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*[[United States House of Representatives]]

Revision as of 22:25, 19 June 2014

Justin Amash
Justin Amash.jpg
U.S. House, Michigan, District 3
In office
January 3, 2011-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 4
PredecessorVern Ehlers (R)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
First electedNovember 2, 2010
Next primaryAugust 5, 2014
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$2,417,315
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Michigan House of Representatives
High schoolGrand Rapids Christian High School
Bachelor'sUniversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor
J.D.University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Date of birthApril 18, 1980
Place of birthGrand Rapids, Michigan
Net worth$1,545,013
ReligionOrthodox Christian
Office website
Campaign website
Justin Amash campaign logo
Justin Amash (b. April 18, 1980, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing Michigan's 3rd Congressional District. Amash was first elected to the House in 2010.

Amash most recently won re-election in 2012 with 52.6% of the general election vote. He defeated Steve Pestka (D) and Bill Gelineau (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.

Prior to his service in the U.S. House, Amash served one term in the Michigan House of Representatives from 2008 to 2010.

Amash is running for re-election to Michigan's 3rd District in 2014.

Although Amash is classified as voting more often with the Democratic Party according to multiple outside rankings, this stems from his tendency to vote against many Republican-sponsored bills that he views as not conservative or libertarian enough. This includes the 2014 House Budget bill, H Con Res 25, sponsored by Paul Ryan which had 221 Republican votes. Amash voted "nay" for reasons such as: "It accepts the $600 billion in new taxes established at the time of the so-called fiscal cliff deal (which I opposed). It *increases* government spending at the rate of approximately 3.4 percent per year." His reasoning for breaking with the party on these major votes often is on the opposite side of the spectrum from the reasoning the Democratic Party opposes bill such as this one.[1]

Amash is the Chairman of the House Liberty Caucus, which is "a congressional caucus dedicated to the principles of limited government, free markets, and individual liberty."[2]


Amash was born in 1980 in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He attended Grand Rapids Christian High School, graduating as the valedictorian of his class. Amash went on to earn his B.A. and J.D. at the University of Michigan in 2002 and 2005, respectively. Prior to his political career, Amash worked as an attorney.[3]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Amash's political career:[3]

Committee assignments

U.S. House


Amash serves on the following committees:[4]

Joint Economic Committee


Amash served on the following House committees:[5]

In March 2012, Amash was one of two Republicans who voted against Paul Ryan's budget plan in the House Budget Committee. Amash and Tim Huelskamp both said they felt the plan did not cut the budget fast enough. In December 2012 it was revealed that both representatives would not serve on the House Budget Committee in the 113th Congress.[6][7]

Key votes

113th Congress


The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 114 out of the 3,036 introduced bills (3.8 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session.[8] For more information pertaining to Amash's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security

American response in Syria

See also: United States involvement in Syria

It would be illegal for the White House to launch a military strike against Syria without congressional approval, Amash said on August 27, 2013.[10]

Amash used his Twitter account to respond to the news that House Speaker John Boehner (R) had been consulted by the Obama administration about the potential use of force against Syria.[10] He said that if Boehner believes the president will use force, the speaker should call the House back to Washington to debate and vote on that decision.[10]

He further stated, "I don’t think the American people are ready to go to war based on circumstantial evidence. The case for going to war is not that strong, in any event. … The issue has to remain whether this is in the interests of the United States to get involved. If we go there, are we going to cause more bloodshed or less? That’s not clear to me."[11]

NSA surveillance programs

Amendment to defund

The U.S. House of Representatives voted on July 24, 2013, to narrowly defeated an amendment brought by Amash meant to halt the National Security Agency's bulk collection of surveillance data.[12] The amendment would have stripped funding for an NSA program that collects the telephone records of people in the United States, but not the content of calls.[13]

