Difference between revisions of "Marriage and family on the ballot"

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{{Issue}}{{TOCnestright}}Most '''marriage-related ballot measures and initiatives''' offer definitions of marriage as a union of one man and one woman.  In defining marriage in that fashion, proponents are saying that when a man and a man, or a woman and a woman, enter into a committed relationship with each other, their arrangements with each other should not legally be considered a marriage.  These ballot measures are sometimes collectively referred to as [[Defense of Marriage Amendments]] or "DOMAs".
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[[Marriage and family on the ballot]]: This topic refers to ballot measures regarding marriage, unmarried couples, adoption, alimony, and benefits. Subtopics include: [[:Category:Divorce and custody|divorce and custody]] and [[:Category:Domestic partnerships|domestic partnerships]].
 +
 
 +
Examples:
 +
* [[Mississippi Marriage Definition, Amendment 1 (2004)]]
 +
* [[Alabama Interracial Marriage, Amendment 2 (2000)]]
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{{On the ballot list
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|category1 = Marriage_and_family
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|category2 = marriage_and_family
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|text = marriage and family
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}}
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==One man and one woman?==
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Many marriage-related ballot measures offer definitions of marriage as a union of one man and one woman.  In defining marriage in that fashion, proponents are saying that when a man and a man, or a woman and a woman, enter into a committed relationship with each other, their arrangements with each other should not legally be considered a marriage.  These ballot measures are sometimes collectively referred to as [[Defense of Marriage Amendments]] or "DOMAs".
  
 
Altogether, voters in 29 states have passed state constitutional amendments that ban same-sex marriage: [[Alabama]], [[Alaska]], [[Arizona]], [[Arkansas]], [[California]], [[Colorado]], [[Florida]], [[Georgia]], [[Idaho]], [[Kansas]], [[Kentucky]], [[Louisiana]], [[Michigan]], [[Mississippi]], [[Missouri]], [[Montana]], [[Nebraska]], [[Nevada]], [[North Dakota]], [[Ohio]], [[Oklahoma]], [[Oregon]], [[South Carolina]], [[South Dakota]], [[Tennessee]], [[Texas]], [[Utah]], [[Virginia]] and [[Wisconsin]].
 
Altogether, voters in 29 states have passed state constitutional amendments that ban same-sex marriage: [[Alabama]], [[Alaska]], [[Arizona]], [[Arkansas]], [[California]], [[Colorado]], [[Florida]], [[Georgia]], [[Idaho]], [[Kansas]], [[Kentucky]], [[Louisiana]], [[Michigan]], [[Mississippi]], [[Missouri]], [[Montana]], [[Nebraska]], [[Nevada]], [[North Dakota]], [[Ohio]], [[Oklahoma]], [[Oregon]], [[South Carolina]], [[South Dakota]], [[Tennessee]], [[Texas]], [[Utah]], [[Virginia]] and [[Wisconsin]].
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[[Hawaii]] voters approved a constitutional amendment empowering the legislature to outlaw same-sex marriage; that state's lawmakers then did so in 1998.
 
[[Hawaii]] voters approved a constitutional amendment empowering the legislature to outlaw same-sex marriage; that state's lawmakers then did so in 1998.
  
Voters in 2 states have rejected attempts to ban same-sex marriage: [[Arizona]] and [[Connecticut]]. However, [[Arizona]] voters later approved a narrower ban on same-sex marriage that did not affect civil unions or domestic partnerships.
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Voters in [[Arizona]] rejected an attempt to ban same-sex marriage in [[Arizona Protect Marriage, Proposition 107 (2006)|2006]], but voters later approved a [[Arizona Marriage Protection, Proposition 102 (2008)|narrower ban]] on same-sex marriage that did not affect civil unions or domestic partnerships.
 +
 
 +
In 2009 voters in [[Washington]] approved granting all the rights of marriage to registered domestic partners.
  
 
Not all marriage-related amendments and initiatives are about defining marriage; some of them relate to adoption, custody, divorce and other marriage-related issues.
 
