is one of five states that lack a formal office of the lieutenant governor. Instead, the first person in the line of succession is the President of the Senate. If the vacancy occurs more than 90 days ahead of the next scheduled primary election for a biennial general election, then a special election for the governorship shall be part of the ballot. Whoever wins that election will take office on the second Wednesday in January after the election.

If fewer than 90 days are left until a scheduled primary, the Senate President simply fills the remainder of the term. After the Senate President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives and then the Secretary of State are next in line.

If mental health keeps the elected governor from discharging his office for more than six months, a super majority of both chambers of the legislature shall present a joint resolution to the Supreme Court, which will hold a hearing and issue a decision. When a physical or mental disability only causes a temporary inability to fulfill the requirements of the office, the same line of succession applies. The governor may declare herself temporarily unable to serve to the Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Court.

Whenever any other officer is serving as the Acting Governor, he shall be paid only the salary of the governorship and shall vacate his other officer, leaving it to the legislature to appoint his successor.

Maryland

Maryland
See also: Governor of Maryland

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article II, Sections 6 and 7.

Regarding the Governor-elect, if that individual dies or resigns, the Lieutenant Governor shall become the Governor for the full term. If the Governor-elect fails to take office for any other reason, the Lieutenant Governor shall take over with the title of 'Acting Governor' only until the vacancy is permanently filled.

When the Governor is temporarily unable to discharge the office, whether or not he is able to communicate that in writing to the Lieutenant Governor, the latter shall become the Acting Governor. Before resuming his duties, the Governor must inform the Lieutenant Governor in writing of the fact.

At any time, by a three-fifths vote, the General Assembly may declare the Governor, or the Lieutenant Governor, mentally or physically unfit to hold the office. For purposes of taking such a vote, a member of the Assembly may call both chambers into a joint session. If such a resolution concerning the Governor's fitness for office is adopted, it shall be delivered to a Maryland Court of Appeals, which shall, in turn, make a decision. The same process applies to a Governor-elect or a Lieutenant Governor-elect.

If the governor's seat becomes otherwise vacant, the Lieutenant Governor shall assume the office and complete the term. After him, the President of the Senate is next to succeed. He shall, as Acting Governor, retain the title of Senate President, but the Senate shall nominate another member to execute the actual tasks of that office.

Under circumstances when the Governor-elect fails to take office, the Court of Appeals has exclusive jurisdiction is settling disputes and issues that arise from that situation.

With respect to Article III, Section 26 of the Constitution, the legislature may remove and impeach the Governor or the Lieutenant Governor.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts
See also: Governor of Massachusetts

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article LV of the Amendments to the Massachusetts Constitution. When it was passed, Article LV annulled and replaced Article VI of Section III of Chapter II.

The established line of succession for any gubernatorial vacancy is currently:

  • the Treasurer
  • the Receiver-General
  • the Auditor

When the Lieutenant Governor takes over, her official title is 'Lieutenant Governor, Acting Governor'. Regardless of the officer who takes over as Acting Governor, that individual shall have all the powers and rights of the elected governor, if not the title.

If a Governor-elect dies without taking office, the individual elected on the same ballot as the Lieutenant Governor shall take office and serve as the Governor.

Any time a sitting Governor communicates in writing to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of House of Representatives that he unable to discharge the office, that action shall be taken to consider the office of the governor vacant. At any time, the Chief Justice and a majority of the Associate Justices of the Massachusetts Supreme Court may deliver an opinion to the Senate and House that they have found the governor or unfit to discharge the office; in such an instance, the governorship shall also be considered to be vacant.

Whether a governor declared himself temporarily unfit or the Courts found him unfit, the governor may deliver, to the legislature, his written statement that he is fit to return to office. Unless the Supreme Court contests that declaration, the governor shall return to office within four days. If the Supreme Court does challenge the governor's return to office, Article XCI of the Amendments to the Constitution lays out a process for hearing and a final decision.

Regardless of who initiated the decision about the governor's disability, if that disability continues for six months and if more than five months remain until the next biennial election, a special election shall be held for the remainder of the governor's term.

Michigan

Michigan
See also: Governor of Michigan

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 26.

In the event of the governor's death, resignation, impeachment and conviction, or removal from office, the line of succession begins with the Lieutenant Governor, the elected Secretary of State, and then the elected Attorney General.

The same line of succession applies if a Governor-elect dies, which the caveat that it is the elected, or re-elected, individuals who would have taken office in the New Year.

For the temporary absence or inability of the governor, the same individuals will take over the office, but only until the governor returns or recovers. Determining a permanent inability of the governor is at the discretion of the Supreme Court of Michigan, which shall take up the matter only after receiving a joint petition from the President Pro Tem of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. If a majority of the Court rules that the governor is indeed unfit for office, that determination shall be final and may only be reversed by the same Court.

Minnesota

Minnesota
See also: Governor of Minnesota

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 5.

At any time that the governor is unable to discharge the office, the Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota succeeds to the office. In the event of a vacancy in the lieutenant governorship, the least elected presiding officer of the Senate, which is to say, the Senate President Pro Tem shall succeed to that office.

Mississippi

Mississippi
See also: Governor of Mississippi

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article V, Section 131.

In the event of a temporary vacancy in the governorship, due to illness, absence, or disability, the office shall first devolve to the Lieutenant Governor, followed by the President Pro Tem of the Senate and then the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Should all three of those officers be unable to discharge the office of the governor, the Mississippi Secretary of State shall convene a special session of the Senate wherein its members shall elect a new President Pro Tem who will be able to serve as Acting Governor.

Any individual acting as the governor receives her base compensation for her elected office plus the difference between that wage and the gubernatorial salary. Acting Governors of Mississippi have the full powers and emoluments of the office.

If there is a question of the governor's permanent disability or of whether a temporarily absent governor is fit to resume the office, then the Secretary of State shall request that the Mississippi Supreme Court investigate and decide the matter. Once delivered in writing to the Secretary of State, that opinion is "final and conclusive".

Missouri

Missouri
See also: Governor of Missouri

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article IV, Sections 11(a), (b), and (c).

