Difference between revisions of "John Cornyn"
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Revision as of 21:21, 4 March 2014
|U.S. Senate, Texas|
|January 3, 2015|
|Years in position||12|
|Predecessor||Phil Gramm (R)|
|Senate Minority Whip|
|January 3, 2013 - Present|
|Elections and appointments|
|Last election||November 4, 2008|
|First elected||December 2, 2002|
|Next primary||March 4, 2014|
|Next general||November 4, 2014|
|Texas state attorney general|
|Texas supreme court|
|Bexar County district court judge|
|J.D.||St. Mary’s School of Law|
|Other||LL.M., University of Virginia|
|Date of birth||February 2, 1952|
|Place of birth||Houston, Texas|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Committee assignments
- 4 Issues
- 4.1 Legislative actions
- 4.1.1 113th Congress
- 4.1.2 National security
- 4.1.3 Economy
- 4.1.4 Immigration
- 4.1.5 Healthcare
- 4.1.6 Social Issues
- 4.1.7 Previous congressional sessions
- 4.2 Campaign themes
- 4.3 Senate Judiciary Committee
- 4.4 Judicial activism
- 4.1 Legislative actions
- 5 Elections
- 6 Campaign donors
- 7 Analysis
- 8 Personal
- 9 Recent news
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 References
Cornyn most recently won re-election in 2008. He defeated Richard Noriega (D) and Yvonne Adams Schick (L) in the general election.
Cornyn served as a Bexar County district court judge from 1984 to 1990. He went on to serve on the Texas Supreme Court from 1990 to 1997. Cornyn then served as Texas Attorney General from 1999 until his election to the U.S. Senate in 2002.
Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Cornyn is an average Republican member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Republican Party on the majority of bills.
Cornyn is seeking re-election in 2014.
After earning his J.D. from St. Mary’s School of Law, Cornyn became an attorney. He went on to become district court judge for Bexar County, TX, and then Texas Supreme Court justice, before running for the U.S. Senate.
- 1984-1990: Bexar County district court judge
- 1990-1997: Texas supreme court
- 1999-2002: Texas state attorney general
- 2002-present: U.S. Senate
Cornyn serves on the following Senate committees:
- Committee on Finance
- The Subcommittee on Taxation and IRS Oversight
- The Subcommittee on Healthcare
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security Ranking Member
- Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology and the Law
- Subcommittee on The Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights
Cornyn was a member of the following Senate committees:
- Armed Services Committee
- Committee on Finance
- Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, and Infrastructure
- Subcommittee on Health Care
- Subcommittee on Taxation, IRS Oversight, and Long-Term Growth
- Committee on the Budget
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights
- Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security Ranking Member
- Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security
- Subcommittee on the Constitution
The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 224 out of the 3215 introduced bills (7 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session. The Senate confirmed 13,949 out of 18,323 executive nominations received (76.1 percent). For more information pertaining to Cornyn's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.
Cornyn said, "I think the current administration has taken lying to a new level," when asked about Benghazi. He went on Since the terrible tragedy that took four American lives in Benghazi, we’ve had a difficulty — to put it mildly — trying to get to the bottom of this. Now the goal is to talk to the Benghazi survivors, the people who were actually there, who can tell the truth and expose what happened and hold the people responsible accountable. This has been a cover-up from the very beginning."
Cornyn continued, "It’s harder when the administration decides to cover this up and mislead and to change the subject, which they seem very good at doing, but … I assure you we’re not going to let this one go. To me that’s the one thing that I find most aggravating about what’s happening in Washington these days and particularly about this administration, which is a lack of accountability and the willingness to mislead people or provide them just demonstrably false information and expect to be able to move on."
American response in Syria
- See also: United States involvement in Syria
Cornyn expressed skepticism at the idea of intervention in Syria, but would not rule it out entirely—provided he had a chance to vote on it. He took to Twitter on August 31, 2013, to urge President Obama to bring the question of a strike on Syria to Congress before he authorizes any military action.