Not all marriage-related amendments and initiatives are about defining marriage; some of them relate to adoption, custody, divorce and other marriage-related issues.
 
==2009==
 
 
{{approved}} [[Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)|Maine Question 1]]<br>
 
{{approved}} [[Washington Referendum 71 (2009)|Washington Referendum 71]]<br>
 
  
 
==2008==
 
==2008==
  
In 2008, [[California Proposition 8 (2008)|California Proposition 8]] was approved, representing the first time that same-sex marriage was banned in a state where it was already legal. Other notable developments included the approval of the [[Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment (2008)|Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment]], which banned same-sex marriage in Arizona after a broader proposed amendment failed in 2006. Also, [[Connecticut Constitutional Convention (2008)|Connecticut Question 1]] was defeated, effectively marking the second time that an attempt to ban same-sex marriage has been defeated at the polls.
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In 2008, [[California Proposition 8 (2008)|California Proposition 8]] was approved, representing the first time that same-sex marriage was banned in a state where it was already legal. Other notable developments included the approval of the [[Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment (2008)|Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment]], which banned same-sex marriage in Arizona after a broader proposed amendment failed in 2006.  
 
+
{{approved}} [[Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment (2008)|Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment]] <br>
+
{{approved}} [[Arkansas Unmarried Couple Adoption Ban (2008)|Arkansas Unmarried Couple Adoption Ban]] <br>
+
{{approved}} [[California Proposition 8 (2008)|California Proposition 8]] <br>
+
{{approved}} [[Florida Marriage Amendment (2008)|Florida Marriage Amendment]] <br>
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{{defeated}} [[Connecticut Constitutional Convention (2008)|Connecticut Question 1]]
+
 
+
'''Failed, abandoned, withdrawn, or headed for a future ballot'''
+
 
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* [[California Elimination of Domestic Partnerships Initiative (2008)|California Elimination of Domestic Partnerships Initiative]]
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* [[California Voter's Right to Protect Marriage Initiative v.6 (2008)|California Voter's Right to Protect Marriage Initiative v.6]]
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* [[Florida Abolition of Alimony Obligations (2008)|Florida Abolition of Alimony Obligations]]
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* [[Indiana SJR-7 (2008)|Indiana SJR-7]]
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* [[Oregon Ballot Measure 303 (2008)|Oregon Ballot Measure 303]].
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* [[Oregon Ballot Measure 304 (2008)|Oregon Ballot Measure 304]].
+
 
+
==2007==
+
 
+
{{approved}} [[Alaska Advisory Vote on Same-Sex Public Employment Benefits (2007)]].
+
  
 
==2006==
 
==2006==
  
In 2006, voters in nine states had the opportunity to weigh in on [[ballot measure]]s about how to [[Ballot measures and the definition of marriage|define marriage]].  Each of the nine measures in one way or another was an attempt to legislatively define marriage as between a man and a woman.  The [[Arizona Proposition 107 (2006)|Arizona initiative]] lost, representing the first time that a marriage-related amendment has been defeated (although a narrower ban was approved in 2008).
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In 2006, voters in nine states had the opportunity to weigh in on [[ballot measure]]s about how to [[Marriage and family on the ballot|define marriage]].  Each of the nine measures in one way or another was an attempt to legislatively define marriage as between a man and a woman.  The [[Arizona Proposition 107 (2006)|Arizona initiative]] lost, representing the first time that a marriage-related amendment has been defeated (although a narrower ban was approved in 2008).
 
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===Initiated measures===
+
 
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{{defeated}} [[Arizona Proposition 107 (2006)|Arizona Proposition 107]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Colorado Amendment 43 (2006)|Colorado Amendment 43]]
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===Legislative referrals===
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{{approved}} [[Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment (2006)|Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Colorado Amendment 43 (2006)|Colorado Amendment 43]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Idaho Amendment 2 (2006)|Idaho Amendment 2]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[South Carolina Marriage Amendment (2006)|South Carolina Marriage Amendment]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[South Dakota Amendment C (2006)|South Dakota Amendment C]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Tennessee Marriage Amendment (2006)|Tennessee Marriage Amendment]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Virginia Marriage Amendment (2006)|Virginia Marriage Amendment]] <br>
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{{approved}} [[Wisconsin Question One (2006)|Wisconsin Question One]] <br>
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{{defeated}} [[Colorado Referendum I (2006)|Colorado Referendum I]]
+
  
 
===Campaign finance===
 
===Campaign finance===
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* [[Tim Gill]] and his connections cumulatively contributed $5.28 million to defeat the measures.
 