Should a Governor-elect die before taking office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall be sworn in as the Governor. At any time that the sitting governor dies, resign, or is convicted or impeached, the Lieutenant Governor shall take over the office. Similarly in the case of a temporary or permanent disability, the Lieutenant Governor is first in the line of succession.

Regardless of the reason for the vacancy, the line of succession after the Lieutenant Governor is the same:

  • the President Pro Tem of the Senate

Whoever serves as Acting Governor shall have the full powers and emoluments of the office.

The Governor may state his temporary disability in writing to the Senate President Pro Tem and the Speaker of the House, at which point the governorship shall be vacant until the Governor indicates in writing to the same two officers that he is ready to resume the office.

A disability board made up of the same individuals in the line of succession as well as the Majority Floor Leaders in each chamber may convene to challenge a governor's declaration that is fit to resume office or initiate a hearing into the governor's fitness for office. If that board chooses to recommend the governor not discharge his office, they will deliver that decision to the President Pro Tem and the Speaker, who will in turn inform the Missouri Supreme Court.

The Court then convenes and has 21 days to reach a decision.

Any state officer who serves as Acting Governor is not considered to have vacated his office; that officer's chief administrative staffer shall discharge the office until the elected officer returns.

Montana

Montana
See also: Governor of Montana

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article VI, Section 14.

If a Governor-elect dies, is disqualified, or declines to take office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect takes offices and serves as Governor. If the Governor-elect is unable to take office on inauguration day, the Lieutenant Governor-elect served as Acting Governor only until the elected Governor is able to take office.

The Lieutenant Governor also becomes Acting Governor when the Governor so requests in writing, when the Governor's illness or disability renders him unable to make that request, and automatically whenever the Governor has been absent from office for 45 days.

The Lieutenant Governor and the Attorney General may together recommend that the Governor be found unfit to serve and convene the legislature to consider the question.

Under such circumstances, the legislature has 21 days to consider the motion and may declare the Governor until by a two-thirds vote. The Lieutenant Governor then becomes the Acting Governor and the elected Governor retains the prerogative to attest that he is able to resume the office. If the Governor takes this step, the legislature has 15 days to contest the declaration.

Lastly, the Lieutenant Governor assumes the governorship and serves the remainder of the term if the Governor dies, resigns, or is disqualified while in office.

Nebraska

Nebraska
See also: Governor of Nebraska

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Section 16.

If the governorship becomes vacant for any reason, the Lieutenant Governor and then the Speaker of the Legislature shall succeed. The Governor may also devolve powers to the Lieutenant Governor when the former is absent or temporarily unable to discharge the office.

If a Governor-elect is unable to take the office or is disqualified before being inaugurated, the Lieutenant Governor-elect is inaugurated in his place and served the full term.

Nevada

Nevada
See also: Governor of Nevada

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article 5, Section 18.

Anytime the elected Governor dies, resigns, in impeached, or is temporarily or permanently unable to discharge the office, the powers and duties of the governorship shall devolve to the Lieutenant Governor of Nevada.

The Lieutenant Governor also serves as Acting Governor when the Governor is absent, unless the latter is absent in order to lead the state's militia and has done so with the consent of the legislature, in which case he remains the Governor while actively serving as commander-in-chief.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire
See also: Governor of New Hampshire

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Executive Power, Section 49 and 49a.

The state of New Hampshire lacks an office of the Lieutenant Governor, making the President of the Senate the first officer in the line of succession. At any time she is mentally or physically unable to discharge the office, she shall notify the Secretary of State and the Senate President in writing. By notifying the same two officers again, she shall resume the office.

The Attorney General and a majority of the Executive Council may, when they believe the Governor is mentally or physically unfit to serve but is unable or unwilling to take an absence from the office, may petition the Supreme Court for a declaratory judgment. The justices of the Court shall hear the petition and shall also be in charge of declaring the Governor able to resume his duties.

If, either by written declaration or court judgment, the Governor has been absent for six months, the General Court may, by concurrent resolution, declare the office vacant. Similarly, if a Governor-elect fails to take office for any reason other than death or resignation, the Court may declare the office vacant six months after the inauguration date.

Whatever the reason for the vacancy, if more than one year remains in the current term, a special election shall be held.

After the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House, the Secretary of State, and the State Treasurer are next in the line of succession.

Whoever is filling the office shall have the title of "Acting Governor" and shall have the full powers of the office. She or he receives compensation equal to that of an elected governor and takes no additional oath of office. The Acting Governor does not resign the office she was elected to and is instead suspended from those duties while serving as governor.

New Jersey

New Jersey
See also: Governor of New Jersey

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article V, Section I, paragraph 6.

If the governor's office becomes vacant through resignation, removal, or death, then the Lieutenant Governor succeeds to the office.

If a Governor-elect dies, the Lieutenant Governor-elect takes office as the Governor.

After the Lieutenant Governor, the President of the Senate, followed by the Speaker of the General Assembly complete the Constitutionally prescribed line of succession.

The same line order applies if a Governor is absent or temporarily unable to discharge the office, as well as when the Governor-elect fails to qualify. In such cases, the Acting Governor serves until the absence, disqualification, or illness ends. The Acting Governor shall have all the "functions, powers, duties, and emoluments" of the governor's office.

If the governor has been absent or disqualified for six months, the Supreme Court of New Jersey, upon receipt on a concurrent resolution from the General Assembly, shall declare the office to be vacant.

The office shall be filled by an Acting Governor if less than one year remains in the current term; otherwise a special election is called.

New Mexico

New Mexico
See also: Governor of New Mexico

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 7.

If a Governor-elect dies, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office as the Governor. However, if a Governor-elect fails to qualify, or, for some reason, no one has been elected by Inauguration Day, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office as Acting Governor only until a Governor does qualify.

The Constitution also allows the legislature to set the procedure for a special election if a Governor-elect cannot qualify.

Any temporary or permanent vacancy during a term is filed by the Lieutenant Governor, who has the full powers, duties, and emoluments of the Governor. If the Lieutenant Governor's office is also vacant, the line of succession is the Secretary of State, the President Pro Tem of the Senate, and then the Speaker of the House.

