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Revision as of 15:12, 28 August 2014


Illinois state budget

Flag of Illinois.png
Budget calendar:  Annual
Current fiscal year:  2014
State credit rating:  A+ (as of May 2012)
Current governor:  Pat Quinn
Financial figures
GF expenses[1]:  $29.3 billion
All funds expenses:  $66.4 billion (FY 2013 estimate)
Spending % change:  Green Arrow Up Darker.svg.0001%[2]
% from federal funding:  25.66%
State debt:  $321,354,115,000
Per capita state debt:  $24,959
Other state budgets
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Policypedia Budget Policy-logo-no background.png
This page contains information about budget processes and policy issues in Illinois, including:
  • A summary of the budget drafting process
  • Trends in expenditures and revenues
  • Current and past fiscal year budget developments
  • Financial transparency measures

Between fiscal year 2009 and fiscal year 2013, Illinois's total expenditures increased by approximately $17.1 billion, from $49.3 billion in 2009 to $66.4 billion in 2013. This represents a 25.6 percent increase, outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (9.06 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2009 and January 2013).[3][4]

Budget process

Illinois operates on an annual budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[5][6]

  1. In September of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year, the governor sends budget instructions to state agencies.
  2. In October and November agencies submit their budget requests to the governor.
  3. Agency hearings are held in November and December.
  4. Budget hearings with the public are held from February through May.
  5. On the third Wednesday in February, the governor submits his or her proposed budget to the Illinois State Legislature.
  6. The State Legislature passes a budget in May.

Illinois is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[6]

The governor is constitutionally required to submit a balanced budget. In turn, the legislature must pass a balanced budget, and the budget must be balanced in order for the governor to sign it into law.[6]

Expenditures

Definitions

Although each state executes its budget process differently, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) breaks down state expenditures into four general categories. This allows for comparisons among the 50 states. NASBO's categories are as follows:[7]

  • General fund: "The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state."[7]
  • Other funds: "Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds."[7]
  • Federal funds: "Funds received directly from the federal government."[7]
  • Bonds: "Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects."[7]

2013 expenditures

Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.

Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State General fund Federal funds Other funds Bonds Total Per capita expenditures**
Illinois $29,260 $15,407 $19,825 $1,955 $66,447 $5,158.07
Indiana $14,189 $10,357 $3,220 $0 $27,766 $4,225.60
Michigan $9,164 $19,295 $20,107 $182 $48,748 $4,926.22
Ohio $31,514 $12,630 $12,950 $1,174 $58,268 $5,035.78
Wisconsin $14,042 $10,815 $17,912 $0 $42,769 $7,447.53
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditures by function

Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State expenditures in Illinois can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)[7]
State Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other**
Illinois 15.8% 5.5% 0.1% 19.7% 2.2% 8.5% 48.1%
Indiana 32.9% 6.5% 1.5% 27.3% 2.9% 9.3% 19.7%
Michigan 27.2% 4.1% 0.9% 26.1% 4.7% 6.9% 30.2%
Ohio 20.6% 4.2% 1.5% 24.4% 3.1% 5.1% 41.2%
Wisconsin 16.7% 14.1% 0.4% 16.5% 2.9% 6.9% 42.5%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note**: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[7]

Expenditure trends

From 2008 to 2012, expenditures for education, public assistance, Medicaid and corrections decreased. During the same time period, expenditures for transportation increased by 0.2 percentage points, a 2.4 percent increase in the share of the budget, and expenditures for other budget items increased by 16.9 percentage points, a 54.2 percent increase in the share of the budget. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.[7][9][10][11][12] Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
Year Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other**
2012 15.8% 5.5% 0.1% 19.7% 2.2% 8.5% 48.1%
2011 18.9% 5.6% 1.0% 32.9% 2.9% 11.4% 27.4%
2010 18.2% 4.5% 0.2% 23.6% 2.0% 8.1% 43.3%
2009 23.9% 6.3% 0.3% 30.9% 3.0% 9.0% 26.6%
2008 21.8% 6.0% 0.3% 29.5% 3.0% 8.3% 31.2%
Change in % -6.0% -0.5% -0.2% -9.8% -0.8% 0.2% 16.9%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers
Note**: "Other" expenditures include "Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), institutional and community care for the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, public health programs, employer contributions to pensions and health benefits, economic development, environmental projects, state police, parks and recreation, housing and general aid to local governments."[7]