The vote scrambled the usual ideological fault lines in the House, with conservative Republicans siding with liberal Democrats.[14][15] The House voted 205-217 to defeat the amendment with more Democrats than Republicans voting in favor of the amendment.[16][13][17] From Amasha's own party, 134 Republicans voted against the amendment, with only 94 agreeing with it, while 111 Democrats voted for the amendment, with 83 voting against.[16]

Among the Republicans opposing the measure was Michele Bachmann. Bachmann defended the NSA's data collection programs, arguing that "here’s no Fourth Amendment expectation of privacy or right to the business-record exception" concerning the collection of phone metadata.[16] She continued by saying, “If we take this program and remove from the United States the distinct advantage that we have versus any other country, it will be those who are seeking to achieve the goals of Islamic jihad who will benefit by putting the United States at risk, and it will be the United States which will be at risk. I believe that we need to win the War on Terror. We need to defeat the goals and aims of Islamic jihad, and for that reason I will be voting no on the Amash amendment.”[16] Bachmann was joined by, among others, Speaker John Boehner and Majority Leader Eric Cantor in opposing the amendment.[16]

The House on July 24, 2013, overwhelmingly passed a separate NSA amendment, put forward by Rep. Mike Pompeo, that was intended as a middle ground but was blasted by civil liberties advocates as achieving nothing.[13] The measure would ensure that the NSA is barred from acquiring or storing the content of emails and phone calls of people in the United States, but it would allow the NSA to continue storing phone metadata.[13]

James Clapper

On June 12, 2013, Amash called for the resignation of James Clapper, the Director of National Intelligence, because in a congressional hearing in March 2013, Clapper affirmatively asserted that the National Security Agency was not involved in a large-scale surveillance program to gather data on American citizens.[18]

Amash said, "It now appears clear that the director of national intelligence, James Clapper, lied under oath to Congress and the American people...Perjury is a serious crime ... [and] Clapper should resign immediately."[18]


Voted "No" Amash voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[19]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Amash voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[20]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Amash voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[21]


Farm Bill (2014)

Nay3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[22] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[23][24] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[24] Amash voted with 62 other Republican representatives against the bill.

Budget (2014)

Nay3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[25][26] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[26] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[27] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Amash joined with the 63 other Republicans and 3 Democrats who voted against the bill.[25][26]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "Yes" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[28] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[29] Amash voted in favor of the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[30]

Voted "No" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[31] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Amash voted against HR 2775.[32]

Paul Ryan Budget Proposal

Nay3.png In March 2013 the Republican controlled House passed the budget proposal set out by Wisconsin Rep. Paul Ryan (R) for the third straight year.[33] However, not all Republican representatives voted in favor of the proposal.[33] Amash was one of the 10 Republican Representatives who voted against Ryan's budget proposal.[33]

The proposal was killed after being voted down in the U.S. Senate with a 40-59 vote.[34]

The proposal would have cut about $5 trillion over the next decade and aimed to balance the budget by the end of the 10-year period.[33] The 2013 bill had opposition from 10 Republicans — the same number that voted against it in 2012. In 2011 only four Republicans cast a vote in opposition.[33] Democrats have unanimously voted against the bill every year.[33]

2013 Farm Bill

Nay3.png In July 2013 the Republican controlled House narrowly passed a scaled-back version of the farm bill after stripping out the popular food-stamp program.[35][36] The bill passed on a 216-208 vote, with no Democrats voting in favor.[37] All but 12 Republicans supported the measure.[38] The group consisted mostly of conservative lawmakers more concerned about spending than farm subsidies.[38][39] Amash was one of the 12 who voted against the measure.[38]

The farm bill historically has included both billions in farm subsidies and billions in food stamps. Including both of the two massive programs has in the past helped win support from rural-state lawmakers and those representing big cities.[37] After the bill failed in the House in June 2013 amid opposition from rank-and-file Republicans, House leaders removed the food stamp portion in a bid to attract conservative support.[37]

Federal Pay Adjustment Elimination

Voted "Yes" Amash voted for HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[40]

