Difference between revisions of "Indiana state budget"

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| state = Indiana  
 
| state = Indiana  
 
| image = Flag of Indiana.png|
 
| image = Flag of Indiana.png|
| budgetcal =  
+
| budgetcal = Biennial
| fiscalyear =  
+
| fiscalyear = 2014-2015
| credit=  
+
| credit= AAA
 
| percentchangedr =   
 
| percentchangedr =   
| expenses =
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| expenses = $30 billion
| all funds expenses =
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| all funds expenses = $58.2 billion
| spending change =
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| spending change = 8.58<ref>Percent change is calculated by comparing the 2014-2015 biennial budget with the 2012-2013 biennial budget.</ref>
| change =  
+
| change = up
 
| governor = Mike Pence
 
| governor = Mike Pence
| % federal =
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| % federal = 32.96%<ref>[[Indiana state budget#Federal aid to state budget|Federal funding]] figures are current as of 2012.</ref>
| state debt =  
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| state debt = $46,377,635,000
| per cap debt =  
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| per cap debt = $7,094
 
}}{{tnr|limit=3}}This page contains information about '''budget processes and policy issues''' in [[Indiana]], including:
 
}}{{tnr|limit=3}}This page contains information about '''budget processes and policy issues''' in [[Indiana]], including:
 
* A summary of the budget drafting process
 
* A summary of the budget drafting process
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* Current fiscal year budget developments
 
* Current fiscal year budget developments
 
* Financial transparency measures
 
* Financial transparency measures
 +
 +
Between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2014, the Indiana state budget has increased by approximately $2.3 billion, from $26.5 billion in 2010 to $28.8 billion in 2014. This represents an 8.68 percent increase, slightly outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (7.95 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Index).<ref name=2014summary>[http://www.in.gov/sba/files/AP_2013_1_0_1_Directors_Letter.pdf ''IN.gov'' "2013-2015 As-Passed Budget - Budget Director's Introduction Letter," accessed March 14, 2014]</ref><ref>[ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/cpi/cpiai.txt ''Bureau of Labor Statistics'' "Consumer Price Index," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref>
  
 
==Budget process==
 
==Budget process==
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}}
 
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On January 15, 2013, [[Indiana Governor|Governor]] [[Mike Pence]] introduced his proposed $29 billion biennial state budget.<ref name=submits>[http://www.southbendtribune.com/news/sbt-pence-submits-lean-state-budget-with-new-tax-cut-20130116,0,21248.story ''The South Bend Tribune'' "Pence submits lean state budget with new tax cut," January 16, 2013]</ref> The proposal included $14.4 billion in spending in fiscal year 2014 and $14.6 billion in spending in fiscal year 2015.<Ref name=raises>[http://www.indystar.com/article/20130115/NEWS05/301160307/Pence-wants-more-spending-education-Medicaid-transportation ''The Indianapolis Star'' "Indiana Gov. Mike Pence budget raises education, Medicaid, transportation spending," January 15, 2013]</ref> It increased state funding by about $200 million in each year of the biennium, or roughly 1.4 percent per year.<ref name=submits/>
+
On January 15, 2013, [[Indiana Governor|Governor]] [[Mike Pence]] introduced his proposed $29 billion biennial general fund appropriations budget.<ref name=submits>[http://www.southbendtribune.com/news/sbt-pence-submits-lean-state-budget-with-new-tax-cut-20130116,0,21248.story ''The South Bend Tribune'' "Pence submits lean state budget with new tax cut," January 16, 2013]</ref> The proposal included $14.4 billion in spending in fiscal year 2014 and $14.6 billion in spending in fiscal year 2015.<Ref name=raises>[http://www.indystar.com/article/20130115/NEWS05/301160307/Pence-wants-more-spending-education-Medicaid-transportation ''The Indianapolis Star'' "Indiana Gov. Mike Pence budget raises education, Medicaid, transportation spending," January 15, 2013]</ref> It increased state funding by about $200 million in each year of the biennium, or roughly 1.4 percent per year.<ref name=submits/>
  