Revenues

2013 revenues

Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
Illinois $7,335 $16,630 $3,086 $340 $8,899 $36,290 $2,817.08
Indiana $6,796 $4,978 $968 $555 $1,165 $14,462 $2,200.92
Michigan $1,832 $5,844 $438 $0 $1,075 $9,189 $928.59
Ohio $8,445 $9,508 $262 $0 $11,344 $29,559 $2,554.62
Wisconsin $4,410 $7,497 $925 $0 $1,254 $14,086 $2,554.62
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.[8]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenue trends

The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.[7][9] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, Illinois ($ in millions)[7][9]
Year Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
2013 $7,335 $16,630 $3,086 $340 $8,899 $36,290 $2,817.08
2012 $7,226 $15,512 $2,461 $340 $8,083 $33,622 $2,612.80
2011 $6,833 $11,225 $1,851 $324 $9,930 $30,163 $2,346.23
2010 $6,308 $8,510 $1,360 $383 $4,884 $21,445 $1,670.21
2009 $6,772 $9,223 $1,710 $430 $4,441 $22,577 $1,748.74
Change in % 8.31% 80.31% 80.47% -20.93% 100.38% 60.74% 61.09%
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8][13]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State budgets by year

Fiscal year 2014

DocumentIcon.jpg See budget bill: House Bill 215

Illinois state budget -- 2014
Illinois State Legislature
Text:HB 215
Legislative history
Introduced:January 25, 2013
House:May 28, 2013
Vote (lower house):69-47
Senate:May 31, 2013
Vote (upper house):38-20
Governor:Pat Quinn
Signed:July 2, 2013
Vetoed:Line Item and Reduction Vetoes

The fiscal year 2014 budget was signed into law by Governor Pat Quinn on July 2, 2013, after using line item and reduction vetoes.[14] The enacted budget reduced the backlog of unpaid bills to $5.8 billion, but pension costs totaled $7.65 billion, representing 24.3 percent of General Funds revenues. According to the Institute for Illinois' Fiscal Sustainability, such pension costs represented an unsustainable level and were expected to rise in coming years without reform.[15]

Fiscal year 2013

See also: Illinois state budget (2012-2013)

Fiscal year 2012

See also: Illinois state budget (2011-2012)

Fiscal year 2011

See also: Illinois state budget (2010-2011)

Fiscal year 2010

See also: Illinois state budget (2009-2010)

Historical spending

State budget historical spending below was compiled by the National Association of State Budget Officers. Figures reflect the reported "Total Expenditures" in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).[7][10]

Historical state budget spending in Illinois ($ in millions)
Fiscal year General Fund Other funds Federal funds Bonds Budget totals
Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget
2011-2012 $29,257 44.5% $14,944 22.7% $19,407 29.5% $2,122 3.2% $65,730
2010-2011 $25,237 44.8% $14,375 25.5% $14,821 26.3% $1,957 3.5% $56,390
2009-2010 $26,316 53.4% $10,021 20.3% $12,083 24.5% $895 1.8% $49,315
Averages: $26,936.67 47% $13,113.33 23% $15,437 27% $1,658 3% $57,145
General Fund: The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state.
Other funds: Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds.
Federal funds: Funds received directly from the federal government.
Bonds: Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects.

State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Illinois had a state debt of over $321 billion. Its state debt per capita was $24,959. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded public pensions.[16][17]

Total state debt in Illinois[18]
Type Totals U.S. rank
Total state debt $321,354,115,000 4
Per capita debt $24,959 5
State and other fund expenditures $44,201,000,000 3

Public pensions

See also: Illinois public pensions and Illinois public employee salaries

A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that Illinois's pension system was funded at 45 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, making it the most poorly funded pension system in the nation. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as cause for "serious concern."