New York

New York
See also: Governor of New York

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Sections 5 and 6.

If a Governor-elect declines to accept the office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office as the Governor and serve the term. If the Governor-elect fails to qualify or is temporarily unable to take the oath, the Lieutenant Governor-elect serves as the Acting Governor until the elected Governor's disability is removed.

The Lieutenant Governor also ascends to the office whenever there is a temporary or permanent vacancy during a Governor's term.

In the event that the Governor dies, resigns, or is removed, then the Lieutenant Governor becomes Governor and serves the remainder of the term.

If the Governor is absent, impeached, or unable to discharge the office, the Lieutenant Governor becomes Acting Governor until the disability is removed or until the term expires.

If both offices are vacant, a special election shall be held at the next general election, provided it is not less than three months from the date both offices became vacant. The office of the lieutenant governor may never be elected without a governor also being elected. If the office of the lieutenant governor alone is vacant, the Senate President Pro Tem serves as the temporary Lieutenant Governor.

In such an instance, the Senate President Pro Tem shall serve as a Temporary Governor, followed by the Speaker of the Assembly.

North Carolina

North Carolina
See also: Governor of North Carolina

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article III, Section 3.

The Lieutenant Governor-elect takes office as the Governor is the Governor-elect fails to qualify. The Lieutenant Governor also takes over as Governor any time the sitting governor dies, resign, or is removed from office.

If the Governor is absent or unable to discharge the office due to mental or physical illness, the Lieutenant Governor becomes the Acting Governor.

If the Governor wishes to declare his temporary or permanent inability to discharge the office, he does so in writing be making a declaration to the Attorney General. The Governor may also resume his office by making a similar written declaration to the Attorney General.

The General Assembly may take a vote and declare, by a two-thirds majority of both chambers, that the Governor is unfit for the office by reason of mental incapacity. The legislature shall then give the Governor notice and hear the case before a joint session. When the legislature is in recess, the General Council may convene for the same purpose and follow the same procedure.

Removing the Governor from office for any other reason must be done as an impeachment.

North Dakota

North Dakota
See also: Governor of North Dakota

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article V, Section 11.

The Lieutenant Governor succeeds to the office whenever the office is vacant for any reason.

If the Lieutenant Governor is unable to serve, the Secretary of State serves as Acting Governor until the vacancy is filled or until the governor's disability is removed.

Additionally, under Article V, Section 10, and Governor who asks for or accepts any bribe automatically forfeits the office.

Ohio

Ohio
See also: Governor of Ohio

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article III, Sections 15, 17, and 22.

If the Governor dies, resigns, is removed, or is convicted on impeachment, the Lieutenant Governor succeeds.

The Lieutenant Governor also serves as the Acting Governor in the event of any temporary disability of the Governor.

After the Lieutenant Governor, the line of succession goes to the President Pro Tem of the Senate and then to the Speaker of the House. Whoever serves as the Acting Governor has the full duties, powers, and emoluments of the elected Governor.

Of the four offices of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, President Pro Tem of the Senate, and Speaker of the House of Representatives, no person may hold two of them simultaneously or receive the compensation and emoluments of more than one office simultaneously.

If both the offices of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor are vacant and there are more than 20 months remaining in the current term, a special election for both offices shall be held at the next general election. The highest officer in the line of succession serves as an Acting Governor until the election.

If a Governor-elect is unable to take office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect takes office and serves as the Governor. If the Governor-elect is only temporarily unable to take office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect serves as Acting Governor until the elected Governor's disability is removed.

If, by a joint resolution, the General Assembly presents the case for the Governor's removal on grounds of mental disability to discharge the office, the Supreme Court of Ohio shall have "original, exclusive, and final, jurisdiction" in the case. Within 21 days of receipt of such a resolution, the Supreme Court shall give notice to the Governor, hold a public hearing, and render a decision.

If the governorship is vacated in such a manner, the Court also has "original, exclusive, and final, jurisdiction" in choosing the manner of succession to the office.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma
See also: Governor of Oklahoma

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article VI, Sections 15 and 16.

In case of impeachment of the governor, or of his death, failure to qualify, resignation, removal from the State, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the office, the said office, with its compensation, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma for the residue of the term or until the disability shall be removed.

Next in the line of succession shall be the President Pro Tem of the Senate and then the Speaker of the House.

If, for any reason, the governor is unable to exercise his powers and discharge the duties of his office and the Lieutenant Governor, President pro tempore of the Senate, and Speaker of the House are unable to act as governor, then the next official in the line of succession becomes the emergency interim successor. As the emergency interim successor to the governor, the officer may exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the governor until a new governor is elected or until the disability is removed from the governor or higher official. In no event, however, shall the emergency interim successor serve as governor.

The authority of an emergency interim successor to the governor may only act after a man-made or natural emergency or disaster has occurred in the United States. The Oklahoma Legislature, by concurrent resolution, may, at any time, terminate the authority of any emergency interim successor to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of the governor.

Oregon

Oregon
See also: Governor of Oregon

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 8a.

The state of Oregon has no formal office of the Lieutenant Governor. Instead, the Secretary of State serves as the ex officio Lieutenant Governor and succeeds the Governor is the latter dies, resigns, is removed from office, or is unable to discharge the office.

After the Secretary of State, the Treasurer, the President Pro Tem of the Senate, and then the Speaker of the House shall follow in the line of succession.

An Acting Governor holds the office until the Governor's disability is removed or until the next biennial election, when a special election shall be held. When the Treasurer or Secretary of State is the Acting Governor, an appointment is made for someone to fill the office of the Treasurer or Secretary of State.

An appointed Treasurer or Secretary of State may not succeed to the elected governorship.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania
See also: Governor of Pennsylvania

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Section 13 and 14.

If the office of Governor becomes vacant through death, resignation, or conviction on impeachment, the Lieutenant Governor becomes Governor for the remainder of the term; if the office is only temporarily vacant due to disability of the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor only acts out the duties of Governor.