Drought Information System

Voted "No" Amash voted against HR 2431 - The National Integrated Drought Information System Reauthorization Act of 2013. The bill passed the House on February 10, 2014 with a vote of 365 - 21 with 45 not voting. All 21 nays came from Republicans.[41] The bill intended to amend the National Integrated Drought Information System Act of 2006 to specify that the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Program's purpose shall be to better inform and provide for more timely decision-making to reduce drought related impacts and costs.[42]


Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "Yes" Amash voted for House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[43] The vote largely followed party lines.[44]


Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "Yes" Amash voted for House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[45]

Social issues


Voted "Yes" Amash voted for HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[46]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "No" Amash voted against the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 151 Republicans that voted against the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[47]


On The Issues Vote Match

Amash's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of all Congressional members based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Amash is a Libertarian Conservative. Amash received a score of 43 percent on personal issues and 81 percent on economic issues.[48]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[49]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Opposes Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Opposes
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Favors Keep God in the public sphere Unknown
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Favors Human needs over animal rights Unknown
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Unknown
Support & expand free trade Unknown Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Unknown Maintain US sovereignty from UN Unknown
Prioritize green energy Strongly Opposes Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Opposes Stay out of Iran Favors
Privatize Social Security Unknown Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[48] If you notice the rating has changed, email us.

Presidential preference


See also: Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election

Justin Amash endorsed Ron Paul in the 2012 presidential election.

Campaign themes


The following are several issues that were highlighted on Amash's campaign website.[50]

  • Accountability & Transparency

Excerpt: "I am the first-ever Member of Congress to explain every vote I take on the House floor, which I do on my official congressional Facebook Page. In addition, I have never missed a vote as a state legislator or Member of Congress."

  • Economy & Regulations

Excerpt: "Government can best help the economy by making regulations predictable and uncomplicated, simplifying the tax code, and letting businesses stand or fail on their own merit."

  • Education

Excerpt: "The right of parents to educate their children as they see fit, including the right of homeschooling, should not be infringed. Government-mandated curriculums and teaching methods do not properly account for different learning styles, leaving many children confused and falling short of their potential."

  • Environment

Excerpt: "The best way to protect the environment is through strong enforcement of property rights and pursuit of sound economic policy."

  • Healthcare

Excerpt: "As a Member of Congress, I have voted to repeal the President’s plan to force families and individuals to purchase government-approved health insurance... We need reforms that will reduce the real costs of health care, not force participation in a government system."

  • Immigration

Excerpt: "The United States has always welcomed individuals who legally seek to enter our country to work or become citizens, but Congress and the President must make every effort to secure our borders."

  • Life, Faith & Family

Excerpt: "The proper function of government is to protect individual rights—life, liberty, and property. I believe that life begins at conception, and it is unconscionable that government would sanction the taking of the helpless and innocent."

  • National Defense & Civil Liberties

Excerpt: "I have led the fight against big-government initiatives like the Patriot Act, SOPA, CISPA, and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2012."

  • Second Amendment

Excerpt: "Congress must halt the unconstitutional practice of restricting a person’s ability to purchase, transport, store, or possess arms on public lands or on that individual’s private property under the guise of regulating interstate commerce."

  • Social Security & Medicare

Excerpt: "We must keep our promises to seniors and not change benefits for those who are currently receiving or soon will receive Social Security or Medicare... We must begin to phase in significant reforms for the benefit of future generations."

  • State Sovereignty & Individual Rights

Excerpt: "The federal government should not improperly apply the General Welfare Clause, the Commerce Clause, or the Necessary and Proper Clause to justify regulating activities that are not within its authority."



See also: Michigan's 3rd Congressional District elections, 2014

Amash is running for re-election to Michigan's 3rd District in 2014. Amashsought the Republican nomination in the primary on August 5, 2014. The general election took place November 4, 2014.