On May 8, 2013, Pence signed a $30 billion budget into law. Passed by the Republican-controlled [[Indiana General Assembly|state legislature]], the budget increased elementary and secondary education funding by 2 percent in 2014 and 1 percent more in 2015. The enacted budget also included a personal income tax cut (from 3.4 percent to 3.3 percent), a corporate income tax cut, and eliminated the inheritance tax.<ref>[http://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/pence-signs-two-year-indiana-budget/article_5ef8966c-108d-53c1-a85c-46d5605c96d6.html ''The Times of Northwest Indiana'' "Pence signs two-year Indiana budget," May 8, 2014]</ref>
+
On May 8, 2013, Pence signed a $30 billion general fund appropriations budget into law. Passed by the Republican-controlled [[Indiana General Assembly|state legislature]], the budget increased elementary and secondary education funding by 2 percent in 2014 and 1 percent more in 2015. The enacted budget also included a personal income tax cut (from 3.4 percent to 3.3 percent), a corporate income tax cut, and eliminated the inheritance tax.<ref name=2014summary/><ref>[http://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/pence-signs-two-year-indiana-budget/article_5ef8966c-108d-53c1-a85c-46d5605c96d6.html ''The Times of Northwest Indiana'' "Pence signs two-year Indiana budget," May 8, 2014]</ref>
  
 
===Fiscal year 2013===
 
===Fiscal year 2013===

Revision as of 14:37, 14 March 2014

Indiana state budget

Flag of Indiana.png
Budget calendar:  Biennial
Current fiscal year:  2014-2015
State credit rating:  AAA
Current governor:  Mike Pence
Financial figures
GF expenses[1]:  $30 billion
All funds expenses:  $58.2 billion
Spending % change:  Green Arrow Up Darker.svg8.58[2][3]
% from federal funding:  32.96%[4]
State debt:  $46,377,635,000
Per capita state debt:  $7,094
Other state budgets
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Policypedia Budget Policy-logo-no background.png
This page contains information about budget processes and policy issues in Indiana, including:
  • A summary of the budget drafting process
  • Trends in revenues and expenditures
  • Current fiscal year budget developments
  • Financial transparency measures

Between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2014, the Indiana state budget has increased by approximately $2.3 billion, from $26.5 billion in 2010 to $28.8 billion in 2014. This represents an 8.68 percent increase, slightly outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (7.95 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Index).[5][6]

Budget process

The state operates on a biennial budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[7][8]

  1. In May of the year preceding the beginning of the new biennium, budget instructions and guidelines are sent to state agencies.
  2. In August, agencies submit their budget requests to the governor
  3. Hearings are held with state agencies from September to November.
  4. Public hearings on the budget are held from September to March.
  5. The governor submits his or her budget to the state legislature in February.
  6. The legislature typically adopts a budget in April, effective for the fiscal biennium beginning in July. A simple majority is required to pass a budget.

There are no constitutional or statutory provisions mandating that the governor must submit or the legislature must pass a balanced budget. Budget deficits may be carried over to the next biennium.[8]

The governor cannot exercise line item veto power over the budget passed by the legislature.[8]

Indiana maintains seven major governmental funds: the General, Motor Vehicle Highway, Medicaid Assistance, Major Moves Construction, State Highway Department, Property Tax Replacement and Tobacco Settlement Funds. The state budgets all seven major funds in addition to more than fourteen other non-major funds.[9]

Expenditures

Definitions

Although each state executes its budget process differently, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) breaks down state expenditures into four general categories. This allows for comparisons among the 50 states. NASBO's categories are as follows:[10]

  • General fund: "The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state."[10]
  • Other funds: "Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds."[10]
  • Federal funds: "Funds received directly from the federal government."[10]
  • Bonds: "Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects."[10]

2013 expenditures

Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).[10] Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.

Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[10]
State General fund Federal funds Other funds Bonds Total Per capita expenditures
Indiana $14,189 $10,357 $3,220 $0 $27,766 $4,225.60
Illinois $29,260 $15,407 $19,825 $1,955 $66,447 $5,158.07
Michigan $9,164 $19,295 $20,107 $182 $48,748 $4,926.22
Ohio $31,514 $12,630 $12,950 $1,174 $58,268 $5,035.78
Wisconsin $14,042 $10,815 $17,912 $0 $42,769 $7,447.53
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[11][12]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditures by function

Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State expenditures in Indiana can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)[10]
State Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
Indiana 32.9% 6.5% 1.5% 27.3% 2.9% 9.3% 19.7%
Illinois 15.8% 5.5% 0.1% 19.7% 2.2% 8.5% 48.1%
Michigan 27.2% 4.1% 0.9% 26.1% 4.7% 6.9% 30.2%
Ohio 20.6% 4.2% 1.5% 24.4% 3.1% 5.1% 41.2%
Wisconsin 16.7% 14.1% 0.4% 16.5% 2.9% 6.9% 42.5%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditure trends

Between 2008 and 2012, state expenditures for for elementary and second education rose by over nine percent. Likewise, Medicaid spending rose by more than five percent. Meanwhile, higher education fell by 1.4 percent during the same period. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.[10][13][14][15][16] Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below. Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
Year Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
2012 32.9% 6.5% 1.5% 27.3% 2.9% 9.3% 19.7%
2011 32.2% 7.1% 1.4% 25.0% 2.9% 10.9% 20.4%
2010 32.4% 7.1% 1.4% 23.1% 2.9% 10.6% 22.4%
2009 28.1% 7.3% 1.3% 21.8% 2.9% 9.2% 29.4%
2008 23.5% 7.9% 1.4% 21.7% 3.0% 10.3% 32.2%
Change in % 9.4% -1.4% 0.1% 5.6% -0.1% -1% -12.5%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenues

2013 revenues

Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).[10] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[10]
State Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
Indiana $6,796 $4,978 $968 $555 $1,165 $14,462 $2,200.92
Illinois $7,335 $16,630 $3,086 $340 $8,899 $36,290 $2,817.08
Michigan $1,832 $5,844 $438 $0 $1,075 $9,189 $928.59
Ohio $8,445 $9,508 $262 $0 $11,344 $29,559 $2,554.62
Wisconsin $4,410 $7,497 $925 $0 $1,254 $14,086 $2,554.62
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.[11]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenue trends

The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.[10][13] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, Indiana ($ in millions)[10][13]
Year Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
2013 $6,796 $4,978 $968 $555 $1,165 $14,462 $2,200.92
2012 $6,622 $4,766 $959 $614 $1,164 $14,125 $2,160.52
2011 $6,218 $4,586 $705 $660 $1,106 $13,275 $2,037.19
2010 $5,915 $3,876 $592 $659 $1,145 $12,187 $1,877.82
2009 $6,153 $4,314 $839 $608 $1,021 $12,935 $2,013.82
Change in % 10.45% 15.39% 15.38% -8.72% 14.10% 11.81% 9.29%
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[11][12]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State budgets by year

Fiscal year 2014

Indiana state budget -- 2014
Indiana State Legislature
Text:HEA 1001
Legislative history
Introduced:January 15, 2013
House:February 25, 2013
Vote (lower house):68-28
Senate:April 9, 2013
Vote (upper house):38-12
Conference:April 27, 2013
Conference vote (upper house):70-30
Conference vote (lower house):39-11
Governor:Mike Pence
Signed:May 8, 2013

On January 15, 2013, Governor Mike Pence introduced his proposed $29 billion biennial general fund appropriations budget.[17] The proposal included $14.4 billion in spending in fiscal year 2014 and $14.6 billion in spending in fiscal year 2015.[18] It increased state funding by about $200 million in each year of the biennium, or roughly 1.4 percent per year.[17]

On May 8, 2013, Pence signed a $30 billion general fund appropriations budget into law. Passed by the Republican-controlled state legislature, the budget increased elementary and secondary education funding by 2 percent in 2014 and 1 percent more in 2015. The enacted budget also included a personal income tax cut (from 3.4 percent to 3.3 percent), a corporate income tax cut, and eliminated the inheritance tax.[5][19]

Fiscal year 2013

The fiscal year 2012 and 2013 state budget as enacted can be accessed here.

