Difference between revisions of "Lindsey Graham"
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Revision as of 14:39, 3 July 2014
|U.S. Senate, South Carolina|
|January 3, 2015|
|Years in position||12|
|Predecessor||J. Strom Thurmond (R)|
|Elections and appointments|
|Last election||November 4, 2008|
|First elected||November 5, 2002|
|Next general||November 4, 2014|
|Representative, U.S. House of Representatives|
|Representative, South Carolina House of Representatives|
|City Attorney, Central South Carolina|
|Bachelor's||University of South Carolina, Columbia, 1977|
|J.D.||University of South Carolina Law School, 1981|
|Service/branch||South Carolina Air National Guard|
|Years of service||1989-1994|
|Service branch||U.S. Air Force Reserve|
|Date of birth||July 9, 1955|
|Place of birth||Seneca, SC|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Committee assignments
- 4 Key votes
- 4.1 113th Congress
- 4.1.1 National security
- 4.1.2 Economy
- 4.1.3 Healthcare
- 4.1.4 Immigration
- 4.1.5 Social issues
- 4.1.6 Previous congressional sessions
- 4.2 Senate Judiciary Committee
- 4.3 Rand Paul
- 4.4 Senate Conservative Fund target
- 4.1 113th Congress
- 5 Issues
- 6 Elections
- 7 Campaign donors
- 8 Personal Gain Index
- 9 Analysis
- 10 Recent news
- 11 Personal
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 References
Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Graham is a more moderate right of center Republican Party vote. As a result, he may break with the Republican Party line more than his fellow members.
Below is an abbreviated outline of Graham's academic, professional and political career:
- 1977: Received his B.A. from University of South Carolina, Columbia
- 1981: Received his J.D. from University of South Carolina School of Law
- 1982-1988: United States Air Force
- 1989-1995: South Carolina Air National Guard
- 1995-Present: United States Air Force Reserves
- 1988-1992: Served as assistant county attorney, Oconee County, S.C.
- 1990-1994: Served as city attorney for Central, S.C.
- 1992-1994: Served as member of the South Carolina state house of representatives
- 1995-2003: Served as a Republican in the U.S. Congress
- 2003-Present: U.S Senator from South Carolina
Graham serves on the following Senate committees:
- Subcommittee on Transportation and Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs
- Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
- Subcommittee on Department of Defense
- Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies
- Armed Services
- Subcommittee on SeaPower
- Subcommittee on Personnel
- Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities
- United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary
- Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism Ranking Member
- Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology and the Law
- Subcommittee on The Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights
- Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights subcommittee
Graham served on the following Senate committees:
The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 114 out of the 3,036 introduced bills (3.8 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session. The Senate confirmed 13,949 out of 18,323 executive nominations received (76.1 percent). For more information pertaining to Graham's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.
Graham met with Afghanistan's President Hamid Karzai, along with John McCain in January 2014. The two senators urged Karzai to stop releasing prisoners that are a danger to U.S. security. They also urged him to sign the U.S.-Afghan bilateral security agreement. The U.S. has threatened to remove all U.S. troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2014, if Karzai does not sign the agreement. Karzai wanted to wait to sign the agreement until after the spring election. Karzai could not seek re-election, due to term limits.
- See also: United States involvement in Syria
Graham expressed frustration with President Obama over the Syria situation in September 2013. Obama said he would seek Congressional approval prior to intervening in Syria, and Graham believed this was a mistake. Graham said, "Well, this is about the most mismanaged situation I’ve ever seen since World War II when they were trying to to control the Nazis. I just- this is bizarre. We’re going, we’re not going, we don’t need Congress, yes we do. Let’s see if we can come up with a strategy that has a chance of working. A military strike to degrade Assad, upgrading the rebel opposition forces, regional players help carrying some of the burden makes sense to me. This is [sic] all bad options, but that option to me has a chance of working."