Should both offices be vacant, the president pro tempore of the Senate becomes Governor. The position of Lieutenant Governor was created in the 1874 state constitution; prior to then, the Speaker of the Senate would act as governor in cases of vacancy.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island
See also: Governor of Rhode Island

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IX, Sections 9 and 10.

If the office of the Governor becomes vacant by reason of death, resignation, impeachment or inability to serve, the Lieutenant Governor will fill the office until a Governor is qualified to act or until the office is filled at the next election.

If the office of the Lieutenant Governor is also vacant, the Speaker of the House is the next in the line of succession.

South Carolina

South Carolina
See also: Governor of South Carolina

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Sections 6 and 7 and under Article IV, Section 11 and 12

If a Governor-elect dies or declines to take office, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office as the Governor and serve the full term. If the Governor-elect is temporarily unable to take the oath, the Lieutenant Governor-elect takes office as Acting Governor only until the Governor-elect is able to take the oath.

If both the Governor-elect and the Lieutenant Governor-elect are both unable to take office, the gubernatorial powers devolve through the line of succession, subject to the dual-office holding provision of the Constitution.

The Lieutenant Governor is Acting Governor and has the powers to act in an emergency in the event of the temporary absence or disability of the Governor. The Governor declares her temporary or permanent disability to discharge the office in writing to the President Pro Tem of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. In the case of a temporary disability, she also declares her ability to resume the office in the same manner.

If a majority of the officers serving as Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Comptroller General and the State Treasurer transmit, in writing, a declaration to the Senate President Pro Tem and the Speaker of the House, that the Governor is unfit the serve, the Lieutenant Governor shall immediately become the Acting Governor.

The Governor then may declare his declaration to the General Assembly that no such inability exists and will resume the office unless a majority of the members of the Assembly transmit their written declaration to the contrary to the President Pro Tem and the Senate. In that case, the Assembly has 21 days, excluding Sundays, to convene and vote on the issue, requiring a two-thirds vote to remove the Governor.

The Lieutenant Governor also becomes the Acting Governor in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the Governor, and act as Governor during an impeachment until a judgment is rendered in the impeachment trial.

South Dakota

South Dakota
See also: Governor of South Dakota

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article IV, Section 6.

Any time the Governor dies, resigns, is removed or convicted, the Lieutenant Governor succeeds to office with the full powers and duties of the Governor.

If the Governor is absent or unable to discharge the office, the Lieutenant Governor serves as Governor until the disability is removed or for the residue of the term.

In matters of determining that the Governor is continuously absent or unable to discharge for the office, the Supreme Court of South Dakota shall have "original and exclusive jurisdiction."

Tennessee

Tennessee
See also: Governor of Tennessee

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article III, Section 4, Article III, Section 12 and Section 8-2-101 of the Tennessee Code.

When the governorship is vacated less than 18 months into a term, the successor only serves until a special election is held at the next general election. More than 18 moths into a term, the successor completes the remainder of the term.

If the elected Governor dies, resigns, or is removed, the first person in the line of succession is the Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee, who is also the Speaker of the Senate. The next in line is the Speaker of the House.[1]

Texas

Texas
See also: Governor of Texas

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article 4, Section 3a, Article 4, Section 16.

If a Governor-elect dies, resigns or declines to take office, or does not qualify, then the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office and serve as the Governor.

If the Governor, as declared by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, is left temporarily unable to serve, then the Lieutenant Governor shall become Acting Governor until the disability is removed. After that, the line of succession of set legally by the legislature.

The Lieutenant Governor becomes Acting Governor any time the Governor is impeached and serves the remainder of the Governor's term if the Governor dies, resigns, is removed, or refuses to serve.

Anyone serving as Acting Governor forfeits any other elected office, must meet all the Constitutional requirements for the office, and is subject to all the same "restrictions and inhibitions" as the elected Governor.

Utah

Utah
See also: Governor of Utah

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article VII, Section 11:

If a vacancy in the office of Governor occurs, the Lieutenant Governor shall become Governor, to serve until the first Monday in January of the year following the next regular general election after the vacancy occurs, if the vacancy occurs during the first year of the term of office; or for the remainder of the unexpired term, if the vacancy occurs after the first year of the term of office.

In the event of simultaneous vacancies in the offices of governor and lieutenant governor, next in the line of succession is the President of the Senate, whom, while functioning as Governor, shall have the salary and emoluments of the office.

Vermont

Vermont
See also: Governor of Vermont

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Chapter II, Section 24

The Lieutenant Governor becomes Governor anytime the elected Governor is absent or unable to discharge the office and anytime the office is vacant.

The legislature is Constitutionally required to draft laws providing for the line of succession if the Lieutenant Governor's office is also vacant.

Virginia

Virginia
See also: Governor of Virginia

Details of vacancies are addressed under Article V, Section 16.

If a Governor-elect dies, resigns, fails to qualify, or cannot take office for any other reason, the Lieutenant Governor-elect takes office as Governor and serves the full term. If the Governor-elect is only temporarily unable to take the oath, the Lieutenant Governor-elect serves as Acting Governor until the disability is removed.

At any time, a sitting Governor may transmit a written statement to both the President Pro Tem of the Senate and the Speaker of the House that she is temporarily unable to serve, at which time the Lieutenant Governor becomes Acting Governor. The Governor resumes her duties by making a second written declaration to the same two officers.

If the Attorney General, the President Pro Tem of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House are in agreement that the Governor is unable to discharge the office, or when a majority of both chambers of the General Assembly vote on the same, they shall communicate their decision to the Clerks of both the State Senate and the House of Delegates, at which point the Lieutenant Governor immediately becomes the Acting Governor.

The Governor may, in writing, attest to the clerks of both chambers that no such inability exists and resume her duties, unless the same officers who voted to suspend her challenge the declaration in writing with four days. at that points, the General Assembly convenes within 48 hours, if not already in session, and has 21 days to decide that matter, with a three-fourths vote required. If the legislature indeed votes to remove the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor ceases to be the Acting Governor and becomes the Governor. If the vote fails, the Governor immediately resumes her full powers.

