Difference between revisions of "Marriage and family on the ballot"

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(External links)
Line 9: Line 9:
* [[Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)]]
{{approved}} [[Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)]]<br>
* [[Washington Referendum 71 (2009)]]
{{approved}} [[Washington Referendum 71 (2009)]]<br>

Revision as of 10:30, 2 December 2009

Voting on
Marriage and Family
Wedding rings.jpg
Ballot Measures
By state
By year
Not on ballot
Most marriage-related ballot measures and initiatives offer definitions of marriage as a union of one man and one woman. In defining marriage in that fashion, proponents are saying that when a man and a man, or a woman and a woman, enter into a committed relationship with each other, their arrangements with each other should not legally be considered a marriage. These ballot measures are sometimes collectively referred to as Defense of Marriage Amendments or "DOMAS".

Altogether, voters in 29 states have passed state constitutional amendments that ban gay marriage: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin.

Hawaii voters approved a constitutional amendment empowering the legislature to outlaw same-sex marriage; that state's lawmakers then did so in 1998.

However, not all marriage-related amendments and initiatives are about defining marriage; some of them relate to adoption, custody, divorce and other marriage-related issues.


Approveda Maine Same-Sex Marriage People's Veto, Question 1 (2009)
Approveda Washington Referendum 71 (2009)


Approveda Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment
Approveda Arkansas Unmarried Couple Adoption Ban
Approveda California Proposition 8
Approveda Florida Marriage Amendment

Failed, abandoned, withdrawn, or headed for a future ballot


Approveda Alaska Advisory Vote on Same-Sex Public Employment Benefits (2007).


In 2006, voters in nine states had the opportunity to weigh in on ballot measures about how to define marriage. Each of the nine measures in one way or another was an attempt to legislatively define marriage as between a man and a woman. The Arizona initiative lost, representing the first time that a marriage-related amendment has been defeated.

Initiated measures

Defeatedd Arizona Proposition 107
Approveda Colorado Amendment 43, passed with 55%.

Legislative referrals

Approveda Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment
Approveda Colorado Amendment 43
Defeatedd Colorado Referendum I
Approveda Idaho Amendment 2
Approveda South Carolina Marriage Amendment
Approveda South Dakota Amendment C
Approveda Tennessee Marriage Amendment
Approveda Virginia Marriage Amendment
Approveda Wisconsin Question One

Campaign finance

According to a report from the National Institute on Money in State Politics[1]

  • $18 million cumulatively was spent by political committees working for and against the nine proposals.
  • Opponents of the measures outspent advocates by about 3-1.
  • Only in Tennessee did supporters raise more money than opponents
  • The Arlington Group contributed $1.65 million through "member groups and affiliates".
  • Gay and lesbian rights groups contributed $5.64 million, mostly through the Gill Action Fund.
  • Tim Gill and his connections cumulatively contributed $5.28 million to defeat the measures.
  • Churches and their employees gave $234,344 to support the measures, versus $1.9 million in 2004.




Measure Outcome  % "yes" votes
Louisiana Marriage Amendment 1 Approveda 78.0
Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 Approveda 70.7


Measure Outcome  % "yes" votes
Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3 Approveda 74.9
Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1 Approveda 76.2
Kentucky Marriage Amendment Approveda 74.6
Michigan Proposal 2 Approveda 58.6
Mississippi Marriage Amendment 1 Approveda 86
Montana CI-96 Approveda 66.6
North Dakota Marriage Amendment (2004) Approveda 73.2
Ohio Marriage Amendment Approveda 61.7
Oklahoma State Question 711 Approveda 75.6
Oregon Ballot Measure 36 Approveda 56.6
Utah Marriage Amendment Approveda 65.9




  • Alaska Marriage Amendment (1998), amending "the Declaration of Rights section of the Alaska Constitution to limit marriage. The amendment would say that to be valid, a marriage may exist only between one man and one woman." Passed with 68.1% of the vote.


External links


  1. The Money Behind the 2006 Marriage Amendments from the National Institute on Money in State Politics, July 23, 2007 (PDF)
  2. New York Times, "Ballot initiative that would thwart gay marriage is embroiling California", February 25, 2000