* [[Tim Gill]] and his connections cumulatively contributed $5.28 million to defeat the measures.
 
* Churches and their employees gave $234,344 to support the measures, versus $1.9 million in 2004.
 
* Churches and their employees gave $234,344 to support the measures, versus $1.9 million in 2004.
 
==2005==
 
 
{{approved}} [[Kansas Marriage Amendment (2005)|Kansas Marriage Amendment]] <br>
 
{{approved}} [[Texas Proposition 2 (2005)|Texas Proposition 2]]
 
 
==2004==
 
 
===Primary===
 
 
{|class="wikitable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" style="background:none" style="width:50%;"
 
|-
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Measure
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Outcome
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | % "yes" votes
 
|-
 
| [[Louisiana Marriage Amendment 1 (2004)|Louisiana Marriage Amendment 1]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 78.0
 
 
|-
 
| [[Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 (2004)|Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 70.7
 
|}
 
 
===General===
 
 
{|class="wikitable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" style="background:none" style="width:50%;"
 
|-
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Measure
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | Outcome
 
! style="background-color:#00008B; color: white;" | % "yes" votes
 
|-
 
|  [[Arkansas Marriage Amendment, Proposal 3 (2004)|Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 74.9
 
 
|-
 
| [[Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1 (2004)|Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 76.2
 
 
|-
 
| [[Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004)|Kentucky Marriage Amendment]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 74.6
 
 
|-
 
| [[Michigan Proposal 2 (2004)|Michigan Proposal 2]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 58.6
 
 
|-
 
| [[Mississippi Marriage Amendment 1 (2004)|Mississippi Marriage Amendment 1]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 86.0
 
 
|-
 
| [[Montana CI-96 (2004)|Montana CI-96]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 66.6
 
 
|-
 
| [[North Dakota Marriage Amendment (2004)|North Dakota Marriage Amendment]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 73.2
 
 
|-
 
| [[Ohio Marriage Amendment (2004)|Ohio Marriage Amendment]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 61.7
 
 
|-
 
| [[Oklahoma State Question 711 (2004)|Oklahoma State Question 711]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 75.6
 
 
|-
 
| [[Oregon Ballot Measure 36 (2004)|Oregon Ballot Measure 36]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" | 56.6
 
 
|-
 
| [[Utah Marriage Amendment (2004)|Utah Marriage Amendment]]
 
| {{ap}}
 
| align="center" |65.9
 
 
|}
 
 
==2002==
 
 
* [[Nevada Marriage Amendment (2002)|Nevada Marriage Amendment]], passed with 66.9%.
 
 
==2000==
 
 
* [[Alabama Amendment 2 (2000)|Alabama Amendment 2]], abolish prohibition on interracial marriages.  Passed with 60%.
 
* [[California Proposition 22 (2000)|California Proposition 22]], defining marriage as one man/one woman.<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E04E1DF1F30F936A15751C0A9669C8B63 ''New York Times'', "Ballot initiative that would thwart gay marriage is embroiling California", February 25, 2000]</ref>  The measure passed with 61.2%.  It was overturned by the [[California Supreme Court]] in May 2008.
 
* [[Nebraska Initiative 416 (2000)|Nebraska Initiative 416]], define marriage as one man/one woman.  Passed with 70%.
 
* [[Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2000)|Nevada Marriage Amendment]], define marriage as one man/one woman.  Passed with 70%.
 
 
==1998==
 
 
* [[Utah Proposition 2 (1998)|Utah Proposition 2]].  Proposition 2 repealed an obsolete, 1896, provision of the [[Utah Constitution]] regarding property rights of married women. Passed with 70.5%.
 