The Lieutenant Governor also immediately becomes Governor upon the death, resignation, or disqualification of the Governor.

If, at the time a vacancy occurs, an emergency prevents the Assembly from convening, the preordained line of succession behind the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor is as follows:

  • the Speaker of the House of Delegates
  • the Delegate named to act as the Speaker's stead in the Rules of the House of Delegates
  • the President Pro Tem of the Senate
  • the Majority Leader of the Senate

Such an individual serves as Acting Governor until the General Assembly is able to convene.

The General Assembly also has the discretion to pass a law that waives the eligibility requirements to serve as Governor of Acting Governor. Such a law may only apply in an "emergency or enemy attack upon the soil of Virginia" and only when the Governor or the duly appointed officer has proclaimed an emergency.

Washington

Washington
See also: Governor of Washington

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article III, Section 10.

Whenever the sitting Governor dies, resigns, is removed or impeached, or is unable to discharge the office, the duties shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor. After the Lieutenant Governor, the order of succession is as follows:

If a Governor-elect dies, resigns, declines to take the office, or is disqualified, the Lieutenant Governor-elect shall take office as the Governor. If the Governor-elect is only temporarily unable to take the oath, the Lieutenant Governor-elect serves as Acting Governor until the disability is removed. If both the Governor-elect and the Lieutenant Governor-elect are unable to take the oath, same line of succession listed above applies.

If the Governor dies, resigns, is removed or if the Governor's disability is permanent and more than two years remain in the current term, a special election is held at the next general election, unless the next general election is less than 30 days away, in which case the special election is moved to the following general election.

West Virginia

West Virginia
See also: Governor of West Virginia

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article VII, Section 16.

If a sitting Governor dies, resigns, is removed or impeached, is absent, or is unable to discharge the office, temporarily or permanently, the President of the Senate, who can also use the title of Lieutenant Governor, shall succeed to the office as Acting Governor. The Senate President's use of the title "Lieutenant Governor" is a relatively recent development in the state government of West Virginia. Indeed, the title of lieutenant governor did not exist at all in West Virginia prior to the change in the law which granted the Senate President permission to use both titles.

After the President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor, the Speaker of the House of Delegates is the next in line. If the governorship if vacant and neither of the two aforementioned officers are able to serve, a joint session of the legislature shall vote on an Acting Governor.

The Acting Governor only completes the term when less than one year remains; otherwise a special election is held at the next general election.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin
See also: Governor of Wisconsin

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Sections 7 and 8.

If a sitting Governor dies, resigns, or is removed, the Lieutenant Governor becomes Governor for the remainder of the term.

If a sitting Governor is absent, unable to discharge the office, or impeached, the Lieutenant Governor serves as Acting Governor until the elected Governor returns, recovers, or the impeachment is vacated. The elected Lieutenant Governor may serve as Acting Governor for the remainder of the term.

In either case, if the Lieutenant Governor is unable or unwilling to serve as Acting Governor, the Secretary of State is next in the line of succession.

Wyoming

Wyoming
See also: Governor of Wyoming

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article 4, Section 6.

Wyoming has no office of the lieutenant governor; the Secretary of State serves as an ex officio Lieutenant Governor.

If the sitting Governor dies, resigns, is removed or impeached, is absent, or is temporarily or permanently unable to discharge the office, the Secretary of State shall serve as the Acting Governor for the remainder of the term or until the disability or absence ends.

More analysis

Language length

Contents
1 Main
2 Vacancy procedures across states
3 Find your state
4 More analysis

The exact issues covered and wording used varies with every state. For instance, some states devote less than 100 words to the issue, while others put forth over 1,000. The following graph compares the amount of words each state uses in their state constitution towards governor vacancies.

Governor of AlaskaGovernor of CaliforniaGovernor of NevadaGovernor of IdahoGovernor of WashingtonGovernor of MontanaGovernor of OregonGovernor of WyomingGovernor of UtahGovernor of ArizonaGovernor of New MexicoGovernor of ColoradoGovernor of TexasGovernor of OklahomaGovernor of KansasGovernor of HawaiiGovernor of NebraskaGovernor of South DakotaGovernor of North DakotaGovernor of LouisianaGovernor of ArkansasGovernor of MissouriGovernor of IowaGovernor of MinnesotaGovernor of MississippiGovernor of AlabamaGovernor of TennesseeGovernor of KentuckyGovernor of IndianaGovernor of IllinoisGovernor of WisconsinGovernor of MichiganGovernor of MichiganGovernor of OhioGovernor of FloridaGovernor of GeorgiaGovernor of South CarolinaGovernor of North CarolinaGovernor of VirginiaGovernor of West VirginiaGovernor of PennsylvaniaGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of New YorkGovernor of VermontGovernor of VermontGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of New HampshireGovernor of MissouriGovernor of MassachusettsGovernor of Rhode IslandGovernor of ConnecticutGovernor of New JerseyGovernor of MarylandGovernor of DelawareGovenor Vacancy Word Count.png

Note: The word count is based on the Amendments listed in "How gubernatorial vacancies are filled" chart