Fiscal year 2012

See also: Indiana state budget (2011-2012)

Fiscal year 2011

See also: Indiana state budget (2010-2011)

Fiscal year 2010

See also: Indiana state budget (2009-2010)

Historical spending

State budget historical spending below was compiled by the National Association for State Budget Officers. Figures reflect the reported "Total Expenditures" in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).[10][14]

Historical state budget spending in South Carolina ($ in millions)
Fiscal year General Fund Other funds Federal funds Bonds Budget totals
Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget
2011-2012 $13,579 51.6% $3,454 13.1% $9,272 35.2% $0 0% $26,305
2010-2011 $13,037 49.3% $3,348 12.7% $9,952 37.6% $100 0.4% $26,437
2009-2010 $12,915 48.5% $3,239 12.2% $10,333 38.8% $169 0.6% $26,656
Averages: $13,177 50% $3,347 13% $9,852.33 37% $89.667 0% $26,466
General Fund: The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state.
Other funds: Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds.
Federal funds: Funds received directly from the federal government.
Bonds: Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects.

State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Indiana had a state debt of over $46 billion. Its state debt per capita was $7,094. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded public pensions.[20][21]

Total state debt in Indiana[22]
Type Totals U.S. rank
Total state debt $46,377,635,000 29
Per capita debt $7,094 48
State and other fund expenditures $17,033,000,000 41

Public pensions

See also: Indiana public pensions and Indiana public employee salaries

The funding ratio for the state's pension system decreased from 70.29 percent in fiscal year 2007 to 60.80 percent in fiscal year 2012, a 9.49 percent drop. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from over $10 billion in fiscal year 2007 to more than $16 billion in fiscal year 2012.[23]

A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that Indiana's pension system was funded at 65 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, well below the 80 precent funding level experts recommend. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as cause for "serious concern."[24]

Credit ratings

States sometimes sell general obligation bonds to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states, evaluating their ability to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest. Generally speaking, a higher credit ranking indicates lower risk for an investor, which in turn lowers costs for taxpayers.[25]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ranking for Indiana from 2001 to 2012 (grades from surrounding states are provided for additional context).[25]

S&P credit ratings from 2001 to 2012
Indiana Illinois Michigan Ohio Wisconsin
2012 AAA A+ AA- AA+ AA
2011 AAA A+ AA- AA+ AA
2010 AAA A+ AA- AA+ AA
2009 AAA A+ AA- AA+ AA
2008 AAA AA AA- AA+ AA
2007 AA+ AA AA- AA+ AA-
2006 AA+ AA AA AA+ AA-
2005 AA AA AA AA+ AA-
2004 AA AA AA+ AA+ AA-
2003 AA+ AA AA+ AA+ AA-
2002 AA+ AA AAA AA+ AA-
2001 AA+ AA AAA AA+ AA

Federal aid to state budget

See also: Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states

The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1", the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.[26]

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[26]

Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State Federal aid as % of general revenue Total federal aid ($ in millions) National rank
Indiana 32.96% $10,441 27
Illinois 25.66% $15,647 43
Michigan 33.74% $17,850 24
Ohio 34.88% $20,688 17
Wisconsin 28.19% $8,855 38

Stimulus

Indiana has received $4.1 billion in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.[27]

Budget transparency

Transparency evaluation
Contracts database ITP
Searchability Y
600px-Yes check.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Grants N
600px-Red x.png
N
600px-Red x.png
Contracts Y
600px-Yes check.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Line item expenditures N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Dept./agency budgets N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Public employee salaries N
600px-Red x.png
Y
600px-Yes check.png
Last evaluated in XXX.
See also: Evaluation of Indiana state website and Constitutional provisions regarding reading of bills

Article 4, Section 18 of the Indiana Constitution requires that the “title” of a bill be read on three days in each legislative chamber prior to a final vote on the bill.