 
* [[Alaska Marriage Amendment (1998)]], amending "the Declaration of Rights section of the Alaska Constitution to limit marriage. The amendment would say that to be valid, a marriage may exist only between one man and one woman."  Passed with 68.1% of the vote.
 
 
==1992==
 
* [[Oregon Ballot Measure 9 (1992)|Oregon Ballot Measure 9]]
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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==External links==
 
==External links==
 
+
*[http://www.dmoz.org/Regional/North_America/United_States/Society_and_Culture/Politics/Issues/Gay_Marriage/ Web Guide] at Dmoz.org
 +
*[http://www.followthemoney.org/database/BallotMeasureSubjects.phtml?bm=154 Financial contributions for gay marriage ballot measures] at FollowTheMoney.org
 
* [http://www.iandrinstitute.org/BW%202008-2%20(Marriage).pdf Same-sex marriage: Breaking the firewall in California?], an October 14, 2008 report by the [[Initiative & Referendum Institute]].
 
* [http://www.iandrinstitute.org/BW%202008-2%20(Marriage).pdf Same-sex marriage: Breaking the firewall in California?], an October 14, 2008 report by the [[Initiative & Referendum Institute]].
* [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5hXq0ocZnYHb3p4e46zz4lFZiG25gD90M8KS01 State policies on gay marriage]
+
* [http://www.heritage.org/issues/family-and-marriage Family and Marriage] at The Heritage Foundation
* [http://www.heritage.org/research/family/marriage50/ Marriage in the 50 states]
+
* [http://www.followthemoney.org/Newsroom/index.phtml?r=394&PHPSESSID=31d2a1506de7fea29cddd6efef216280 $101.1 Million Raised Around Same-Sex Partnership Ballot Measures In 2008]
+
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
<references/>
+
{{reflist}}
  
[[Category:Marriage]]
+
[[Category:Marriage and family]]
 +
[[Category:List of ballot measures about social controversy issues]]

Revision as of 21:58, 1 January 2014

Marriage and family on the ballot: This topic refers to ballot measures regarding marriage, unmarried couples, adoption, alimony, and benefits. Subtopics include: divorce and custody and domestic partnerships.

Examples:

Ballot measures lists

[edit]

Alabama

  1. Alabama Interracial Marriage, Amendment 2 (2000)
  2. Alabama Sanctity of Marriage, Constitutional Amendment 774 (June 2006)


Alaska

  1. Alaska Advisory Vote on Same-Sex Public Employment Benefits (2007)
  2. Alaska Marriage Amendment, Measure 2 (1998)


Arizona

  1. Arizona Definition of Marriage Amendment (2014)
  2. Arizona Legal Grounds for Marriage Divorce, Questions 308 and 309 (1914)
  3. Arizona Marriage Protection, Proposition 102 (2008)
  4. Arizona Physician Certified Marriage Licenses, Proposition 1 (1956)
  5. Arizona Protect Marriage, Proposition 107 (2006)


Arkansas

  1. Arkansas Amendment 3 (2004)
  2. Arkansas Jurisdiction of Matters Relating to Juveniles and Bastardy, Proposed Amendment 2 (1988)
  3. Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)
  4. Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Proposed Constitutional Amendment 3 (2004)
  5. Arkansas Unmarried Couple Adoption Ban, Proposed Initiative 1 (2008)


California

  1. California Proposition 13, Community Property (1920)
  2. California Proposition 22, Limit on Marriages (2000)
  3. California Proposition 8, the "Eliminates Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry" Initiative (2008)


Colorado

  1. Colorado Definition of Marriage, Initiative 43 (2006)
  2. Colorado Domestic Partnerships, Referendum I (2006)
  3. Colorado Marriage Education Act (2014)
  4. Colorado Parental Rights, Initiative 17 (1996)
  5. Colorado Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)




Florida

  1. Florida Definition of Marriage, Amendment 2 (2008)


Georgia

  1. Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)


Hawaii

  1. Hawaii Legislative Power to Reserve Marriage, Question 2 (1998)


Idaho

  1. Idaho Marriage Definition, HJR 2 (2006)





Kansas

  1. Kansas Marriage Amendment (2005)


Kentucky

  1. Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004)