Historical Examples of gubernatorial vacancies

Alabama
  • 1993: Governor Harold Guy Hunt is removed from office under charges of ethics violations in his second term. Lieutenant Governor James Elisha Folsom Jr. finishes Folsom's term as Governor. [2][3]
  • 1972: Governor George Corley Wallace was shot and paralyzed in an assassination attempt during a campaign for U.S. President. While being treated in a hospital, his absence from the state for more than 20 days invokes a constitutional amendment that his Lieutenant Governor Jere Beasley Sr. serve in his place. Beasley acts as governor for 32 days before Wallace returns to duty. Wallace would continue to be governor until 1979, and later serve from 1983-1987. [4][5]
  • 1967: Governor Lurleen Burns Wallace, wife of George Corley Wallace dies of cancer a little over a year into her first term. Her Lieutenant Governor, Albert Preston Brewer, finishes her term as governor.[6][7]
Alaska
  • 2009: Governor Sarah Palin resigns 2.5 years into her first term, and her Lieutenant Governor Sean Parnell is sworn in.[8]
  • 1969: Governor Walter J. Hickel resigns from office after being appointed Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior under President Richard Nixon. Secretary of the State Keith H. Miller finishes out Hickel's term as Governor.[9][10]
Arizona
  • 2009: Governor Janet Napolitano resigns from office to take the position as Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Secretary of State of Jan Brewer finishes Napolitano's term, and then elected to office in 2010.[11][12]
Arkansas
  • 1996: Governor Jim Guy Tucker, who first become governor in 1992 to finish President Bill Clinton's term, resigned from office after being convicted of fraud. Lieutenant Governor Mike Huckabee finish Tucker's term as Governor before being reelected in 1998.[13][14][15]
California
  • 1953: Governor Earl Warren resigned from office to take an appointment to U.S. Supreme Court by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lieutenant Governor Goodwin Jess Knight finishes Warren's term before being reelected in 1954.[16][17]
Colorado
  • 1973: Governor John Arthur Love resigns from office to become Director of the Office of Energy Policy for President Richard M. Nixon. Lieutenant Governor John D. Vanderhoof finishes Love's term of office as Governor.[18][19]
Connecticut
  • 2004: Governor John G. Rowland resigns from office amidst accusations of ethics violations. Lieutenant Governor Mary Jodi Rell finishes Rowland's term of governor before being reelected in 2006.[20][21]
Delaware
  • 1992: Governor Michael Newbold Castle, seeking remain in public office but avoid state term limits on Governor, resigns from office to take a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. At the same time U.S. House of Representatives Thomas R. Carper is elected to be Governor, leading to an essential "swap" in public office positions between the two men. In the three week time between the Castle's resignation and Carper's inauguration, Castle's Lieutenant Governor Dale Edward Wolf become governor.[22][23][24][25]
Florida
  • 1998: Governor Lawton Chiles dies of a heart attack three weeks before the end of his term. Chiles' Lieutenant Governor Kenneth Hood Mackay Jr. finished the term as governor.[26][27]
Georgia
  • 1947: Governor-Elect Eugene Talmadge dies before he can take office. His son and future U.S. Senator, Herman Eugene Talmadge, assumes the governorship in his stead for 67 days before the Georgia Supreme Court rules the unconstitutionality of Herman's election. Under the court's ruling, Eugene's Lieutenant Governor Melvin Ernest Thompson becomes governor until Herman is official elected to the position in a state special election a year and a half later.[28][29]
Hawaii
  • 1973: Three term Governor John Anthony Burns falls ill and his Lieutenant Governor, George Ryoichi Ariyoshi assumes the role of "Acting Governor." Ariyoshi would the be elected 1974 as America's first Japanese-American Governor, and remain in office until 1986.[30][31][32]
Idaho
  • 2006: Governor Dirk Kempthorne resigns to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Kempthorne's Lieutenant Governor, James E. Risch, finishes finishes the last nine months of the term.[33][34]
Illinois
  • 2009: Governor Rod R. Blagojevich is impeached and removed from governorship. Blagojevich's Lieutenant Governor, Pat Quinn is sworn into office, and is then reelected a year later.[35][36]
Indiana
Iowa
  • 1969: Governor Harold Everett Hughes resigns from office to take a position as U.S. Senator. Hughes' Lieutenant Governor, Robert David Fulton, finishes the remaining year of the term.[38][39]
Kansas
  • 2009: Governor Kathleen Sebelius resigns to take a position as Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Under President Barack Obama. Sebelius' Lieutenant Governor Mark Parkinson finished the remaining eight months of the term as Governor.[40][41]
Kentucky
  • 1950: Governor Earle Chester Clements resigns to take a seat on the U.S. Senate. His Lieutenant Governor, Lawrence Winchester Wetherby, finished the remaining year of the term before being reelected in 1951.[42][43]
  • 1862: Governor Beriah Magoffin resigns from office over disagreements with the state's Legislature on the state's position in the Civil War. Lacking a Lieutenant Governor to replace Magoffin, state Senate President James Fisher Robinson was chosen to assume duties of Governor. Robinson remained in office for a little over a year.[44][45]
Louisiana
  • 1939: Governor Richard Webster Leche resigns from office over scandal. His Lieutenant Governor, Earl Kemp Long, assumes office for the remaining 11 months of the term before failing in a re-election bid. Long would eventually serve two separate terms of governor.[46][47]
Minnesota
  • 1976: Governor Wendell Richard Anderson causes an outcry by resigning from office and leaving it to Lieutenant Governor Rudolph George Perpich, who, upon becoming Governor, would then turn around and appoint Anderson into a vacant U.S. Senate seat the following day.[48][49]
Mississippi
  • 1946: Two and a half years into his term, Governor Thomas Lowry Bailey becomes ill and passes away. Lieutenant Governor Fielding Lewis Wright would assume the governor's duties, and was subsequently elected in a special race the following.[50][51]
Missouri
