Difference between revisions of "Illinois House of Representatives"

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The [[Primary election dates in 2010|signature-filing deadline]] for candidates wishing to run in these elections was November 2, 2009, and the primary election day was February 2, 2010.
 
The [[Primary election dates in 2010|signature-filing deadline]] for candidates wishing to run in these elections was November 2, 2009, and the primary election day was February 2, 2010.
  
In 2010, the total amount of contributions raised in state house elections was $50,734,623.  The top 10 contributors were: <ref>[http://www.followthemoney.org/database/StateGlance/state_candidates.phtml?s=IL&y=2010&f=H ''Follow the Money'': "Illinois House 2010 Campaign Contributions"]</ref>
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In 2010, the total amount of contributions raised in state house elections was $50,734,623.  The top 10 contributors were:<ref>[http://www.followthemoney.org/database/StateGlance/state_candidates.phtml?s=IL&y=2010&f=H ''Follow the Money'': "Illinois House 2010 Campaign Contributions"]</ref>
  
 
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Revision as of 18:39, 10 March 2014

Illinois House of Representatives

Seal of Illinois.png
General Information
Type:   Lower house
Term limits:   None
2014 session start:   January 29, 2014
Website:   Official House Page
Leadership
House Speaker:  Michael Madigan, (D)
Majority Leader:   Barbara Flynn Currie, (D)
Minority leader:   Jim Durkin, (R)
Structure
Members:  118
  
Length of term:   2 years
Authority:   Art IV, Illinois Constitution
Salary:   $67,836/year + per diem
Elections
Last Election:  November 6, 2012 (118 seats)
Next election:  November 4, 2014 (118 seats)
Redistricting:  General Assembly First Draws, Commission Acts as Back-Up.
The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly, the state legislature of Illinois. The body was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The state House of Representatives is made of 118 representatives elected from individual legislative districts for a two-year term with no limits. In contrast, the Illinois State Senate is made of 59 senators with staggered two- or four-year terms. Each member represents an average of 105,248 residents, as of the 2000 Census.[1]

Illinois Ballot Question 1 in 1980 altered Section 1 of Article IV of the Illinois Constitution to reduce the number of members of the Illinois House of Representatives from 177 members to 118 members beginning with the elections in 1982.

As of December 2014, Illinois is one of 14 Democratic state government trifectas.

Sessions

Article IV of the Illinois Constitution establishes when the Illinois General Assembly, of which the House is a part, is to be in session. Section 5 of Article IV states that the General Assembly will convene its regular session on the second Wednesday of January.

Section 5 also creates rules for the convening of special sessions. The section allows the Governor of Illinois to convene the General Assembly or the Senate alone. When the Governor calls a special session, the General Assembly can generally only deal with matters related to the purpose of the session, as stated by the Governor's proclamation of the session, but they can also deal with impeachments or confirmation of appointments. Section 5 also allows the presiding officers of both houses of the General Assembly to convene a special session through joint proclamation.

2014

See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions

In 2014, the Legislature will be in session from January 29 through May 31.

Major issues

Major issues during the 2014 legislative session include the pending expiration of a temporary income tax, corporate tax incentives, Chicago pension reform and capital construction.[2]

2013

See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions

In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 9 through May 31.

Major issues

Major issues during the 2013 legislative session included regulation of horizontal hydraulic fracturing, concealed carry, same-sex marriage, and pension reform.[3][4][5][6]

2012

See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions

In 2012, the House was in session from January 11, meeting throughout the year.

2011

See also: Dates of 2011 state legislative sessions

In 2011, the House was in session from January 12-June 1. A special session has been called by Governor Pat Quinn to settle disputes regarding Illinois construction projects. The session is slated to begin June 22, 2011.[7]

2010

See also: Dates of 2010 state legislative sessions

In 2010, the House was in regular session from January 13th to May 7th.

Ethics and transparency

Open States Transparency

See also: Open States' Legislative Data Report Card

The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Illinois was given a grade of C in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.[8]

Elections

2014

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2014

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives took place in 2014. A primary election took place on March 18, 2014. The general election was held on November 4, 2014. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was December 2, 2013.

2012

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2012

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives were held in Illinois on November 6, 2012. All 118 seats were up for election.