Statement on Russian deal
Graham and Senator John McCain released a joint statement on the Russian deal with Syria to relinquish Syria's chemical weapons. McCain and Graham called the deal, "an act of provocative weakness on America’s part. We cannot imagine a worse signal to send to Iran as it continues its push for a nuclear weapon." They added, "Is the message of this agreement that Assad is now our negotiating partner, and that he can go on slaughtering innocent civilians and destabilizing the Middle East using every tool of warfare, so long as he does not use chemical weapons? That is morally and strategically indefensible." The two senators offered their own recommendation saying, “The only way this underlying conflict can be brought to a decent end is by significantly increasing our support to moderate opposition forces in Syria. We must strengthen their ability to degrade Assad’s military advantage, change the momentum on the battlefield, and thereby create real conditions for a negotiated end to the conflict."
State of the Union Response
Graham had harsh words following the 2014 State of the Union address. Graham said the world described by the president is not the world that he sees. Graham said, "The world is literally about to blow up. The world as I know was not remotely described by the president. Syria is a contagion. Explain to me what happens if the Syrian conflict goes on another year and Assad continues to win. Iraq is disintegrating. The whole region is moving toward chaos, and we’re doing nothing. We’re talking about limiting drones? I hope he will leave a residual force in Afghanistan [so] they can do the job, because if he doesn’t, it will fall apart at a faster pace than Iraq."
John Brennan CIA nomination
Graham voted for the confirmation of John Brennan as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The nomination was confirmed by the Senate on March 7, 2013, with a vote of 63 - 34. Most Democrats supported the nomination, while Republicans were somewhat divided with roughly one-third supporting the nomination.
On March 6, 2013, Senator Rand Paul (R) led a 13-hour filibuster of President Obama's CIA Director nominee, John Brennan. Paul started the filibuster in order to highlight his concerns about the administration's drone policies. In particular, Paul said he was concerned about whether a drone could be used to kill an American citizen within the United States border, without any due process involved. Paul and other civil liberties activists have been critical that President Obama did not offer a clear response to the question. A total of 14 senators joined Paul in the filibuster – 13 Republicans and one Democrat.
Graham spoke out against Rand Paul and those that stood with him, following the filibuster. He said, "To my Republican colleagues, I don’t remember any of you coming down here suggesting that President Bush was going to kill anybody with a drone, do you? They had a drone program back then, all of a sudden this drone program has gotten every Republican so spun up. What are we up to here?"
Benghazi survivors & Obama nominees
On October 28, 2013, Graham took to Twitter to state that he would block every President Obama nominee on the Senate floor until information about the survivors of the attack in Benghazi, Libya is released. Graham tweeted:
Despite this vow, on October 30, Graham announced at a press conference that he was looking forward to confirming President Obama's Department of Homeland Security nominee, Jeh Johnson. Graham referred to Johnson as "a really well-qualified guy." Graham also amended his earlier pronouncement by stating that the block did not extend to Rep. Mel Watt's nomination to director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, since cloture was already filed before Graham's promise.
Graham sponsored and amendment along with Barbara Boxer (D-CA) that would allow victims of military sexual assault to file sworn statements instead of testifying in the pre-trial. Military courts would also have to provide victims’ lawyers with audio recordings of the hearing, in addition to limiting the defense to questions concerning probable cause. The hearings would also have to be presided over by an equal or higher ranking officer than those parties involved.
On February 4, 2014, the Democratic controlled Senate approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill. It passed the Senate with a vote of 68-32. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that will kick in when prices drop; however, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states. Graham joined with 19 other Republican senators in favor of the bill.
On January 16, 2014, the Democratic-controlled Senate approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014. The Senate voted 72-26 for the 1,582 page bill, with 17 Republicans and 55 Democrats voting in favor of the bill. The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations. It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts. Graham voted with the 17 Republican and the 55 Democratic members in favor of the bill.
- See also:United States budget debate, 2013
Graham donated his salary to the Wounded Warriors Project while the government was shutdown.
During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies. The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Graham voted with the Democratic Party for the bill.
No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013
Graham voted for H.R.325 -- No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013. The bill passed the Senate on January 31, 2013, with a vote of 64 - 34. The purpose of the bill was to temporarily suspend the debt ceiling and withhold the pay of members of Congress until a budget could be passed. The vote largely followed party lines with Democrats overwhelmingly supporting it and many Republicans in opposition to the bill.
Affordable Care Act
Graham blasted President Obama following the ACA website roll-out. He said, "The president promised if you liked your health care you could keep it. He said it’d be as cheap as a cell phone and easy as to access as Amazon.com, so he’s oh for three." He also blasted HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius asking, "How could for three years you haven’t noticed that you got to roll out a website on a certain day and it not work? Everybody’s responsible but nobody’s to blame, I guess, is sort of what I learned."