  • 2000: Missouri Governor Mel Carnahan, while campaigning for U.S. Senate against John Ashcroft, dies in a plane crash with his son Randy and his campaign advisor Chris Sifford. Lieutenant Governor Roger B. Wilson is sworn in as governor and finishes out the remaining three months of Gov. Carahan's term.[52][53]
Montana
  • 1962: Governor Donald Grant Nutter dies in a plane crash and the office is passed over to Lieutenant Governor Tim M. Babcock.[54][55]
Nebraska
  • 2005: Governor Mike Johanns resigns to take the position of U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. Lieutenant Governor Dave Heineman finishes Johanns term before being reelected in 2006.[56][57]
Nevada
  • 1945: Governor Edward Peter Carville resigns to take a seat as U.S. Senator. Lieutenant Governor Vail Montgomery Pittman assumed the gubernatorial duties before being reelected in 1946 for a full term.[58][59]
New Hampshire
  • 1982: Eight days before the end of his term, Governor Hugh J. Gallen dies of a rare blood infection. During the short period before Governor-elect John Sununu could take office, President of the New Hampshire Senate Vesta Roy served as acting governor.[60]
New Jersey
  • 2002: After Governor Christine Todd Whitman resigned in 2001 to become head of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Senate President Donald T. DiFrancesco is named Acting Governor. However, in early 2002, with the change of the Senate, DiFrancesco term ends several days short of the appointment of Governor-elect James E. McGreevey. For a period of several days, Co-Senate President Richard J. Codey and John O. Bennett share the duty of Acting Governor.[61][62][63]
New Mexico
  • 1962: Governor Edwin Leard Mechem resigns to take a seat on the U.S. Senate. Lieutenant Governor Thomas Felix Bolack finishes the last month of Mechem's term.[64][65]
New York
North Carolina
  • 1954: Governor William Bradley Umstead contracts pneumonia and dies in office. Lieutenant Governor Luther Hartwell Hodges finishes the remainder of the term and is then reelected in 1956.[68][69]
North Dakota
  • 2010: Governor John Hoeven resigns after ten years in office to take a seat in the U.S. Senate. His long term Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple is sworn in in Hoeven's place.[70][71]
Ohio
  • 1998: Governor George V. Voinovich resigns eleven days short of the end of term to take a seat in the U.S. Senate. Lieutenant Governor Nancy P. Hollister finishes short term as Ohio's first female Governor.[72][73]
Oklahoma
  • 1963: Governor J. Howard Edmondson resigns several days short of the end of his term to take a seat on the U.S. Senate. Lieutenant Governor George Patterson Nigh would fill the role for the term before Governor-elect Henry Louis Bellmon could take office. Nigh would end up continue his duties as a Lieutenant Governor until finally winning the governorship in 1978.[74]
Oregon
  • 1956: Governor Paul Linton Patterson dies of a heart attack while in office. Then-Senate President Elmo Everett Smith assumed the role of Governor for the remainder of Patterson's term, but lost in the following Gubernatorial election.[75][76]
Pennsylvania
  • 2001: In response to the attacks on September 11th, Governor Tom Ridge resigned to become head of the nation's new Office of Homeland Security. Lieutenant Governor Mark Schweiker finished the remainder of Ridge's term as Governor.[77][78]
Rhode Island
  • 1950 Governor John Orlando Pastore, who had first assumed office upon the resignation of Governor James McGrath to become U.S. Solicitor General in 1945, resigns several days short of his term to become a U.S. Senator. Lieutenant Governor John Sammon McKiernan acts as caretaker governor until Governor-elect Dennis Joseph Roberts is inaugurated.[79][80]
South Carolina
  • 1965: Governor Donald Stuart Russell is appointed to the U.S. Senate upon the death of U.S. Senator Olin Johnston. Lieutenant Governor Robert Evander McNair took Russell's position, and in 1966 was reelected Governor.[81][82]
South Dakota
  • 1994: Governor George S. Mickelson died in plane crash while on a trip to promote economic development during his second term in office. Lieutenant Governor Walter D. Miller finished out the remaining year and a half of Mickelson's term.[83][84][85]
Tennessee
  • 1927: Governor Austin Peay III died of a cerebral hemorrhage early into his third two-year term. Speaker of the Senate Henry Hollis Horton was selected to replace Peay, before being reelected to the governorship in 1928 and 1930.[86][87]
Texas
  • 2000: Governor George W. Bush, having been elected President of the United States, resigned from office. Lieutenant Governor Rick Perry finished Bush's term before being reelected in 2002, 2006, and again in 2010.[88][89]
Utah
  • 2009: Utah Governor Jon Huntsman Jr. resigns resigns less than a year after winning his re-election to take the position of U.S Ambassador to China. Lieutenant Governor Gary R. Herbert takes Huntsman's position.[90][91]
Vermont
  • 1900: Eight months into his fifth term as Governor, Richard A. Snelling dies in office. Lieutenant Governor Howard Dean finishes Snelling term and is reelected in 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000.[92][93]
Virgina
  • 1869: Henry Horatio Wells, having been appointed Provisional Governor at the end of the Civil War, after failing in a bid to be reelected, he resigns three months early. The Governor-elect Gilbert Carlton Walker started three months early as Provisional Governor in Wells stead.[94][95]
Washington
  • 1919: Governor Ernest Lister becomes ill during his second term and hands the office over to his Lieutenant Governor Louis Folwell Hart. Hart would win re-election in 1920.[96][97]
West Virgina
  • 2010: Governor Joe Manchin resigns after winning a special election for the U.S. Senate seat held by the late-Robert C. Byrd. Lieutenant Governor Earl Ray Tomblin then takes Manchin's position.[98][99]
Wisconsin
  • 2001: Governor Tommy G. Thompson resigns after being appointed Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services by President George W. Bush. Thompson's Lieutenant Governor Scott McCallum becomes Governor, but fails in a re-election bid later than year to Governor Jim Doyle.[100][101]
Wyoming
  • 1931: Governor Frank Collins Emerson dies two months into his second term, and is replaced by Secretary of State Alonzo M. Clark. Clark would lose the following gubernatorial election and result his position as Secretary of State.[102][103]