Cornyn sent a letter to U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry pushing him to be hard on biological weapons in his negotiations with Russia, not just chemical weapons. Cornyn wrote, "Any credible agreement must force the surrender of both Assad’s bioweapons and chemical weapons, and it must achieve their destruction in a way that is workable, effective, timely, and verifiable. I ask for your best efforts to ensure that these important criteria are satisfied." Cornyn was one of three senators to vote against Kerry's confirmation in January.
John Brennan CIA nomination
Cornyn voted against the confirmation of John Brennan as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The nomination was confirmed by the Senate on March 7, 2013, with a vote of 63 - 34. Most Democrats supported the nomination, while Republicans were somewhat divided with roughly one-third supporting the nomination.
On March 6, 2013, Senator Rand Paul (R) led a 13-hour filibuster of President Obama's CIA Director nominee, John Brennan. Paul started the filibuster in order to highlight his concerns about the administration's drone policies. In particular, Paul said he was concerned about whether a drone could be used to kill an American citizen within the United States border without any due process involved. Paul and other civil liberties activists were critical of President Obama for not offering a clear response to the question. A total of 14 senators joined Paul in the filibuster -- 13 Republicans and one Democrat.
The day after the filibuster, Attorney General Eric Holder sent a letter to Paul, responding to the filibuster. Holder wrote, "Does the president have the authority to use a weaponized drone to kill an American not engaged in combat on U.S. soil? The answer to that is no."
On February 4, 2014, the Democratic controlled Senate approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill. It passed the Senate with a vote of 68-32. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that will kick in when prices drop; however, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states. Cornyn voted with 22 other Republican senators against the bill.
On January 16, 2014, the Democratic-controlled Senate approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014. The Senate voted 72-26 for the 1,582 page bill, with 17 Republicans and 55 Democrats voting in favor of the bill. The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations. It increased the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel by 1 percent, increased Head Start funding for early childhood education by $1 billion, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency, and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts.
- See also: United States budget debate, 2013
During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funds the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies. The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Cornyn voted with the Republican Party against the bill.
A spokesperson for Cornyn said that he "will not be paid during the federal shutdown. He donates to charity and does not believe a government shutdown should necessitate charitable contributions, compassion for fellow man should."
Opposition to Summers nomination
Cornyn declared that he does not want Lawrence Summers to become Federal Reserve chairman after Ben Bernanke's term expires. Cornyn's spokeswoman Megan Mitchell said, "If you look at Larry Summers' record, he has a history of promoting stimulus funding and higher taxes, and that's not in line with Texas values." Summers is seen as one of the top two candidates to replace Bernanke, the other being Janet Yellen.
No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013
Cornyn voted against H.R.325 -- No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013. The bill passed the Senate on January 31, 2013, with a vote of 64 - 34. The purpose of the bill was to temporarily suspend the debt ceiling and withhold the pay of members of Congress until a budget could be passed. The vote largely followed party lines with Democrats overwhelmingly supporting it and many Republicans in opposition to the bill.
Cornyn voted for Senate Amendment 1197 -- Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border. The amendment was rejected by the Senate on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 39 - 54. The purpose of the amendment was to require the completion of 350 miles of fence described in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 before registered provisional immigrant status may be granted. It would also require 700 miles of fence be completed before the status of registered provisional immigrants may be changed to permanent resident status. The vote followed party lines.
Opposition to Ted Cruz filibuster
Cornyn spokeswoman Megan Mitchell said, "Senator Cornyn will support the House bill that defunds Obamacare. He will not block a bill that defunds Obamacare."
Cornyn's opposition to Cruz could lead to a potential primary challenge in 2014.
Violence Against Women (2013)
Cornyn voted against S.47 -- Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. The bill was passed by the Senate on February 12, 2013, with a vote of 78 - 22. The purpose of the bill was to combat violence against women, from domestic violence to international trafficking in persons. All 22 dissenting votes were cast by Republicans.
Previous congressional sessions
Cornyn voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. The bill was passed in the Senate by a 89 - 8 vote on January 1, 2013.
Cornyn's campaign website lists the following issues:
- Federal Budget and Debt
- Excerpt: "For far too long government spending has run amok, resulting in trillion-dollar deficits, a ballooning national debt, and a government that now borrows forty cents out of every dollar it spends from places like China. As our nation continues to head down a fiscally-unsustainable path, Senator Cornyn will keep fighting to preserve the American Dream for the next generation of Texans."
