Difference between revisions of "Massachusetts state budget"

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==State debt==
 
==State debt==
According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Massachusetts had a state debt of over $129 billion. Its state debt per capita was $19,493. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded [[public pensions]].<ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/state-budget-solutions-fourth-annual-state-debt-report ''State Budget Solutions'', "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://washingtonexaminer.com/exography-unfunded-public-employee-pensions-are-driving-state-debts-skyward/article/2542548 ''Washington Examiner'', "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014]</ref>
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According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization [[State Budget Solutions]], Massachusetts had a state debt of over $129 billion. Its state debt per capita was $19,493. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded [[public pensions]].<ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/state-budget-solutions-fourth-annual-state-debt-report ''State Budget Solutions'', "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://washingtonexaminer.com/exography-unfunded-public-employee-pensions-are-driving-state-debts-skyward/article/2542548 ''Washington Examiner'', "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014]</ref>
 
{{State debt box
 
{{State debt box
 
|State = Massachusetts
 
|State = Massachusetts

Revision as of 14:16, 7 May 2014

Massachusetts state budget

Flag of Massachusetts.png
Budget calendar:  Annual
Fiscal year:  2014
State Credit Rating:  AA+ (as of May 2012)
Current Governor:  Deval Patrick
Financial figures
GF expenses[1]:  $25.509 billion (estimated for FY 2013)
All funds expenses:  $60.298 billion (estimated for FY 2013)
Spending % Change:  Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.73%[2]
% from Federal Funding:  28.81%
State Debt:  $129,550,263,000
Per Capita State Debt:  $19,493
Other state budgets
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Policypedia Budget Policy-logo-no background.png
This page contains information about budget processes and policy issues in Massachusetts, including:
  • A summary of the budget drafting process
  • Trends in expenditures and revenues
  • Current and past fiscal year budget developments
  • Financial transparency measures

Between fiscal year 2009 and fiscal year 2013, Massachusetts's total expenditures increased by approximately $11.656 billion, from $48.642 billion in 2009 to $60.298 billion in 2013. This represents a 23.96 percent increase, outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (9.06 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2009 and January 2013).[3][4]

Budget process

The state operates on an annual budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[5][6]

  1. Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies in July of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year.
  2. State agencies submit their budget requests in September.
  3. Agency hearings are held in August and September.
  4. The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature on the fourth Wednesday in January.
  5. The legislature typically adopts a budget in June. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins July 1.

In Massachusetts, the governor may exercise line item veto, item veto of appropriations, or item veto of selected words authority.[6]

The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget proposal. Likewise, the legislature is legally required to pass a balanced budget.[6]

Expenditures

Definitions

Although each state executes its budget process differently, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) breaks down state expenditures into four general categories. This allows for comparisons among the 50 states. NASBO's categories are as follows:[7]

  • General fund: "The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state."
  • Other funds: "Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds."
  • Federal funds: "Funds received directly from the federal government."
  • Bonds: "Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects."

2013 expenditures

Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.

Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State General fund Federal funds Other funds Bonds Total Per capita expenditures
Massachusetts $25,509 $15,548 $17,135 $2,106 $60,298 $9,009.35
Connecticut $19,030 $2,555 $3,618 $2,935 $28,138 $7,824.63
Maine $3,042 $2,564 $2,176 $16 $7,798 $5,870.65
New Hampshire $1,262 $1,601 $2,080 $81 $5,024 $3,796.11
Rhode Island $3,268 $2,659 $2,122 $84 $8,133 $7,734.58
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8][9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditures by function

Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State expenditures in Massachusetts can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)[7]
State Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
Massachusetts 10.7% 9.3% 2.5% 20.7% 2.1% 6.2% 48.6%
Connecticut 13.9% 10.3% 1.4% 21.4% 2.5% 10.0% 40.6%
Maine 13.1% 3.4% 2.6% 28.8% 1.7% 8.6% 41.8%
New Hampshire 23.5% 2.7% 1.9% 23.9% 2.1% 10.1% 35.9%
Rhode Island 14.2% 13.2% 1.4% 25.0% 2.4% 6.5% 37.4%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditure trends

From 2008 to 2012, elementary and secondary education spending fell by 3.20 percent. Similarly, higher education and corrections expenditures fell by 0.60 and 0.70 percent respectively. During the same period, Medicaid spending rose by two percent. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.[7][10][11][12][13] Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
Year Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
2012 10.7% 9.3% 2.5% 20.7% 2.1% 6.2% 48.6%
2011 11.6% 9.9% 2.4% 19.2% 2.3% 6.2% 48.3%
2010 12.9% 7.9% 2.5% 18.8% 2.5% 6.9% 48.6%
2009 13.0% 9.3% 3.1% 17.7% 2.6% 5.4% 49.0%
2008 13.9% 9.7% 3.1% 18.7% 2.8% 5.6% 46.2%
Change in % -3.20% -0.40% -0.60% 2.00% -0.70% 0.60% 2.40%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenues

