Marriage and family on the ballot
|Measures by topic|
|Measures by year|
|Measures by state|
Altogether, voters in 29 states have passed state constitutional amendments that ban same-sex marriage: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin.
Hawaii voters approved a constitutional amendment empowering the legislature to outlaw same-sex marriage; that state's lawmakers then did so in 1998.
Voters in 2 states have rejected attempts to ban same-sex marriage: Arizona and Connecticut. However, Arizona voters later approved a narrower ban on same-sex marriage that did not affect civil unions or domestic partnerships.
Not all marriage-related amendments and initiatives are about defining marriage; some of them relate to adoption, custody, divorce and other marriage-related issues.
In 2008, California Proposition 8 was approved, representing the first time that same-sex marriage was banned in a state where it was already legal. Other notable developments included the approval of the Arizona Marriage Protection Amendment, which banned same-sex marriage in Arizona after a broader proposed amendment failed in 2006.
Failed, abandoned, withdrawn
California Elimination of Domestic Partnerships Initiative
California Voter's Right to Protect Marriage Initiative v.6
Florida Abolition of Alimony Obligations
Oregon Ballot Measure 303
Oregon Ballot Measure 304
In 2006, voters in nine states had the opportunity to weigh in on ballot measures about how to define marriage. Each of the nine measures in one way or another was an attempt to legislatively define marriage as between a man and a woman. The Arizona initiative lost, representing the first time that a marriage-related amendment has been defeated (although a narrower ban was approved in 2008).
- Alabama Sanctity of Marriage Amendment
- Colorado Amendment 43
- Idaho Amendment 2
- South Carolina Marriage Amendment
- South Dakota Amendment C
- Tennessee Marriage Amendment
- Virginia Marriage Amendment
- Wisconsin Question One
- Colorado Referendum I
- $18 million cumulatively was spent by political committees working for and against the nine proposals.
- Opponents of the measures outspent advocates by about 3-1.
- Only in Tennessee did supporters raise more money than opponents
- The Arlington Group contributed $1.65 million through "member groups and affiliates".
- Gay and lesbian rights groups contributed $5.64 million, mostly through the Gill Action Fund.
- Tim Gill and his connections cumulatively contributed $5.28 million to defeat the measures.
- Churches and their employees gave $234,344 to support the measures, versus $1.9 million in 2004.
|Measure||Outcome||% "yes" votes|
|Louisiana Marriage Amendment 1||78.0|
|Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2||70.7|
|Measure||Outcome||% "yes" votes|
|Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3||74.9|
|Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1||76.2|
|Kentucky Marriage Amendment||74.6|
|Michigan Proposal 2||58.6|
|Mississippi Marriage Amendment 1||86.0|
|North Dakota Marriage Amendment||73.2|
|Ohio Marriage Amendment||61.7|
|Oklahoma State Question 711||75.6|
|Oregon Ballot Measure 36||56.6|
|Utah Marriage Amendment||65.9|
- Same-sex marriage: Breaking the firewall in California?, an October 14, 2008 report by the Initiative & Referendum Institute.
- State policies on gay marriage
- Marriage in the 50 states
- $101.1 Million Raised Around Same-Sex Partnership Ballot Measures In 2008
- The Money Behind the 2006 Marriage Amendments from the National Institute on Money in State Politics, July 23, 2007 (PDF)