Louisiana

  1. Louisiana Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (September 2004)


Maine

  1. Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)
  2. Maine Same-Sex Marriage Question, Question 1 (2012)


Maryland

  1. Maryland Marriage License Waiting Period, Amendment 4 (1938)
  2. Maryland Same-Sex Civil Marriage Referendum, Question 6 (2012)



Michigan

  1. Michigan Marriage Amendment, Proposal 2 (2004)
  2. Michigan Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  3. Michigan Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)


Minnesota

  1. Minnesota Same-Sex Marriage Amendment, Amendment 1 (2012)


Mississippi

  1. Mississippi Marriage Definition, Amendment 1 (2004)


Missouri

  1. Missouri Marriage Definition, Amendment 2 (August 2004)


Montana

  1. Montana Health Certificates Required for Marriage, IR-36 (1936)
  2. Montana Marriage Verification, Measure CI-96 (2004)


Nebraska

  1. Nebraska Marriage Definition Amendment, Initiative 416 (2000)


Nevada

  1. Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2000)
  2. Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2002)




New Jersey

  1. New Jersey Marriage Amendment, ACR 11 (2014)



North Carolina

  1. North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)


North Dakota

  1. North Dakota Definition of Marriage, Constitutional Measure 1 (2004)
  2. North Dakota Family Law (2006)


Ohio

  1. Ohio Issue 1, the Marriage Amendment (2004)


Oklahoma

  1. Oklahoma Marriage Question 711 (2004)


Oregon

  1. Oregon Adoptees to Receive Birth Certificates, Measure 58 (1998)
  2. Oregon Citizens Alliance
  3. Oregon Home for "Dependent, Delinquent and Defective" Children, Measure 2 (1918)
  4. Oregon Hygienic Marriage Examination and License, Measure 4 (June 1921)
  5. Oregon Marriage Measure 36 (2004)
  6. Oregon Medical Examinations for Marriage Licenses, Measure 4 (1938)




South Carolina

  1. South Carolina Amendment 1, the Marriage Act (2006)
  2. South Carolina Amendment 4 (1998)


South Dakota

  1. South Dakota Marriage Amendment (2006)


Tennessee

  1. Tennessee Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 1 (2006)


Texas

  1. Texas Definition of Marriage Act, Proposition 2 (2005)
  2. Texas Proposition 15 (1999)
  3. Texas Proposition 7 (1999)


Utah

  1. Utah Marital Property Provision Repeal, Proposition 2 (1998)
  2. Utah Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 3 (2004)



Virginia

  1. Virginia Question 1, Marriage Amendment (2006)


Washington

  1. Washington Domestic Partners Rights and Responsibilities, Referendum 71 (2009)
  2. Washington Same-Sex Marriage Veto Referendum, Referendum 74 (2012)



Wisconsin

  1. Wisconsin Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2006)
  2. Wisconsin Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)


2016

  1. Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)
  2. Michigan Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)
  3. Wisconsin Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2016)



2014

  1. Arizona Definition of Marriage Amendment (2014)
  2. Colorado Marriage Education Act (2014)
  3. Colorado Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  4. Michigan Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  5. New Jersey Marriage Amendment, ACR 11 (2014)



2012

  1. Maine Same-Sex Marriage Question, Question 1 (2012)
  2. Maryland Same-Sex Civil Marriage Referendum, Question 6 (2012)
  3. Minnesota Same-Sex Marriage Amendment, Amendment 1 (2012)
  4. North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)
  5. Washington Same-Sex Marriage Veto Referendum, Referendum 74 (2012)




2009

  1. Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)
  2. Washington Domestic Partners Rights and Responsibilities, Referendum 71 (2009)


2008

  1. Arizona Marriage Protection, Proposition 102 (2008)
  2. Arkansas Unmarried Couple Adoption Ban, Proposed Initiative 1 (2008)
  3. California Proposition 8, the "Eliminates Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry" Initiative (2008)
  4. Florida Definition of Marriage, Amendment 2 (2008)