Conservative Fight Club

According to the conservative website RedState, Amash is one of 16 U.S. House members in the "Conservative Fight Club," a designation meant to describe the gold standard of conservatives, as outlined by RedState. They are the 16 Republicans who voted against the continuing appropriations resolution to avoid the impending government shutdown in March. This type of resolution is used to fund government agencies when a formal federal budget has not been approved.[51]


Michigan's 3rd District Republican Primary
Poll Justin Amash Brian EllisMargin of ErrorSample Size
Strategic National (July 12-14, 2014)
EPIC-MRA (June 10-11, 2014)
Pratical Political Consulting (May 27-29, 2014)
AVERAGES 48% 27.33% +/-4.13 2,438
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org


See also: Michigan's 3rd Congressional District elections, 2012

Amash won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Michigan's 3rd District.[52] He ran unopposed in the August 7, 2012, Republican primary. He then defeated Steve Pestka (D) and Bill Gelineau (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[53]

U.S. House, Michigan District 3 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Steve Pestka 44.2% 144,108
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngJustin Amash Incumbent 52.6% 171,675
     Libertarian Bill Gelineau 3.2% 10,498
     Write-in Steven Butler 0% 2
Total Votes 326,283
Source: Michigan Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"


Steve Pestka vs. Justin Amash
Poll Steve Pestka Justin AmashMargin of ErrorSample Size
(August 18-21, 2012)
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org.

Full history

Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Amash is available dating back to 2010. Based on available campaign finance records, Amash raised a total of $2,417,315 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[55]

Justin Amash's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Michigan, District 3) Won $1,313,802
2010 US House (Michigan, District 3) Won $1,103,513
Grand Total Raised $2,417,315


Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Amash’s reports.[56]


Breakdown of the source of Amash's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Amash won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Amash's campaign committee raised a total of $1,313,803 and spent $1,193,611.[64]

Cost per vote

Amash spent $6.95 per vote received in 2012.


Breakdown of the source of Amash's campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Amash won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Amash's campaign committee raised a total of $1,103,513 and spent $1,093,007.[65]

Personal Gain Index

See also: Personal Gain Index
Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png

The aim of the Personal Gain Index (PGI) is to shine a light on how members of the U.S. Congress may benefit from their tenure as public servants. Researchers at the Government Accountability Institute will look at four different metrics pointing to aspects of self-enrichment.
The PGI will consist of the following metrics:

  • Net worth
    • How much did a member's net worth increase or decrease over a specified period?
  • The K-Street metric (coming soon)
    • What percentage of a member's staff were previously lobbyists?
  • Donation concentration (coming soon)
    • What industries are contributing the most to each member?
  • Stock trading (coming soon)
    • What stocks are each member holding in their portfolio?

PGI: Net worth

See also: Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Amash's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $890,026 and $2,200,000. That averages to $1,545,013, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican representatives in 2012 of $7,614,097.96. Amash ranked as the 174th most wealthy representative in 2012.[66] Between 2009 and 2012, Amash's net worth increased by 83 percent. Between 2004 and 2014, the average increase in the net worth of a congressman was 72.6 percent.

Justin Amash Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2009 to 2012:83%
Average annual growth:28%[67]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[68]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Amash is a "centrist Republican" as of June 2013.[69]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[70]

Amash most often votes with:

Amash least often votes with:

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.


Amash was ranked the 185th most liberal representative during 2012.[71]


Amash was ranked the 192nd most liberal representative during 2011.[72]

Voting with party


Amash voted with the Republican Party 78.6% of the time, which ranked last among the 233 House Republican members as of June 2013.[73]

Lifetime missed votes

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Amash missed 0 of 1,695 roll call votes from Jan 2011 to Mar 2013, which is 0.0% of votes during that period. This is better than the median of 2.2% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[74]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Amash paid his congressional staff a total of $792,266 in 2011. He ranked 45th on the list of the lowest paid Republican representative staff salaries and ranked 50th overall of the lowest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Michigan ranked 13th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[75]


Amash lives in Cascade Charter Township with his wife, Kara, and their three children.[76]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Justin + Amash + Michigan + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Justin Amash News Feed