2013 revenues

Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
Massachusetts $5,164 $12,831 $1,822 $0 $7,352 $27,169 $4,059.42
Connecticut $3,857 $8,719 $742 $612 $5,437 $19,366 $5,385.31
Maine $1,034 $1,495 $171 $0 $351 $3,051 $2,296.92
New Hampshire $0 $0 $552 $3 $1,728 $2,283 $1,725.03
Rhode Island $873 $1,075 $137 $1 $1,238 $3,324 $3,161.17
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.[8]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenue trends

The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.[7][10] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, Massachusetts ($ in millions)[7][10]
Year Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
2013 $5,164 $12,831 $1,822 $0 $7,352 $27,169 $4,059.42
2012 $5,059 $11,911 $1,771 $0 $7,304 $26,046 $3,919.46
2011 $4,905 $11,576 $1,951 $0 $6,765 $25,197 $3,814.10
2010 $4,612 $10,110 $1,600 $0 $2,222 $18,544 $2,825.42
2009 $3,869 $10,584 $1,549 $0 $2,259 $18,259 $2,769.21
Change in % 33.47% 21.23% 17.62% 0.00% 225.45% 48.80% 46.59%
Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8][9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State budgets by year

DocumentIcon.jpg See budget bill: Chapter 38, Acts of 2013

Fiscal year 2014

Massachusetts state budget -- 2014
Massachusetts State Legislature
Text:Chapter 38, Acts of 2013
Legislative History
Introduced:January 24, 2013
State House:April 24, 2013
Vote (lower house):127-29
State Senate:May 23, 2013
Vote (upper house):36-3
Conference:July 1, 2013
Conference Vote (upper house):36-3
Conference Vote (lower house):124-29
Governor:Deval Patrick
Signed:July 12, 2013
Vetoed:July 12, 2013 (items vetoed; items passed over veto on July 30, 2013)

On July 12, 2013, Governor Deval Patrick signed the fiscal year 2014 budget into law. The budget as enacted boasted significant funding increases for education and related programs, including an additional $130 million for Chapter 70 school aid and an additional $15 million for early education programs. The budget also included $97 million for public universities and colleges, which, according to Patrick, would result in "no tuition and fee increases in the coming year." In order to balance the budget, Patrick authorized a $350 million withdrawal from the state's Stabilization Fund.[14]

Patrick vetoed approximately $240 million in transportation funding and $177 million in aid to local governments. Patrick argued that he could not support these items until the state legislature completed work on a separate transportation finance bill.[14]

Fiscal year 2013

See also: Massachusetts state budget (2012-2013)

Fiscal year 2012

See also: Massachusetts state budget (2011-2012)

Fiscal year 2011

See also: Massachusetts state budget (2010-2011)

Fiscal year 2010

See also: Massachusetts state budget (2009-2010)

Historical spending

State budget historical spending below was compiled by the National Association of State Budget Officers. Figures reflect the reported "Total Expenditures" in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).[7][11]

Historical state budget spending in Massachusetts ($ in millions)
Fiscal year General Fund Other funds Federal funds Bonds Budget totals
Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget
2011-2012 $24,011 40.5% $16,935 28.6% $16,157 27.3% $2,168 3.7% $59,271
2010-2011 $21,997 39.6% $18,570 33.4% $13,088 23.6% $1,919 3.5% $55,574
2009-2010 $21,874 42.7% $15,088 29.4% $12,481 24.3% $1,835 3.6% $51,278
Averages: $22,627.33 41% $16,864.33 30% $13,908.67 25% $1,974 4% $55,374.33
General Fund: The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state.
Other funds: Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds.
Federal funds: Funds received directly from the federal government.
Bonds: Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects.

State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Massachusetts had a state debt of over $129 billion. Its state debt per capita was $19,493. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded public pensions.[15][16]

Total state debt in Massachusetts[17]
Type Totals U.S. rank
Total state debt $129,550,263,000 10
Per capita debt $19,493 12
State and other fund expenditures $40,946,000,000 36

Public pensions

See also: Massachusetts public pensions and Massachusetts public employee salaries

A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that the commonwealth's pension system was funded at 71 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, below the 80 precent funding level experts recommend. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as cause for "serious concern."[18]

The funding ratio for the state's pension system decreased from 77.00 percent in fiscal year 2007 to 66.72 percent in fiscal year 2012, a 10.28 percent drop. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from over $11.7 billion in fiscal year 2007 to more than $21 billion in fiscal year 2012.[19]