The funding ratio for the state's pension systems decreased from 68.55 percent in fiscal year 2007 to 47.86 percent in fiscal year 2012, a drop of 20.69 percentage points, or 30.2 percent. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from approximately $88.1 billion in fiscal year 2007 to nearly $100 billion in fiscal year 2012.

Credit ratings

States sometimes sell general obligation bonds to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states, evaluating their ability to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest. Generally speaking, a higher credit rating indicates lower risk for an investor, which in turn lowers costs for taxpayers.[19]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit rating for Illinois from 2001 to 2012 (grades from surrounding states are provided for additional context).[19]

S&P credit ratings from 2001 to 2012
Illinois Indiana Michigan Ohio Wisconsin
2012 A+ AAA AA- AA+ AA
2011 A+ AAA AA- AA+ AA
2010 A+ AAA AA- AA+ AA
2009 A+ AAA AA- AA+ AA
2008 AA AAA AA- AA+ AA
2007 AA AA+ AA- AA+ AA-
2006 AA AA+ AA AA+ AA-
2005 AA AA AA AA+ AA-
2004 AA AA AA+ AA+ AA-
2003 AA AA+ AA+ AA+ AA-
2002 AA AA+ AAA AA+ AA-
2001 AA AA+ AAA AA+ AA

Federal aid to state budget

See also: Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states

The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1," the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.[20]

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[20]

Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State Federal aid as % of general revenue Total federal aid (in millions) National rank
Illinois 25.66% $15,647 43
Indiana 32.96% $10,441 27
Michigan 33.74% $17,850 24
Ohio 34.88% $20,688 17
Wisconsin 28.19% $8,855 38

Stimulus

According to Recovery.gov, the official government website for the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board, under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Illinois received $9.1 billion in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.[21]

Budget transparency

Transparency evaluation
Illinois Open Book Illinois Transparency and Accountability
Searchability Y
600px-Yes check.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Grants N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Contracts Y
600px-Yes check.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Line item expenditures N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Dept./agency budgets N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Public employee salaries N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Last evaluated in 2009.
See also: Evaluation of Illinois state website and Constitutional provisions regarding reading of bills

Article 4, Section 8 of the Illinois Constitution requires three "title" reads on three separate days. It also requires that a bill must be printed in its entirety and placed on the desk of members before final passage. There is no provision for a length time between when the bill is placed on the desk and when a vote may be taken.[22]

Government tools

The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the transparency of the Illinois Open Book and Illinois Accountability and Transparency websites.

In March 2009, Governor Pat Quinn launched "Budget Illinois," which summarized the proposed budget for 2010, offered budget figures and also detailed a capital projects list, including information on the recommended and actual appropriations and expenditures going forward.[23][24]

State budget websites and analysis

As of May 2009, the Illinois Office of Management and Budget website did not post copies of the budget proposals from previous fiscal years. This was unusual, given that many other states' budget offices keep up archived copies of past budgets.[25] For the 2011 budget, the state adopted a more transparent method of publishing its budget, providing the information on a quarterly and annual basis. The new process did not affect how agency's budgets would be audited. These reports were to be released for a year or more after revenue and costs were available.[26]

Limitations and Suggestions

Multi-measure budget transparency profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for Illinois, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[27][28]

IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. Illinois tied for 33rd in the nation with 12 other states, earning four out of eight possible points.[28]

Illinois - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
Budget transparency indicator Yes or no?
Performance measures
{{{1}}}
"Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget
{{{1}}}
Multi-year forecasting
{{{1}}}
Annual cycle
{{{1}}}
Binding revenue forecast N
600px-Red x.png
Legislative revenue forecast N
600px-Red x.png
Nonpartisan staff N
600px-Red x.png
Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations N
600px-Red x.png
TOTAL 4

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[28]