The signature filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in these elections was December 5, 2011. Petitions can be circulated starting on September 6, 2011.[9] The primary election day was March 20, 2012.

The following table details the 10 districts with the smallest margin of victory in the November 6 general election.

2010

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2010

Elections for the office of Illinois State House were held in Illinois on November 2, 2010. House seats in all 118 districts are up for election in 2010.

The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in these elections was November 2, 2009, and the primary election day was February 2, 2010.

In 2010, the total amount of contributions raised in state house elections was $50,734,623. The top 10 contributors were:[10]

2008

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2008

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives consisted of a primary election on February 5, 2008, and a general election on November 4, 2008.

During the 2008 election, the total contributions to House candidates was $42,866,912. The top 10 contributors were:[11]

2006

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2006

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives consisted of a primary election on March 21, 2006, and a general election on November 7, 2006.

During the 2006 election, the total contributions to House candidates was $38,897,487. The top 10 contributors were:[12]

2004

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2004

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives consisted of a primary election on March 16, 2004, and a general election on November 2, 2004.

During the 2004 election, the total contributions to House candidates was $36,703,698. The top 10 contributors were:[13]

2002

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2002

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives consisted of a primary election on March 19, 2002, and a general election on November 5, 2002.

During the 2002 election, the total contributions to House candidates was $35,823,142. The top 10 contributors were:[14]

2000

See also: Illinois House of Representatives elections, 2000

Elections for the office of Illinois House of Representatives consisted of a primary election on March 21, 2000, and a general election on November 7, 2000.

During the 2000 election, the total contributions to House candidates was $35,659,714. The top 10 contributors were:[15]

Qualifications

Article IV of the Illinois Constitution states: To be eligible to serve as a member of the General Assembly, a person must be a United States citizen, at least 21 years old, and for the two years preceding his election or appointment a resident of the district which he is to represent.

Vacancies

See also: How vacancies are filled in state legislatures
How Vacancies are filled in State Legislatures
NevadaMassachusettsColoradoNew MexicoWyomingArizonaMontanaCaliforniaOregonWashingtonIdahoTexasOklahomaKansasNebraskaSouth DakotaNorth DakotaMinnesotaIowaMissouriArkansasLouisianaMississippiAlabamaGeorgiaFloridaSouth CarolinaIllinoisWisconsinTennesseeNorth CarolinaIndianaOhioKentuckyPennsylvaniaNew JerseyNew YorkVermontVermontNew HampshireMaineWest VirginiaVirginiaMarylandMarylandConnecticutConnecticutDelawareDelawareRhode IslandRhode IslandMassachusettsNew HampshireMichiganMichiganAlaskaVacancy fulfillment map.png

Whenever there is a vacancy in the House, the state constitution mandates that the seat must be filled by appointment when allowed by law. The appointment must be made within 30 days after the vacancy. All vacancies must be filled by a member of the same political party that last held the seat.[16]

The vacancy must be filled by the respective party organizations covering the legislative district.[17] This must be voted on by the respective committeemen and committeewomen representing the legislative district.[18]

Redistricting

See also: Redistricting in Illinois

The Illinois General Assembly is responsible for redistricting. If the General Assembly fails to meet the deadlines to have a redistricting plan in place, an 8 member back-up commission is used. Illinois is one of a few states to enact a hybrid method of redistricting.

2010 census

Illinois received its 2010 local census data on February 14, 2011. The state population increased from about 12.4 million to 12.8 million residents, a 3.3 percent growth.[19] The state's Latino population grew by 33% from 2000 to 2010, reaching 2 million. Meanwhile, non-Latino population declined by 0.8%.[20]

2011 was the first time under the current state Constitution that one party -- namely the Democrats -- controlled the state House, Senate and governorship during redistricting. A number of Republicans expressed concern that Democrats would draw partisan maps to serve their own interests.[21]

Democrats released proposed maps of the 118 House districts on May 20, but initially offered few details. Democrats defended the new maps while being criticized from nearly all sides. Lack of data and the time to digest it angered transparency advocates, while Republicans were unhappy that the new districts would position over a dozen Republican incumbents against one another. Democrats were also criticized for creating a number of snaking districts that begin in Chicago and wind their way out into the suburbs.[22]