Credit ratings

States sometimes sell general obligation bonds to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states, evaluating their ability to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest. Generally speaking, a higher credit ranking indicates lower risk for an investor, which in turn lowers costs for taxpayers.[20]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ranking for Massachusetts from 2001 to 2012 (grades from surrounding states are provided for additional context).[20]

S&P credit ratings from 2001 to 2012
Massachusetts Connecticut Maine New Hampshire Rhode Island
2012 AA+ AA AA AA AA
2011 AA AA AA AA AA
2010 AA AA AA AA AA
2009 AA AA AA AA AA
2008 AA AA AA AA AA
2007 AA AA AA AA AA
2006 AA AA AA- AA AA
2005 AA AA AA- AA AA
2004 AA- AA AA AA AA-
2003 AA- AA AA+ AA AA-
2002 AA- AA AA+ AA+ AA-
2001 AA- AA AA+ AA+ AA-

Federal aid to state budget

See also: Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states

The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1," the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.[21]

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[21]

Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State Federal aid as % of general revenue Total federal aid National rank
Massachusetts 28.81% $12,920,153,000 36
Connecticut 23.61% $5,781,844,000 46
Maine 36.50% $2,883,526,000 10
New Hampshire 29.00% $1,693,289,000 34
Rhode Island 33.96% $2,310,656,000 23

Stimulus

As of 2013, Massachusetts had received over $7 billion in federal stimulus funding.[22]

Budget transparency

Transparency evaluation
Informed Massachusetts
Searchability Y
600px-Yes check.png
Grants N
600px-Red x.png
Contracts Y
600px-Yes check.png
Line item expenditures N
600px-Red x.png
Dept./agency budgets Y
600px-Yes check.png
Public employee salaries Y
600px-Yes check.png
Last evaluated in 2012.
See also: Evaluation of Massachusetts state website and Constitutional provisions regarding reading of bills


The state maintains an official transparency website called Informed Massachusetts. The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by the site.

The Massachusetts Budget and Policy Center, which "provides independent research and analysis of state budget and tax policies," tracks actual spending in real and nominal terms using a "Budget Browser."[23]

Multi-measure budget transparency profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Massachusetts created a multi-measure transparency profile for Massachusetts, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[24][25]

IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. Massachusetts tied for 20th in the nation with 12 other states, earning five out of eight possible points.[25]

Massachusetts - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
Budget transparency indicator Yes or no?
Performance measures
{{{1}}}
"Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget N
600px-Red x.png
Multi-year forecasting
{{{1}}}
Annual cycle Y
600px-Yes check.png
Binding revenue forecast
{{{1}}}
Legislative revenue forecast
{{{1}}}
Non-partisan staff N
600px-Red x.png
Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations N
600px-Red x.png
TOTAL 5

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[25]

U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[26] According to the report, Massachusetts received a grade of A- and a numerical score of 90.5, indicating that Massachusetts was "leading" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[26]

Accounting principles

See also: Massachusetts government accounting principles

The Office of the Auditor of the Commonwealth publishes its audit reports online and is responsible for:[27]

  • Determining whether the Commonwealth's resources are properly safeguarded;
  • Determining whether such resources are properly and prudently used;
  • Evaluating internal controls to help insure integrity in financial management systems;
  • Determines whether computer systems and technology environment meet control objectives regarding security, integrity, and availability;
  • Evaluating management's economy and efficiency in it use of resources;
  • Determining and evaluating a program's results, benefits, or accomplishments; and
  • Ensuring that all audit results are fully disclosed to the public and the auditees.

Contact information

Massachusetts Executive Office for Administration and Finance
State House, Room 373
Boston, Massachusetts 02133
Telephone: 617-727-2040

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. Refers to General Fund spending. Typically in state budgets the General Fund is spending that is most directly controlled by state legislators.
  2. This figure is derived by calculating the percent difference between the prior two years' spending levels according to the National Association of State Budget Officers.
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014
  4. InflationData.com, "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 United States Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 United States Census Bureau, "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  12. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  13. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 WAMC - Northeast Public Radio, "Mass. Governor Signs FY2014 Budget, Vetoes Transportation Funding," July 12, 2013
  15. State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  16. Washington Examiner, "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014
  17. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  18. Pew Center on the States, "Widening Gap Update: Massachusetts," June 18, 2012
  19. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2012," accessed November 13, 2013
  20. 20.0 20.1 Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. Recovery.gov, "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014
  23. MassBudget, "Budget Browser," accessed April 23, 2014
  24. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Massachusetts, "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Massachusetts, "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011
  26. 26.0 26.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  27. Office of the Auditor of the Commonwealth, "Authority/Responsibility," accessed October 26, 2009