U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[29] According to the report, Illinois received a grade of B+ and a numerical score of 88, indicating that Illinois was an "advancing" state in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[29]

Accounting principles

See also: Illinois government accounting principles

The Illinois Auditor General is William Holland. He was appointed by the Illinois General Assembly to a ten-year term commencing August 1, 1992, and was unanimously re-appointed to a second ten-year term, effective August 1, 2002.[30] The Auditor General is a constitutional officer of the state of Illinois charged with reviewing the obligation, expenditure, receipt and use of public funds. The office issues approximately 150 post-audits of state agencies each year, reviewing an agency's financial records, compliance with state and federal laws and regulations, and program performance after the close of its fiscal year. Report digests (summaries) and full audit reports of released audits are available here.[31]

The Illinois State Comptroller is Dan Hynes, who has served three terms since he was first elected in November 1998. The Comptroller's Office was created by the Constitutional Convention of 1970 as an expanded replacement for the Office of the Auditor of Public Accounts.[32]

The Institute for Truth in Accounting (IFTA) rates Illinois “Worst” in filing the state’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) – the annual report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states timely, 22 states tardy, and six states as worst. IFTA does not consider Illinois’ CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations of the state’s financial condition because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis does not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care.[33] Illinois’ CAFRs CAFRs are published online by the Illinois State Comptroller.[34][35]

Credit Rating Fitch Moody's S&P
Illinois[36] A A1 AA-

Governor Pat Quinn joined Attorney General Lisa Madigan and members of the Illinois Reform Commission on August 17, 2009 to sign bills to increase transparency and accountability in state government. The legislation strengthened the Illinois Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and ensured the state’s boards and commissions were open and accessible to the public. The website makes the state’s expenditures and employee pay data available through a single, searchable portal: Accountability.Illinois.gov.[37]

Contact information

Office of Management and Budget
401 South Spring
603 Stratton Building
Springfield, Illinois 62706
Email: GOMB@illinois.gov
Phone: (217) 782-4520
Fax: (217) 524-4876

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. Refers to General Fund spending. Typically in state budgets the General Fund is spending that is most directly controlled by state legislators.
  2. This figure is derived by calculating the percent difference between the prior two years' spending levels according to the National Association of State Budget Officers.
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014
  4. InflationData.com, "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 National Association of State Budget Officers "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 United States Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  11. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  12. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  13. United States Census Bureau, "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014
  14. Illinois General Assembly, "Bill Status of HB0215," accessed April 22, 2014
  15. Institute for Illinois' Fiscal Sustainability, "State of Illinois Enacted FY2014 Budget: A Review of the Operating and Capital Budgets for the Current Fiscal Year," October 2, 2013
  16. State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  17. Washington Examiner, "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014
  18. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  19. 19.0 19.1 Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  20. 20.0 20.1 United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. Recovery, "Stimulus Spending by State"
  22. Illinois Constitution, "Article 4, Section 8," accessed 2009
  23. Budget Illinois
  24. State of Illinois - Budget, March 19, 2009
  25. Illinois Policy Institute, "Where can I find past copies of the Illinois state budget?," May 11, 2009
  26. Chicago Press Release, Governor’s Office of Management and Budget Improves Transparency by Releasing Quarterly Financial Reports – Financial Statements Now Available Without Delay, Dec. 9, 2010
  27. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois, "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois, "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011
  29. 29.0 29.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  30. Office of the Illinois Auditor General Web site, accessed October 20, 2009
  31. Office of the Illinois Auditor General Web site, accessed October 20, 2009
  32. Office of the Illinois State Comptroller Website, accessed October 20, 2009
  33. Institute for Truth in Accounting, “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35
  34. the Illinois State Comptroller
  35. Office of the Illinois State Comptroller, Research and Fiscal Information Department Web site, accessed October 20, 2009
  36. California State Treasurer, “Comparison of Other States’ General Obligation Bond Ratings,” accessed 2009
  37. Gov. Quinn Press Release, “Governor Quinn Signs Major Legislation to Increase Transparency in State Government,” August 17, 2009