Graham declined his employer contribution toward Obamacare and purchased his health care via South Carolina's health care exchange. Graham explained previously his health care was cheaper and covered more. He claimed a $400 a month increase if he enrolled in Obamacare; however, he was also declining the employer contribution. Graham said, "Sadly, I’m not the only one who will feel the negative effects of Obamacare. It’s happening all over South Carolina."
Following the ACA rollout, Graham acknowledged how difficult it would be to repeal the law now that people are covered by it. He said, "The hardest problem for us is what to do next. Should we just get out of the way and point out horror stories? Should we come up with a mini Contract With America on health care, or just say generally if you give us the Congress, the House and the Senate in 2014, here’s what we will do for you on multiple issues including health care? You become a more effective critic when you say, ‘Here’s what I’m for,’ and we’re not there yet. So there’s our struggle."
Graham voted against Senate Amendment 1197 -- Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border. The amendment was rejected by the Senate on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 39 - 54. The purpose of the amendment was to require the completion of 350 miles of fence described in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 before registered provisional immigrant status may be granted. It would also require 700 miles of fence be completed before the status of registered provisional immigrants may be changed to permanent resident status. The vote followed party lines.
Gang of Eight
Graham is a member of the group of senators deemed the "Gang of Eight." This term is used to reference eight of the most influential Senators on immigration reform and includes four senators from each party. The group calls for comprehensive and bipartisan immigration legislation that includes their "four basic pillars":
- 1. A “tough but fair path to citizenship . . . .contingent upon securing our borders and tracking whether legal immigrants have left the country as required”;
- 2. Reform our legal immigration system with a greater eye toward our economic needs;
- 3. Workplace verification; and
- 4. Setting up a system for admitting future workers (although the term “guest worker” is not used).
Violence Against Women (2013)
Graham voted against S.47 -- Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. The bill was passed by the Senate on February 12, 2013, with a vote of 78 - 22. The purpose of the bill was to combat violence against women, from domestic violence to international trafficking in persons. All 22 dissenting votes were cast by Republicans.
Graham said he was going to introduce legislation in November 2013 to ban abortions after 20 weeks. The only exceptions would be in cases of rape, incest or to protect the life of the mother. Graham asked, "When do you become you, at 20 weeks of a pregnancy? What is the proper role of the government in protecting that child?"
Previous congressional sessions
Graham voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. The bill was passed in the Senate by an 89 - 8 vote on January 1, 2013.
Senate Judiciary Committee
Graham was first appointed to the Senate Judiciary Committee shortly after he was sworn in in January of 2003. Graham has continued South Carolina's long streak of representation on the Senate Judiciary Committee after Strom Thurmond's death in 2003. Thurmond served on the Senate Judiciary Committee from 1967 till his death.
Senator Graham also serves on the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs as the Republican Ranking Member, and he serves on the Senate Judiciary Subcommittees on the Constitution and Administrative Oversight and the Courts.
On the eve of a trip to South Carolina, Rand Paul said in an interview on August 23, 2013, that he is “unlikely” to get involved in the brewing Senate primary between incumbent Lindsey Graham and several would-be conservative challengers.
Paul has clashed with Graham over Paul's support for reducing U.S. foreign aid, specifically to Egypt. Paul proposed cutting off aid to the North African nation after the military seized power there, while Graham initially opposed that proposal.
"The message I’ve been talking a lot about lately is we don’t have enough money to be sending it overseas and squandering it,” Paul said, suggesting military assistance to Egypt would be “counterproductive. If you’re an Egyptian and you’re protesting your government in the street and you’re facing down an American tank, it doesn’t give you a warm, fuzzy feeling in your heart for America. I don’t know what more tanks are going to do for them, or more fighter jets or more tear gas.”
Multiple Graham challengers have criticized his general support for foreign engagement: State senator Lee Bright blasted Graham as a “community organizer for the Muslim Brotherhood,” while Nancy Mace criticized the incumbent for standing “with our president to support a failed foreign policy.” Graham revised his views on Egypt in August 2013 in response to spiraling violence against protesters on the ground there and has called for a suspension of aid.