- National Defense
- Excerpt: "Senator Cornyn is committed to ensuring a strong military that has the resources necessary to meet the challenges our nation faces and preserve our way of life for the next generation of Texans."
- Economy and Jobs
- Excerpt: "To jump start the economy, Senator Cornyn has introduced plans to live within our means by reforming our convoluted tax code, ease Washington regulations on Texas businesses, and tap into the abundant energy resources we have here at home."
- Health Care
- Excerpt: "Senator Cornyn believes that the President's health care law must be repealed and replaced with patient-centered reforms that lower costs and increase access. Under the President's health care law, Texans continue to face skyrocketing premiums, employers are abandoning plans to expand and laying off workers, and Washington bureaucrats – not patients and their Doctors – are making treatment decisions."
- Tax Relief
- Excerpt: "Most folks know you can't tax and spend your way out of a recession, and Senator Cornyn continues to fight the Obama Administration's permanent campaign to raise taxes on Texas families and small businesses. He has consistently voted to protect taxpayers, allowing Texans to keep more of their hard-earned money in their wallets instead of sending it to Washington."
Senate Judiciary Committee
Cornyn was first appointed to Senate Judiciary Committee shortly after he was sworn in in January of 2003.
Cornyn participated in the confirmation hearings to the Supreme Court of the United States for Chief Justice John Roberts in 2005 and Associate Justices Samuel Alito in 2006 and Sonia Sotomayor in 2009.
Senator Cornyn has been noted as one of the leading advocates in the Senate Judiciary Committee on the issue of Judicial Activism. Cornyn has expressed serious concern on the issue over cases involving gun rights and the Second Amendment, the Fifth Amendment and the Takings clause in the Constitution involving property rights. Cornyn has also said that judges should not move the law into one direction or the other towards their preferences. This was key in addressing the issue of Sonia Sotomayor's nomination to the Supreme Court of the United States in 2009. Cornyn voted against the confirmation of Sotomayor, but took the committee to task about the proper role of how judge should rule fairly and impartially. Cornyn is the only member on the committee with appellate level judicial experience.
Cornyn spoke on the issue of judicial activism in front of The Federalist Society during a talk with the Dallas Area Lawyers Chapter on October 14, 2009. During his speech, the Senator criticized the Obama Administration for nominating judges and key legal advisers for embracing judicial activism. Cornyn cited nominations including the one of Harold Koh for embracing activism, including Koh's belief that the American court system should be trans-national.
Cornyn is seeking re-election in the 2014 election for the U.S. Senate, representing Texas. He defeated Curt Cleaver, Ken Cope, Chris Mapp, Reid Reasor, Steve Stockman, Dwayne Stovall and Linda Vega in the primary election on March 4, 2014. The general election took place November 4, 2014.
Cornyn hired a campaign manager with ties to fellow senator Ted Cruz, in an attempt to appeal to a broader Republican base in 2014. The goal of this move was to avoid a potential primary challenge in 2014.
Cruz’s leadership political action committee, Jobs Growth and Freedom Fund, made only five donations in the first six months of its existence, and all of those dollars went to incumbents. On May 10, 2013, according to Federal Election Commission records, Cruz wrote a $2,500 check to the campaign of Cornyn.
Cruz also handed out out four other $2,500 donations to incumbents that same day: Jim Inhofe, Mike Lee, Jim Risch and Tim Scott, who was appointed to the Senate after Jim DeMint resigned and is running in 2014 for the remaining years of DeMint’s term.
Cruz was also endorsed by the NRA Political Victory Fund. It stated, “The choice is clear for law-abiding gun owners and sportsmen in the U.S. Senate Republican primary election in Texas, and that choice is John Cornyn.”
Texas tea-party activists are hoping to find a primary challenger for Cornyn in his 2014 Senate bid. This comes after Cornyn withdrew his support from Senator Mike Lee's efforts to defund the Affordable Care Act.
|U.S. Senate, Texas General Election, 2008|
|Republican||John Cornyn incumbent||54.8%||4,337,469|
|Libertarian||Yvonne Adams Schick||2.3%||185,241|
To view the full congressional electoral history for John Cornyn, click [show] to expand the section.