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See also

External links

Political Tracker has an article on:
Justin Amash


  1. Facebook, "Justin Amash," March 27, 2013
  2. House Liberty Caucus
  3. 3.0 3.1 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Justin Amash," accessed December 21, 2011
  4. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  5. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "House of Representatives Committee Assignments," accessed December 21, 2011
  6. Slate, "The Republicans Who Voted Against the Ryan Budget Won't Be on the Budget Committee Next Year," December 3, 2012
  7. The Hill, "Ryan budget passes committee by one vote," March 21, 2012
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Washington Post, "Amash: Syria strike ‘unquestionably unconstitutional’ without congressional approval," accessed August 28, 2013
  11. Politico, "Justin Amash takes aim at John McCain," accessed September 5, 2013
  12. Huffington Post, "Justin Amash Amendment To Stop NSA Data Collection Voted Down In House (UPDATE)" accessed July 26, 2013
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Politico, "Justin Amash prevails as amendment fails" accessed July 26, 2013
  14. Daily Kos, "Know your caucuses: Breaking down the Amash amendment vote on the NSA," accessed July 26, 2013
  15. Politico, "How the Justin Amash NSA amendment got a vote" accessed July 26, 2013
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 The Atlantic Wire, "The Amash Amendment Fails, Barely," accessed July 26, 2013
  17. United States House, "Final Vote Results," accessed July 26, 2013
  18. 18.0 18.1 The Hill, "GOP's Amash: Clapper should resign," June 12, 2013
  19. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  20. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  21. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  22. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  23. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, With clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  27. Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  28. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  29. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  30. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  31. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  32. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 Washington Post, "10 House Republicans Vote Against Ryan Budget," accessed March 22, 2013
  34. CBS News, "Senate Rejects Paul Ryan Budget," accessed March 22, 2013
  35. Washington Post, "Farm bill passes narrowly in House, without food stamp funding," accessed July 15, 2013
  36. USA Today, "House passes farm bill; strips out food-stamp program," accessed July 15, 2013
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Fox News, "House narrowly passes farm bill after Republicans carve out food stamps," accessed July 15, 2013
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Washington Post, "Which Republicans voted against the Farm Bill?," accessed July 15, 2013
  39. Politico, "Farm bill 2013: House narrowly passes pared-back version," accessed July 15, 2013
  40. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  41. Clerk of the U.S. House, "FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 5," accessed February 14, 2014
  42. Thomas Library of Congress, "Bill Summary & Status 113th Congress (2013 - 2014) H.R.2431 All Information," accessed February 14, 2014
  43. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  44. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  45. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  46. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  47. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  48. 48.0 48.1 On The Issues, "XXNAMEXX Vote Match," accessed June 18, 2014
  49. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers.
  50. Amash's Campaign Website, "Issues," accessed October 5, 2012)
  51. RedState, "Fight Club," accessed March 6, 2013
  52. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Michigan"
  53. Associated Press primary results
  54. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  55. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Justin Amash," accessed May 16, 2013
  56. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash Summary Report," accessed July 26, 2013
  57. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash April Quarterly," accessed July 26, 2013
  58. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash July Quarterly," accessed July 26, 2013
  59. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  60. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash Year-End," accessed February 10, 2014
  61. Federal Election Commission, "Justin Amash April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  62. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed October 20, 2014
  63. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 20, 2014
  64. Open Secrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  65. Open Secrets, "Justin Amash 2010 Election Cycle," accessed December 21, 2011
  66. OpenSecrets, "Amash (R-MI), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  67. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  68. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  69. GovTrack, "Justin Amash," accessed June 7, 2013
  70. OpenCongress, "Justin Amash," accessed August 5, 2013
  71. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  72. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  73. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  74. GovTrack, "Justin Amash," accessed April 2013
  75. LegiStorm, "Justin Amash," accessed December 15, 2012
  76. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed December 21, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Vern Ehlers
U.S. House of Representatives - Michigan, District 3
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Michigan House of Representatives
Succeeded by