Indiana operates a financial transparency website, the Indiana Transparency Portal (ITP).[28] The website is intended to compile Indiana budget data, spending reports and other financial information that previously had been spread across multiple sites.[29] As of August 2010, however, the website did not include updated numbers on exactly what cuts had been made since Republican Governor Mitch Daniels ordered millions of dollars in reductions after the budget was approved by lawmakers. The site was further criticized for not showing where taxpayer money went under job incentives through the Indiana Economic Development Corporation.[29]

In March 2011, the state added agency performance reviews to the ITP and more reports on local government spending.[30][31]

Government tools

Indiana publishes a database of contracts, available from the Indiana Department of Administration. The state's active contract listing provides an up-to-date list of all professional services contracts in which the state is currently a participant.

The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by this database and ITP.

Support for creation of the database

Governor Mitch Daniels created the contracts website with an Executive Order in 2005.

Multi-measure budget transparency profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for Indiana, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[32][33]

IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. Indiana tied for 33rd in the nation with 12 other states, earning four out of eight possible points.[34]

Indiana - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
Budget transparency indicator Yes or no?
Performance measures
{{{1}}}
"Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget N
600px-Red x.png
Multi-year forecasting
{{{1}}}
Annual cycle N
600px-Red x.png
Binding revenue forecast
{{{1}}}
Legislative revenue forecast
{{{1}}}
Non-partisan staff N
600px-Red x.png
Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations N
600px-Red x.png
TOTAL 4

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[34]

Accounting principles

See also: Indiana government accounting principles

Fiscal duties in Indiana are split between the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) the State Auditor, and the State Treasurer.[35][36].

The Indiana State Auditor is the chief financial office of the state and is responsible for:[37]

  • Accounting for all of the state's funds
  • Overseeing and disburse county, city, town, and school tax distributions
  • Paying the state's bills
  • Paying the state's employees
  • Administrating Indiana’s Deferred Compensation Plan

The State Auditor as of March 2014 was Suzanne Crouch.

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. Refers to General Fund spending. Typically in state budgets the General Fund is spending that is most directly controlled by state legislators.
  2. Percent change is calculated by comparing the 2014-2015 biennial budget with the 2012-2013 biennial budget.
  3. This figure is derived by calculating the percent difference between the prior two years' spending levels according to the National Association of State Budget Officers.
  4. Federal funding figures are current as of 2012.
  5. 5.0 5.1 IN.gov "2013-2015 As-Passed Budget - Budget Director's Introduction Letter," accessed March 14, 2014
  6. Bureau of Labor Statistics "Consumer Price Index," accessed February 24, 2014
  7. National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 National Association of State Budget Officers "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  9. Indiana Budget Analysis
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 United States Census Bureau "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Census Bureau "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  15. National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 The South Bend Tribune "Pence submits lean state budget with new tax cut," January 16, 2013
  18. The Indianapolis Star "Indiana Gov. Mike Pence budget raises education, Medicaid, transportation spending," January 15, 2013
  19. The Times of Northwest Indiana "Pence signs two-year Indiana budget," May 8, 2014
  20. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  21. Washington Examiner "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014
  22. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  23. Indiana Public Retirement System "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Fiscal year Ended June 30, 2012," accessed November 8, 2013
  24. Pew Center on the States "Widening Gap Update: Indiana," June 18, 2012
  25. 25.0 25.1 Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  26. 26.0 26.1 United States Census Bureau "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  27. Recovery.gov "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014
  28. IN.gov "Indiana Transparency Portal," accessed March 14, 2014
  29. 29.0 29.1 Fox41.com "New Ind. website pulls together state budget data," August 31, 2010
  30. Indianapolis Business Journal "Indiana state budget website gets new features," March 14, 2011
  31. IN.gov "Indiana Transparency Portal - Performance and Accountability," accessed March 14, 2014
  32. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  33. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois "Indiana: Budget Transparency Profile," September 2011
  34. 34.0 34.1 Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Illinois "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011
  35. IN.gov "Office of Management and Budget," accessed March 14, 2014
  36. IN.gov "State Auditor," accessed March 14, 2014
  37. IN.gov "Indiana Auditor Suzanne Crouch - Auditor's Info," accessed March 14, 2014