Republicans released their counter-proposal on May 26, saying their map was fairer than the Democrats.[23] The Democrats plan passed the House 64-52.[24] Gov. Pat Quinn signed the bill on June 3,[25][26] but GOP leaders filed a federal lawsuit on July 21 alleging the legislative maps unfairly targeted Republicans and discriminated against African-Americans and Hispanics. It was ultimately dismissed.[27]

Representatives

Salaries

See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries

As of 2013, members of the Illinois House of Representatives are paid $67,836/year. Additionally, legislators receive $111/day per diem.[28]

When sworn in

See also: When state legislators assume office after a general election

Illinois legislators assume office the second Wednesday in January.

Majority control

See also: Partisan composition of state houses
Party As of December 2014
     Democratic Party 70
     Republican Party 46
     Vacancy 2
Total 118


The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Illinois State House of Representatives from 1992-2013.
Partisan composition of the Illinois State House.PNG

Leadership

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the body and is elected by its full membership. Duties of the Speaker include preserving order and decorum, deciding all points of order, signing all bills and acts of the House, and appointing all chairs, co-chairs, and vice chairs of committees, as well as appointing all majority caucus members of committees. The Minority Leader appoints all minority caucus members to committees.[29][30]

Current leadership

Current Leadership, Illinois House of Representatives
Office Representative Party
State Speaker of the House Michael Madigan Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Leader Barbara Flynn Currie Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Deputy Majority Leader Lou Lang Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Deputy Majority Leader Frank J. Mautino Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Edward Acevedo Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Daniel J. Burke Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Sara Feigenholtz Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Charles E. Jefferson Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Elaine Nekritz Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader John E. Bradley Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Al Riley Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Arthur Turner Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Conference Chairman Vacant Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Minority Leader Jim Durkin Ends.png Republican
State House Deputy Minority Leader David R. Leitch Ends.png Republican
State House Deputy Minority Leader Timothy L. Schmitz Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Dan Brady Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Chad D. Hays Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Bill Mitchell Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader JoAnn D. Osmond Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Dennis Reboletti Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Michael W. Tryon Ends.png Republican
Republican Caucus Chairman Mike Bost Ends.png Republican