Comprehensive donor information for Cornyn is available dating back to 2002. Based on available campaign finance records, Cornyn raised a total of $29,108,909 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 25, 2013.
|John Cornyn's Campaign Contribution History|
|2008||US Senate (Texas)||$19,326,337|
|2002||US Senate (Texas)||$9,782,572|
|Grand Total Raised||$29,108,909|
|John Cornyn (2014) Campaign Finance Reports|
|Report||Date Filed||Beginning Balance||Total Contributions|
for Reporting Period
|Expenditures||Cash on Hand|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2013||$2,671,655.28||$1,854,913.27||$(347,519.79)||$4,179,048.76|
|July Quarterly||July 15, 2013||$4,179,048.76||$2,329,648.14||$(521,702.95)||$5,986,993.95|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2013||$5,986,993.95||$1,796,856.20||$(870,075.51)||$6,913,774.64|
|Year-End||January 31, 2014||$6,913,774||$1,477,419||$(1,891,045)||$6,500,149|
|Pre-Primary||February 20, 2014||$6,500,149||$927,645||$(2,628,556)||$4,799,238|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2014||$4,799,238||$1,393,992||$(2,845,848)||$3,347,382|
|July Quarterly||July 15, 2014||$3,347,382||$1,294,883||$(843,805)||$3,798,460|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2014||$3,798,460||$1,249,052||$(1,149,610)||$3,897,903|
Top recipients of lobbyist contributions
On a list of Top 10 Recipients of Contributions from Lobbyists in 2013 from Open Secrets, Cornyn ranked 10th on the list with $51,700 in lobbyist contributions.
Cornyn won re-election to the U.S. Senate in 2008. During that re-election cycle, Cornyn's campaign committee raised a total of $19,326,337 and spent $18,994,698.
|U.S. Senate, Texas, 2008 - John Cornyn Campaign Contributions|
|Total Raised by General Election Opponent||$4,116,286|
|Total Spent by General Election Opponent||$4,106,420|
|Top contributors to John Cornyn's campaign committee|
|JPMorgan Chase & Co||$62,847|
|Bass Brothers Enterprises||$47,200|
|Haynes & Boone||$40,915|
|Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee|
|Oil & Gas||$980,200|
Ideology and leadership
The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.
Cornyn most often votes with:
Cornyn least often votes with:
Lifetime voting record
According to the website GovTrack, Cornyn missed 61 of 3,251 roll call votes from January 2003 to March 2013. This amounts to 1.9%, which is worse than the median of 1.7% among current senators as of March 2013.
Congressional staff salaries
The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Cornyn paid his congressional staff a total of $3,342,783 in 2011. He ranked 2nd on the list of the highest paid Republican senatorial staff salaries and ranked 6th overall of the highest paid senatorial staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Texas ranked 3rd in average salary for senatorial staff. The average U.S. Senate congressional staff was paid $2,529,141.70 in fiscal year 2011.
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Cornyn's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $310,023 and $1,086,999. That averages to $698,511, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican senators in 2012 of $6,956,438.47. Cornyn ranked as the 74th most wealthy senator in 2012.
|John Cornyn Yearly Net Worth|
|Year||Avg. Net Worth||% Difference from previous year|
National Journal vote ratings
- See also: National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Cornyn ranked 2nd in the conservative rankings among members of the U.S. Senate.
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Cornyn ranked 14th in the conservative rankings among U.S. senators.
Voting with party
Cornyn voted with the Republican Party 87.8% of the time, which ranked 27th among the 45 Senate Republican members as of June 2013.
Cornyn and his wife, Sandy, have two children.