Without naming names, Paul said he’s not entirely convinced by his fellow Republicans who have shifted stances on aid to Egypt, questioning whether they’d seek to continue sending cash to Egypt by backdoor means. But, he said, “It’s a debate that ultimately is coming in our direction.”
Of the South Carolina primary, Paul said: “I’ve met, I think, all three of the challengers, and like I said, I haven’t made a decision and I think it’s probably unlikely that I’ll get involved.”
Senate Conservative Fund target
On The Issues Vote Match
- See also: On The Issues Vote Match
On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of all Congressional members based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Graham is a Hard-Core Conservative. Graham received a score of 17 percent on personal issues and 78 percent on economic issues.
The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.
|On The Issues Vote Quiz|
|Economic Issues||Social Issues|
|Legally require hiring women & minorities||Opposes||Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right||Strongly Opposes|
|Expand ObamaCare||Strongly Opposes||Comfortable with same-sex marriage||Strongly Opposes|
|Vouchers for school choice||Strongly Favors||Keep God in the public sphere||Strongly Favors|
|Absolute right to gun ownership||Favors||Human needs over animal rights||Neutral|
|Higher taxes on the wealthy||Strongly Opposes||Stricter punishment reduces crime||Strongly Favors|
|Support & expand free trade||Opposes||Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens||Opposes|
|Stricter limits on political campaign funds||Opposes||Maintain US sovereignty from UN||Opposes|
|Prioritize green energy||Strongly Opposes||Expand the military||Favors|
|Stimulus better than market-led recovery||Strongly Opposes||Stay out of Iran||Strongly Opposes|
|Privatize Social Security||Favors||Never legalize marijuana||Strongly Favors|
|Note: Information last updated: 2014. If you notice the rating has changed, email us.|
|U.S. Senate, South Carolina Republican Primary, 2014|
|Lindsey Graham Incumbent||56.4%||178,093|
|Source: Results via Associated Press|
Graham was named by National Journal as one of the top five incumbent senators at risk of losing his or her primary election. Four of the five most vulnerable senators were Republican.
|Poll||Lindsey Graham||Richard Cash||Lee Bright||Nancy Mace||Det Bowers||Bill Connor||Benjamin Dunn||Other/Someone else||Won't vote||Margin of Error||Sample Size|
|Target Point (May 16-22, 2014)||56%||7%||6%||5%||4%||1%||1%||2%||1%||+/-2.8||600|
|Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to|
Graham's approval rating dropped 30 points in October 2013, according to a Winthrop University poll. Only 45.2% of Republicans approve compared to 71.6% in February 2013.
Graham has been endorsed by the following people and organizations:
- National Right to Life and S.C. Citizens for Life.
- The U.S. Chamber of Commerce.
- Gov. Chris Christie (R-NJ)
- During an interview on CNN's Crossfire, Sen. Tim Scott, fellow South Carolina senator, declined to endorse Sen. Graham.
- "I am up for re-election next year myself. I’m going to allow for all the other folks on the ballot to represent themselves very well. I’m going to continue to work hard for my election," Scott said.
Graham released two television ads and two radio ads featuring his younger sister, Darline Graham Nordone on May 20, 2014. Graham Nordone described how her brother Lindsey took care of her while her parents were working and after her parents died when she was only 13 years old. Darline said, “It was hard when we lost my mom and my dad. Lindsey assured me that he was going to take care of me, he was going to be there for me. He never let me down. Never. I don’t see how he did it, to take on the responsibility of raising a little sister. That came from within for Lindsey.”
Comprehensive donor information for Graham is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Graham raised a total of $17,833,932 during that time period. This information was last updated on April 25, 2013.