Current members

Current members, Illinois House of Representatives
District Representative Party Assumed office
1 Daniel Burke Electiondot.png Democratic 1991
2 Edward J. Acevedo Electiondot.png Democratic 1997
3 Luis Arroyo Electiondot.png Democratic 2006
4 Cynthia Soto Electiondot.png Democratic 2006
5 Kenneth Dunkin Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
6 Esther Golar Electiondot.png Democratic 2006
7 Chris Welch Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
8 LaShawn Ford Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
9 Arthur Turner II Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
10 Derrick Smith Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
11 Ann M. Williams Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
12 Sara Feigenholtz Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
13 Greg Harris Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
14 Kelly Cassidy Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
15 John D'Amico Electiondot.png Democratic 2005
16 Lou Lang Electiondot.png Democratic 1987
17 Laura Fine Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
18 Robyn Gabel Electiondot.png Democratic 2010
19 Robert F. Martwick, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
20 Michael P. McAuliffe Ends.png Republican 1997
21 Silvana Tabares Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
22 Michael J. Madigan Electiondot.png Democratic 1971
23 Michael Zalewski Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
24 Elizabeth Hernandez Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
25 Barbara Flynn Currie Electiondot.png Democratic 1979
26 Christian Mitchell Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
27 Monique D. Davis Electiondot.png Democratic 1987
28 Robert Rita Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
29 Thaddeus Jones Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
30 William Davis Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
31 Mary E. Flowers Electiondot.png Democratic 1985
32 Andre Thapedi Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
33 Marcus Evans Electiondot.png Democratic 2012
34 Elgie Sims Electiondot.png Democratic 2012
35 Frances Ann Hurley Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
36 Kelly M. Burke Electiondot.png Democratic 2001
37 Renee Kosel Ends.png Republican 1997
38 Al Riley Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
39 Maria Antonia Berrios Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
40 Jaime Andrade Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
41 Darlene Senger Ends.png Republican 2009
42 Jeanne M. Ives Ends.png Republican 2013
43 Keith Farnham Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
44 Fred Crespo Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
45 Dennis Reboletti Ends.png Republican 2007
46 Deborah O'Keefe Conroy Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
47 Patricia R. Bellock Ends.png Republican 1999
48 Sandra M. Pihos Ends.png Republican 2003
49 Mike Fortner Ends.png Republican 2007
50 Kay Hatcher Ends.png Republican 2009
51 Ed Sullivan, Jr. Ends.png Republican 2003
52 David McSweeney Ends.png Republican 2013
53 David Harris Ends.png Republican 2011
54 Thomas R. Morrison Ends.png Republican 2011
55 Martin J. Moylan Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
56 Michelle Mussman Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
57 Elaine Nekritz Electiondot.png Democratic 2001
58 Scott Drury Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
59 Carol Sente Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
60 Rita Mayfield Electiondot.png Democratic 2010
61 JoAnn D. Osmond Ends.png Republican 2003
62 Sam Yingling Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
63 Jack D. Franks Electiondot.png Democratic 1999
64 Barbara Wheeler Ends.png Republican 2013
65 Timothy L. Schmitz Ends.png Republican 1999
66 Michael W. Tryon Ends.png Republican 2005
67 Charles E. Jefferson Electiondot.png Democratic 2001
68 John M. Cabello Ends.png Republican 2012
69 Joe Sosnowski Ends.png Republican 2011
70 Robert W. Pritchard Ends.png Republican 2003
71 Mike Smiddy Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
72 Patrick J. Verschoore Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
73 David R. Leitch Ends.png Republican 1989
74 Donald L. Moffitt Ends.png Republican 1993
75 John D. Anthony Ends.png Republican 2013
76 Frank J. Mautino Electiondot.png Democratic 1991
77 Kathleen Willis Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
78 Camille Y. Lilly Electiondot.png Democratic 2010
79 Katherine Cloonen Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
80 Anthony DeLuca Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
81 Ron Sandack Ends.png Republican 2013
82 Jim Durkin Ends.png Republican 2006
83 Linda Chapa LaVia Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
84 Stephanie Kifowit Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
85 Emily McAsey Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
86 Lawrence Walsh Electiondot.png Democratic 2012
87 Rich Brauer Ends.png Republican 2003
88 Keith Sommer Ends.png Republican 1999
89 Brian Stewart Ends.png Republican 2013
90 Tom Demmer Ends.png Republican 2013
91 Michael D. Unes Ends.png Republican 2011
92 Jehan Gordon-Booth Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
93 Norine Hammond Ends.png Republican 2010
94 Jil Tracy Ends.png Republican 2006
95 Wayne Arthur Rosenthal Ends.png Republican 2011
96 Sue Scherer Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
97 Tom Cross Ends.png Republican 1993
98 Natalie Manley Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
99 Raymond Poe Ends.png Republican 1995
100 C.D. Davidsmeyer Ends.png Republican 2012
101 Bill Mitchell Ends.png Republican 1999
102 Adam M. Brown Ends.png Republican 2011
103 Naomi D. Jakobsson Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
104 Chad D. Hays Ends.png Republican 2011
105 Dan Brady Ends.png Republican 2001
106 Josh Harms Ends.png Republican 2013
107 John Cavaletto Ends.png Republican 2009
108 Charles E. Meier Ends.png Republican 2013
109 David Reis Ends.png Republican 2005
110 Brad Halbrook Ends.png Republican 2012
111 Daniel V. Beiser Electiondot.png Democratic 2004
112 Dwight D. Kay Ends.png Republican 2011
113 Jay Hoffman Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
114 Eddie Lee Jackson Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
115 Mike Bost Ends.png Republican 1995
116 Jerry Costello Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
117 John E. Bradley Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
118 Brandon W. Phelps Electiondot.png Democratic 2003

Standing committees

The Illinois House has 45 standing committees for the 2011-2012 session.[31]

History

Partisan balance 1992-2013

Who Runs the States Project
See also: Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States and Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States, Illinois
Partisan breakdown of the Illinois legislature from 1992-2013

From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Illinois State House of Representatives for 20 years while the Republicans were the majority for 2 years. The Illinois State House of Representatives is one of 18 state Houses that was Democratic for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. During the final 11 years of the study, Illinois was under Democratic trifectas.

Across the country, there were 577 Democratic and 483 Republican State Houses of Representatives from 1992 to 2013.

Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states have divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.

The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Office of the Governor of Illinois, the Illinois State Senate and the Illinois House of Representatives from 1992-2013. Partisan composition of Illinois state government(1992-2013).PNG

SQLI and partisanship

Illinois was one of eight states to demonstrate a dramatic partisan shift in the 22 years studied. A dramatic shift was defined by a movement of 40 percent or more toward one party over the course of the study period.

The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Illinois state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. For a period of two years (1995 and 1996), Illinois had a Republican trifecta between two periods of divided government (1992-1995 and 1997-2002). Between 2003 and 2013, Illinois has had a Democratic trifecta. For four straight years, Illinois was in the top-10 in the SQLI ranking between 1997 and 2000 under divided government. Illinois slipped into the bottom-10 in the ranking in the year 2012 (41st) under a Democratic trifecta. The state had its most precipitous drop in the SQLI ranking between 2006 and 2007, dropping nine spots. Illinois had its biggest leap in the SQLI ranking between 1996 and 1997, rising eight spots in the ranking.

  • SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 27.10
  • SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 11.50
  • SQLI average with divided government: 11.78
Chart displaying the partisanship of Illinois government from 1992-2013 and the State Quality of Life Index (SQLI).

External links

References

  1. Population in 2000 of the American states, Accessed November 27, 2013
  2. dailyjournal.net, "Illinois lawmakers focus on budget issues with election-year legislative session set to begin," January 19, 2014
  3. Chicago Sun-Times, "Lame-duck session ends with no pension reform," January 8, 2013
  4. mymoinfo.com, "MAY 31, 2013 ILLINOIS LEGISLATORS PASS OIL FRACKING BILL", May 31, 2013
  5. [http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/06/01/illinois-passes-bill-to-allow-concealed-firearms-last-us-state-to-have-such-ban/ foxnews.com, " Illinois passes bill to allow concealed firearms; last U.S. state to have such a ban", June 1, 2013]
  6. npr.org, "Will Ill. Legalize Gay Marriage Before Legislature Adjourns?", May 30, 2013
  7. ABC.com, General Assembly to hold special session next week, June 15, 2011
  8. Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
  9. Confirmed via email with Illinois Board of Elections, February 28, 2011
  10. Follow the Money: "Illinois House 2010 Campaign Contributions"
  11. Follow the Money, "Illinois 2008 Candidates," Accessed July 18, 2013
  12. Follow the Money, "Illinois 2006 Candidates," Accessed July 18, 2013
  13. Follow the Money, "Illinois 2004 Candidates," Accessed July 18, 2013
  14. Follow the Money, "Illinois 2002 Candidates," Accessed July 18, 2013
  15. Follow the Money, "Illinois 2000 Candidates," Accessed July 18, 2013
  16. Illinois General Assembly, "Illinois Constitution," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Section Article IV, Section 2(d))
  17. Illinois General Assembly, "Illinois Election Code," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Statute 10 ILCS 5/25 6 (a), (c))
  18. Illinois General Assembly, "Illinois Election Code," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Statute 10 ILCS 5/25 6 (d))
  19. The Daily Journal "Census: Cook County losses slow Illinois population growth ," February 15, 2011
  20. PR-USA.net, "Latinos Fuel Illinois Population Growth," February 17, 2011
  21. Illinois Statehouse News, "Minorities could have more influence in new political map," March 7, 2011
  22. Chicago Tribune, "Democrats defend House redistricting plan," May 22, 2011
  23. Quad-City Times, "Republicans unveil their own redistricting plan," May 26, 2011
  24. Chicago Tribune, "Senate Dems send new legislative map to governor," May 27, 2011
  25. The News-Gazette, "Map awaits Quinn's signature, may face Republican court challenge," May 29, 2011
  26. My FOX Chicago, "Gov. Pat Quinn Signs Off on New Illinois Legislative Maps," June 3, 2011
  27. Chicago Tribune, "Assembly GOP leaders sue over Democrats' redistricting map," July 21, 2011
  28. NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
  29. Rules of the House of the Illinois 9gth General Assembly
  30. Illinois Republican House Leaders
  31. Illinois General Assembly, "House Committees," accessed March 21, 2011