2007

  1. Alaska Advisory Vote on Same-Sex Public Employment Benefits (2007)


2006

  1. Alabama Sanctity of Marriage, Constitutional Amendment 774 (June 2006)
  2. Arizona Protect Marriage, Proposition 107 (2006)
  3. Colorado Definition of Marriage, Initiative 43 (2006)
  4. Colorado Domestic Partnerships, Referendum I (2006)
  5. Idaho Marriage Definition, HJR 2 (2006)
  6. North Dakota Family Law (2006)
  7. South Carolina Amendment 1, the Marriage Act (2006)
  8. South Dakota Marriage Amendment (2006)
  9. Tennessee Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 1 (2006)
  10. Virginia Question 1, Marriage Amendment (2006)
  11. Wisconsin Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2006)


2005

  1. Kansas Marriage Amendment (2005)
  2. Texas Definition of Marriage Act, Proposition 2 (2005)


2004

  1. Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Proposed Constitutional Amendment 3 (2004)
  2. Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)
  3. Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004)
  4. Louisiana Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (September 2004)
  5. Michigan Marriage Amendment, Proposal 2 (2004)
  6. Mississippi Marriage Definition, Amendment 1 (2004)
  7. Missouri Marriage Definition, Amendment 2 (August 2004)
  8. Montana Marriage Verification, Measure CI-96 (2004)
  9. North Dakota Definition of Marriage, Constitutional Measure 1 (2004)
  10. Ohio Issue 1, the Marriage Amendment (2004)
  11. Oklahoma Marriage Question 711 (2004)
  12. Oregon Marriage Measure 36 (2004)
  13. Utah Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 3 (2004)



2002

  1. Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2002)



2000

  1. Alabama Interracial Marriage, Amendment 2 (2000)
  2. California Proposition 22, Limit on Marriages (2000)
  3. Nebraska Marriage Definition Amendment, Initiative 416 (2000)
  4. Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2000)


1999

  1. Texas Proposition 15 (1999)
  2. Texas Proposition 7 (1999)


1998

  1. Alaska Marriage Amendment, Measure 2 (1998)
  2. Hawaii Legislative Power to Reserve Marriage, Question 2 (1998)
  3. Oregon Adoptees to Receive Birth Certificates, Measure 58 (1998)
  4. South Carolina Amendment 4 (1998)
  5. Utah Marital Property Provision Repeal, Proposition 2 (1998)



1996

  1. Colorado Parental Rights, Initiative 17 (1996)









1988

  1. Arkansas Jurisdiction of Matters Relating to Juveniles and Bastardy, Proposed Amendment 2 (1988)

































1956

  1. Arizona Physician Certified Marriage Licenses, Proposition 1 (1956)



















1938

  1. Maryland Marriage License Waiting Period, Amendment 4 (1938)
  2. Oregon Medical Examinations for Marriage Licenses, Measure 4 (1938)