|Lindsey Graham's Campaign Contribution History|
|2008||U.S. Senate (South Carolina)||$9,713,500|
|2002||U.S. Senate (South Carolina)||$5,838,233|
|2000||US House (South Carolina, District 3)||$2,282,199|
|Grand Total Raised||$17,833,932|
|Lindsey Graham (2014) Campaign Finance Reports|
|Report||Date Filed||Beginning Balance||Total Contributions|
for Reporting Period
|Expenditures||Cash on Hand|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2013||$4,412,522.84||$1,173,386.93||$(203,139.28)||$5,382,770.49|
|July Quarterly||July 13, 2013||$5,382,770.49||$1,406,955.71||$(479,739.23)||$6,309,986.97|
|October Quarterly||October 14, 2013||$6,309,986.97||$1,176,424.79||$(533,899.82)||$69,525,101.94|
|Year-End||January 31, 2014||$6,952,511||$1,312,688||$(625,854)||$7,639,346|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2014||$7,639,346.38||$873,177.74||$(1,657,878.19)||$6,854,645.93|
|July Quarterly||September 27, 2014||$3,713,188.55||$372,354.22||$(1,374,368.18)||$2,711,134.59|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2014||$2,711,134.59||$694,353.89||$(379,422.07)||$3,026,106.41|
Graham received a $5,000 campaign donation from former President George W. Bush in the third quarter.
Graham won re-election to the U.S. Senate in 2008. During that re-election cycle, Graham's campaign committee raised a total of $9,713,500 and spent $6,596,229.
|U.S. Senate, South Carolina General Election, 2008 - Lindsey Graham Campaign Contributions|
|Total Raised by General Election Opponent||$17,105|
|Total Spent by General Election Opponent||$15,202|
|Top contributors to Lindsey Graham's campaign committee|
|Nelson, Mullins et al||$108,541|
|Blue Cross/Blue Shield||$50,650|
|Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee|
Personal Gain Index
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:
- The Net Worth Metric
- The K-Street Metric (coming soon)
- The Donation Concentration Metric (coming soon)
- The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric (coming soon)
PGI: Net worth
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Graham's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $298,007 to $1,095,999. That averages to $697,003, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican Senate members in 2012 of $6,956,438.47. Graham ranked as the 75th most wealthy senator in 2012. Between 2004 and 2012, Graham's net worth increased by 118.5 percent. Between 2004 and 2014, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.
|Lindsey Graham Yearly Net Worth|
|Year||Average Net Worth|
|Growth from 2004 to 2012:||118%|
|Average annual growth:||15%|
|Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.|
The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.
Graham most often votes with:
Graham least often votes with:
Ideology and leadership
Lifetime voting record
According to the website GovTrack, Graham missed 113 of 3,253 roll call votes from January 2003 to April 2013. This amounts to 3.5%, which is worse than the median of 1.7% among current senators as of April 2013.
Congressional staff salaries
The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Graham paid his congressional staff a total of $2,593,274 in 2011. He ranks 14th on the list of the highest paid Republican senatorial staff salaries and ranks 53rd overall of the lowest paid senatorial staff salaries in 2011. Overall, South Carolina ranks 29th in average salary for senatorial staff. The average U.S. Senate congressional staff was paid $2,529,141.70 in fiscal year 2011.
National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Graham was 1 of 2 members who ranked 33rd in the conservative rankings in 2012.
- See also: National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Graham ranked 42nd in the conservative rankings.
Voting with party
Lindsey Graham voted with the Republican Party 79.2% of the time, which ranked 42nd among the 46 Senate Republican members as of June 2013.
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Lindsey + Graham + South Carolina + Senate
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
Graham is single. Graham is a Colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserves is a senior instructor at the Air Force JAG School.