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term John + Cornyn + Texas + Senate
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- Social media:
- Political profiles:
- Financial (federal level):
- Financial (state level):
- Interest group ratings:
- Issue positions:
- Public statements:
- Voting record:
- Works by or about:
- Media appearances:
- Media coverage:
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress "John Cornyn," Accessed November 23, 2011
- Congressional Quarterly "Senate Committee List" Accessed January 22, 2013
- Official Senate website "Committee Assignments," Accessed November 23, 2011
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
- Politico, "John Cornyn: White House lying at ‘new level’," December 3, 2013
- Talking Points Memo, "Sen. John Cornyn To Obama: Call Congress For A Vote On Syria," accessed September 2, 2013
- Politico, "John Cornyn pushes John Kerry to focus on Syria’s bioweapons," September 13, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "PN 48 - Nomination of John Brennan to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- CNN, "Rand Paul says he's heard from White House after filibuster," March 7, 2013
- USA Today, "Rand Paul filibuster ranks among Senate's longest," March 7, 2013
- ABC News, "Rand Paul Wins Applause From GOP and Liberals," March 7, 2013
- The Blaze, "Here Are All the GOP Senators That Participated in Rand Paul’s 12+ Hour Filibuster… and the Ones Who Didn’t," March 7, 2013
- Los Angeles Times, "Sen. Rand Paul ends marathon filibuster of John Brennan," March 7, 2013
- Breitbart, "AWOL: Meet The GOP Senators Who Refused to Stand With Rand," March 7, 2013
- Politico, "Rand Paul filibuster blasted by Sens. John McCain, Lindsey Graham," March 7, 2013
- Washington Post, "Eric Holder responds to Rand Paul with ‘no’," March 7, 2013
- Senate.gov, "H.R. 2642 (Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013)," accessed February 12, 2014
- New York Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
- Politico, "Senate approves $1.1 trillion spending bill," accessed January 20, 2014
- U.S. Senate, "January 16 Vote," accessed January 20, 2014
- Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
- The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
- Senate.gov, "H.R. 2775 As Amended," accessed October 31, 2013
- Washington Post, "Which lawmakers will refuse their pay during the shutdown?," accessed October 2, 2013
- Reuters, "U.S. Senate's No. 2 Republican would oppose Summers for Fed chief," September 12, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 325 - To Ensure the Complete and Timely Payment of the Obligations of the United States Government Until May 19, 2013 - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "S Amdt 1197 - Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- The Washington Post, "How Mitch McConnell and John Cornyn busted Ted Cruz’s Obamacare bubble," September 24, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "S 47 - Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- U.S. Senate "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff" Accessed January 4, 2013.
- John Cornyn, U.S. Senator, "Issues," accessed January 10, 2014
- "Senate Judiciary" List of previous members
- "Senator John Cornyn" Sen. Cornyn Statement In Advance Of The Judiciary Committee’s Vote On Judge Sotomayor, July 28, 2009
- "YouTube" Speech of Senator Cornyn to Dallas Federalist Society, October 14, 2009
- Politico, "John Cornyn hires campaign aide with Ted Cruz ties," July 11, 2013
- Washington Post, "Cruz backed Cornyn, other incumbents, despite no-endorsement pledge," accessed August 26, 2013
- John Cornyn Facebook, accessed December 18, 2013
- news-journal.com, " Red State calls Cornyn 'a sad joke'," July 29, 2013
- National Review Online, "Texas Tea Partiers Gunning For Gohmert to Primary Cornyn," August 7, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
- Open Secrets "Career Fundraising for John Cornyn," Accessed March 25, 2013
- Federal Election Commission "John Cornyn Summary Report," Accessed July 22, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn April Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn July Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn Pre-Primary," accessed April 29, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "John Cornyn October Quarterly," accessed October 27, 2014
- Open Secrets "Top Recipients of Lobbyists Cash in 2013" Accessed July 3, 2013
- Open Secrets "John Cornyn 2008 Election Cycle," Accessed November 23, 2011
- Gov Track "John Cornyn," Accessed June 7, 2013
- OpenCongress, "John Cornyn," Accessed July 30, 2013
- GovTrack, "John Cornyn," Accessed April 2, 2013
- LegiStorm "John Cornyn"
- OpenSecrets.org, "John Cornyn (R-Texas), 2012"
- National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 11, 2013
- National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," February 23, 2012
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
- Official House website "Biography," Accessed November 23, 2011
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