References

  1. Lexis-Nexis, "Tenn. Code Ann. § 8-2-101," accessed December 28, 2012
  2. National Governors Association, Alaska Governor Harold Guy Hunt
  3. National Governors Association, Alabama Governor James Elisha Folsom Jr.
  4. National Governors Association, Alabama Governor George Corley Wallace
  5. Encyclopedia of Alabama, Jere Beasley Sr. (1972)
  6. National Governors Association, Alabama Governor Lurleen Burns Wallace
  7. National Governors Association, Alabama Governor Albert Preston Brewer
  8. National Governors Association, Alaska Governor Sean Parnell
  9. National Governors Association, Alaska Governor Walter J. Hickel
  10. National Governors Association, Alaska Governor Walter J. Hickel
  11. National Governors Association, Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano
  12. National Governors Association, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer
  13. National Governors Association, Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker
  14. National Governors Association, Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee
  15. Chicago Tribune, "Fox Contributor", June 12, 2008
  16. National Governors Association, California Governor Earl Warren
  17. National Governors Association, California Governor Goodwin Jess Knight
  18. National Governors Association, Colorado Governor John Arthur Love
  19. National Governors Association, Colorado Governor John D. Vanderhoof
  20. National Governors Association, Connecticut Governor John G. Rowland
  21. National Governors Association, Connecticut Governor M. Jodi Rell
  22. National Governors Association, Delaware Governor Michael Newbold Castle
  23. National Governors Association, Delaware Governor Dale Edward Wolf
  24. National Governors Association, Delaware Governor Thomas R. Carper
  25. The News, Delaware congressman, governor want to swap jobs, July 6, 1992
  26. National Governors Association, Florida Governor Lawton Chiles
  27. National Governors Association Florida Governor Kenneth Hood Mackay Jr.
  28. National Governors Association, Georgia Governor Herman Eugene Talmadge
  29. National Governors Association, Georgia Governor Melvin Ernest Thompson
  30. National Governors Association, Hawaii Governor John Anthony Burns
  31. National Governors Association, Hawaii Governor George Ryoichi Ariyoshi
  32. The Lewiston Daily Sun, 1st Governor of Japanese Ancestry Gets Big Chance - Apr 3, 1974
  33. National Governors Association, Idaho Governor Dirk Kempthorne
  34. National Governors Association, Idaho Governor James E. Risch
  35. National Governors Association, Illinois Governor Rod R. Blagojevich
  36. National Governors Association, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn
  37. The New York Times, Indiana Governor's Death Leaves Ally in Command Sept. 14, 2003
  38. National Governors Association, Iowa Governor Harold Everett Hughes
  39. National Governors Association, Iowa Governor Robert David Fulton
  40. National Governors Association, Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius
  41. National Governors Association, Kansas Governor Mark Parkinson
  42. National Governors Association, Kentucky Governor Earle Chester Clements
  43. National Governors Association, Kentucky Governor Lawrence Winchester Wetherby
  44. National Governors Association, Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin
  45. National Governors Association, Kentucky Governor James Fisher Robinson
  46. National Governors Association, Louisiana Governor Richard Webster Leche
  47. National Governors Association, Louisiana Governor Earl Kemp Long
  48. National Governors Association, Minnesota Governor Wendell Richard Anderson
  49. National Governors Association, Minnesota Governor Rudolph George Perpich
  50. National Governors Association, Mississippi Governor Thomas Lowry Bailey
  51. National Governors Association, Mississippi Governor Fielding Lewis Wright
  52. Missouri State Treasurer, Mel Carnahan 40th State Treasurer: 1981-1985
  53. National Governors Association, Missouri Governor Roger B. Wilson
  54. National Governors Association, Montana Governor Donald Grant Nutter
  55. National Governors Association, Montana Governor Tim M. Babcock
  56. National Governors Association, Nebraska Governor Mike Johanns
  57. National Governors Association, Nebraska Governor Dave Heineman
  58. National Governors Association, Nevada Governor Edward Peter Carville
  59. National Governors Association, Nevada Governor Vail Montgomery Pittman
  60. National Governors Association, New Hampshire Governor Hugh J. Gallen
  61. National Governors Association, New Jersey Governor Donald T. DiFrancesco
  62. National Governors Association, New Jersey Governor Richard J. Codey
  63. National Governors Association, New Jersey Governor John O. Bennett
  64. National Governors Association, New Mexico Governor Edwin Leard Mechem
  65. National Governors Association, New Mexico Governor Thomas Felix Bolack
  66. National Governors Association, New York Governor Eliot Spitzer
  67. National Governors Association, New York Governor David A. Paterson
  68. National Governors Association, North Carolina Governor William Bradley Umstead
  69. National Governors Association, North Carolina Governor Luther Hartwell Hodges
  70. National Governors Association, North Dakota Governor John Hoeven
  71. National Governors Association, North Dakota Governor Jack Dalrymple
  72. National Governors Association, Ohio Governor George V. Voinovich
  73. National Governors Association, Ohio Governor Nancy P. Hollister
  74. National Governors Association, Oklahoma Governor George Patterson Nigh
  75. National Governors Association, Oregon Governor Paul Linton Patterson
  76. National Governors Association, Oregon Governor Elmo Everett Smith
  77. National Governors Association, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge
  78. National Governors Association, Pennsylvania Governor Mark Schweiker
  79. National Governors Association, Rhode Island Governor John Orlando Pastore
  80. National Governors Association, Rhode Island Governor John Sammon McKiernan
  81. National Governors Association, South Carolina Governor Donald Stuart Russell
  82. National Governors Association, South Carolina Governor Robert Evander McNair
  83. The New York Times, Crash Kills George S. Mickelson; South Dakota's Governor Was 52, April 20, 1993
  84. National Governors Association, South Dakota Governor George S. Mickelson
  85. National Governors Association, South Dakota Governor Walter D. Miller
  86. National Governors Association, Tennessee Governor Austin Peay III
  87. National Governors Association, Tennessee Governor Henry Hollis Horton
  88. National Governors Association, Texas Governor George W. Bush
  89. National Governors Association, Texas Governor Rick Perry
  90. National Governors Association, Utah Governor Jon Huntsman Jr.
  91. National Governors Association, Utah Governor Gary Richard Herbert
  92. National Governors Association, Vermont Governor Richard A. Snelling
  93. National Governors Association, Vermont Governor Howard Dean M.D.
  94. National Governors Association, Virginia Governor Henry Horatio Wells
  95. National Governors Association, Virginia Governor Gilbert Carlton Walker
  96. National Governors Association, Washington Governor Ernest Lister
  97. National Governors Association, Washington Governor Louis Folwell Hart
  98. National Governors Association, West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin III
  99. National Governors Association, West Virginia Governor Earl Ray Tomblin
  100. National Governors Association, Wisconsin Governor Tommy G. Thompson
  101. National Governors Association, Wisconsin Governor Scott McCallum
  102. National Governors Association, Wyoming Governor Frank Collins Emerson
  103. National Governors Association, Wyoming Governor Alonzo M. Clark