- United States Senate
- United States Senate elections in South Carolina, 2014
- United States congressional delegations from South Carolina
- Social media:
- Political profiles:
- Financial (federal level):
- Interest group ratings:
- Issue positions:
- Public statements:
- Voting record:
- Works by or about:
- Media appearances:
- Media coverage:
- Associated Press, "South Carolina - Summary Vote Results," accessed June 10, 2014
- Congressional Bioguide, "Lindsey Graham," accessed September 18, 2013
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Lindsey Graham," accessed November 4, 2011
- Congressional Quarterly, "Senate Committee List," accessed January 22, 2013
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
- The Hill, "McCain, Graham press Karzai to hold off on prisoner release," accessed January 2, 2014
- Politico, "Lindsey Graham to Obama: Up your game," accessed September 3, 2013
- Politico, "U.S.-Russia Syria deal: Sens. John McCain and Lindsey Graham slam agreement," accessed September 14, 2013
- Roll Call, "Graham Says World ‘Literally About to Blow Up’," accessed January 29, 2014
- Project Vote Smart, "PN 48 - Nomination of John Brennan to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- CNN, "Rand Paul says he's heard from White House after filibuster," March 7, 2013
- USA Today, "Rand Paul filibuster ranks among Senate's longest," March 7, 2013
- ABC News, "Rand Paul Wins Applause From GOP and Liberals," March 7, 2013
- Politico, "Rand Paul filibuster blasted by Sens. John McCain, Lindsey Graham," March 7, 2013
- The Washington Post, "Graham: I will block all appointees until we get answers on Benghazi," accessed October 28, 2013
- Politico, "Graham renews nominee block threat over Libya," accessed October 30, 2013
- Politico, “Barbara Boxer, Lindsey Graham push military justice reform”, accessed November 5, 2013
- Senate.gov, "H.R. 2642 (Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013)," accessed February 12, 2014
- New York Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
- Politico, "Senate approves $1.1 trillion spending bill," accessed January 20, 2014
- U.S. Senate, "January 16 Vote," accessed January 20, 2014
- Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
- Politico, "Hill pols plan to donate, halt salary," accessed October 1, 2013
- The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
- Senate.gov, "H.R. 2775 As Amended," accessed October 31, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "HR 325 - To Ensure the Complete and Timely Payment of the Obligations of the United States Government Until May 19, 2013 - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- Politico, "Lindsey Graham: Obama '0 for 3' on ACA," accessed October 31, 2013
- Politico, "Lindsey Graham declines health care contribution," accessed December 10, 2013
- The New York Times, "With Health Law Cemented, G.O.P. Debates Next Move," accessed January 2, 2014
- Project Vote Smart, "S Amdt 1197 - Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- ABC News, "Who Are the Gang Of 8 in Senate Immigration Debate?," accessed May 7, 2013
- Washington Post, "Gang of Eight immigration plan: Reality-based legislating," accessed May 7, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "S 47 - Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 - Voting Record," accessed September 25, 2013
- Daily Journal, "Sen. Graham says he'll lead efforts in the Senate on a bill banning abortion after 20 weeks," accessed November 4, 2013
- U.S. Senate, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
- Senate Judiciary, "List of previous members"
- Senate Judiciary Committee, "List of Subcommittees"
- Politico, "Rand Paul, heading to South Carolina, talks Lindsey Graham, Egypt," accessed August 26, 2013
- The Hill, "Senate Conservatives Fund targets Isakson with latest 'defund ObamaCare' ad," August 22, 2013
- On The Issues, "Graham Vote Match," accessed June 27, 2014
- The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers.
- Daily Caller, "Nancy Mace to announce primary challenge against Lindsey Graham," accessed August 1, 2013
- National Journal, "Ranking the Top 5 Senators Vulnerable in 2014 Primaries," accessed December 31, 2013
- Politico, "Polls: Lindsey Graham approval drops in South Carolina," accessed October 30, 2013
- The State, "SC politics: Graham, challengers to meet at Columbia town hall," May 16, 2014
- GoUpstate.com, "US Chamber of Commerce endorses Sen. Graham's re-election bid during Spartanburg stop," accessed April 23, 2014
- Politico, "Sen. Tim Scott: Lindsey Graham is on his own," accessed November 21, 2013
- Lindsey Graham, "RELEASE: New Ads Show Graham Siblings Overcame Tough Times Together," accessed June 4, 2014
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
- U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
- Open Secrets, "Donor history for Lindsey Graham" accessed April 25, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Graham 2014 Summary reports," accessed May 14, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed August 1, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed August 1, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 30, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Graham Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed May 14, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2014
- Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed January 27, 2015
- Political Wire, "Bush Donates to Graham's Senate Bid," accessed October 25, 2013
- Open Secrets, "Lindsey Graham 2008 Election Cycle," accessed November 4, 2011
- OpenSecrets, "Graham, 2012," accessed January 14, 2014
- This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
- This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
- This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
- OpenCongress, "Lindsey Graham," accessed August 8, 2013
- GovTrack, "Lindsey Graham," accessed July 2, 2013
- GovTrack, "Graham," accessed April 11, 2013
- LegiStorm, "Lindsey Graham," accessed August 6, 2012
- National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," February 28, 2013
- National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: Senate," accessed February 23, 2012
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
- Lindsey Graham, "About Lindsey," accessed May 29, 2014
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