1936

  1. Montana Health Certificates Required for Marriage, IR-36 (1936)
















1921

  1. Oregon Hygienic Marriage Examination and License, Measure 4 (June 1921)


1920

  1. California Proposition 13, Community Property (1920)



1918

  1. Oregon Home for "Dependent, Delinquent and Defective" Children, Measure 2 (1918)



1916

  1. Arizona Legal Grounds for Marriage Divorce, Questions 308 and 309 (1914)



















Did not make ballot

  1. Arizona Civil Partnerships Measure (2010)
  2. Arizona Equal Marriage Amendment (2014)
  3. Arizona Marriage Amendment Repeal, SCR 1004 (2014)
  4. Arkansas Gay Foster Parents Initiative, 2010
  5. California Elimination of Domestic Partnerships Initiative (2008)
  6. California Limit on Marriage (2008)
  7. California No Divorces Amendment (2010)
  8. California Repeal of Proposition 8 (2012)
  9. California Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry Initiative (2012)
  10. California Voter's Right to Protect Marriage Initiative v.6 (2008)
  11. Colorado Gay Marriage Amendment (2010)
  12. Colorado Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2012)
  13. Florida Abolition of Alimony Obligations (2008)
  14. Florida Marriage Amendment (2012)
  15. Florida Right to Intimacy (2) (2012)
  16. Florida Right to have Intimate Privacy (2008)
  17. Florida Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  18. Illinois Protect Marriage Initiative (2006)
  19. Illinois Same-Sex Marriage Ban Amendment (2014)
  20. Indiana Marriage Amendment (2014)
  21. Indiana SJR-7 (2008)
  22. Iowa Marriage Amendment (2010)
  23. Nebraska Repeal Same-Sex Marriage Ban Initiative (2012)
  24. New Hampshire Gay Marriage Question, (2010)
  25. New Hampshire Marriage Amendment (2012)
  26. New Hampshire Same-sex Marriage Question (2012)
  27. New Jersey Same-Sex Marriage Referendum (2012)
  28. New Mexico Marriage Amendment (2012)
  29. New Mexico Marriage Amendment (2014)
  30. North Dakota Shared Parenting Initiative (2008)
  31. Ohio Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2013)
  32. Ohio Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  33. Oregon Ballot Measure 303 (2008)
  34. Oregon Ballot Measure 304 (2008)
  35. Oregon Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2014)
  36. Oregon Same-Sex Marriage Referendum (2012)
  37. Pennsylvania Marriage Amendment (2014)
  38. Rhode Island Marriage Amendment (2012)
  39. West Virginia Marriage Amendment (2010)
  40. West Virginia Marriage Amendment (2012)
  41. West Virginia Marriage Amendment (2014)
  42. Wyoming Same-Sex Marriage Amendment (2012)

Voting on
Marriage and Family
Wedding rings.jpg
Ballot Measures
By state
By year
Not on ballot
Issues
IssuesBallot logo final.jpg

Measures by topic
Measures by year
Measures by state

One man and one woman?

Many marriage-related ballot measures offer definitions of marriage as a union of one man and one woman. In defining marriage in that fashion, proponents are saying that when a man and a man, or a woman and a woman, enter into a committed relationship with each other, their arrangements with each other should not legally be considered a marriage. These ballot measures are sometimes collectively referred to as Defense of Marriage Amendments or "DOMAs".

Altogether, voters in 29 states have passed state constitutional amendments that ban same-sex marriage: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin.

Hawaii voters approved a constitutional amendment empowering the legislature to outlaw same-sex marriage; that state's lawmakers then did so in 1998.

Voters in Arizona rejected an attempt to ban same-sex marriage in 2006, but voters later approved a narrower ban on same-sex marriage that did not affect civil unions or domestic partnerships.

In 2009 voters in Washington approved granting all the rights of marriage to registered domestic partners.

Not all marriage-related amendments and initiatives are about defining marriage; some of them relate to adoption, custody, divorce and other marriage-related issues.

2008

In 2008, California Proposition 8 was approved, representing the first time that same-sex marriage was banned in a state where it was already legal. Other notable developments included the approval of the Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment, which banned same-sex marriage in Arizona after a broader proposed amendment failed in 2006.

2006

In 2006, voters in nine states had the opportunity to weigh in on ballot measures about how to define marriage. Each of the nine measures in one way or another was an attempt to legislatively define marriage as between a man and a woman. The Arizona initiative lost, representing the first time that a marriage-related amendment has been defeated (although a narrower ban was approved in 2008).

Campaign finance

According to a report from the National Institute on Money in State Politics[1]

  • $18 million cumulatively was spent by political committees working for and against the nine proposals.
  • Opponents of the measures outspent advocates by about 3-1.
  • Only in Tennessee did supporters raise more money than opponents
  • The Arlington Group contributed $1.65 million through "member groups and affiliates".
  • Gay and lesbian rights groups contributed $5.64 million, mostly through the Gill Action Fund.
  • Tim Gill and his connections cumulatively contributed $5.28 million to defeat the measures.
  • Churches and their employees gave $234,344 to support the measures, versus $1.9 million in 2004.

See also

External links

Notes

  1. The Money Behind the 2006 Marriage Amendments from the National Institute on Money in State Politics, July 23, 2007 (PDF)