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==Fiscal Year 2012 State Budget==
==Fiscal Year 2012 State Budget==
* '''See past [[Archived Missouri state budgets|state budgets]]'''
* '''See past [[Archived Missouri state budgets|state budgets]]'''
Missouri faced an estimated $500 million budget deficit for FY2012<ref name=slowly/>, equivalent to $83 for each state resident.<ref name=difficulties>[ "State's budget deficit presents difficulties" Jan. 2, 2011]</ref> Lawmakers passed a $23.2 billion operating budget for FY2012 on May 5, 2011.<ref name=forbes/>  Gov. Nixon  signed the budget on June 10, 2011, but he first cut $172 million from the budget.<ref name=signs>[ St. Louis Public Radio "Nixon signs, and cuts, FY2012 Mo. budget" June 10, 2011]</ref>  A summary of the budget bills from the Office of Administration can be found online. <ref>[ FY 2012 Budget Bill Summaries]</ref>
Missouri faced an estimated $500 million budget deficit for FY2012<ref name=slowly/>, equivalent to $83 for each state resident.<ref name=difficulties>[ "State's budget deficit presents difficulties" Jan. 2, 2011]</ref> Lawmakers passed a $23.2 billion operating budget for FY2012 on May 5, 2011.<ref name=forbes/>  Gov. Nixon  signed the budget on June 10, 2011, but he first cut $172 million from the budget.<ref name=signs>[ St. Louis Public Radio "Nixon signs, and cuts, FY2012 Mo. budget" June 10, 2011]</ref>  A summary of the budget bills from the Office of Administration can be found online.<ref>[ FY 2012 Budget Bill Summaries]</ref>
The state's net general revenue collections grew 3.2 percent for FY 2012, but they were lower than those collected in FY 2008 and did not increase as much as revenues did in FY2011.<ref>[ The Missouri Budget Project "Missouri General Revenue Report, FY 2012 Summary" July 31, 2012]</ref>
The state's net general revenue collections grew 3.2 percent for FY 2012, but they were lower than those collected in FY 2008 and did not increase as much as revenues did in FY2011.<ref>[ The Missouri Budget Project "Missouri General Revenue Report, FY 2012 Summary" July 31, 2012]</ref>

Revision as of 20:14, 10 March 2014

Missouri state budget

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Budget calendar:  Annual
Fiscal year:  2014
Other state budgets
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In FY2012, The state of Missouri faced a budget shortfall by 2012 ranging between $600 million and $1 billion, with the state predicting the smaller figure and the Missouri Budget Project the higher estimate.[1] The state legislature passed a $23 billion budget for FY2012 on May 5, 2011, and it spent approximately the same amount as the FY2011 state budget.[2] Governor Jay Nixon, on June 10, 2011, made $172 million in budget cuts aimed in order to both balance the state finances and assist the state in recovering from natural disasters.[3] He signed the budget the day after making the cuts.[4]

Missouri operates on an annual budget cycle and begins the fiscal year on July 1 of each year.[5]

In FY 2012, Missouri had a total state debt of approximately $65,791,997,000 when calculated by adding the total of outstanding official debt, pension and other post-employment benefits (OPEB) liabilities, Unemployment Trust Fund loans, and the FY2013 state budget budget gap.[6] The state debt total was down slightly from the FY2012 total of $66,307,890,000.[7] Missouri's total state debt per capita was $10,945.83.[8]

Federal Aid to State Budget

The chart below represents how much of the state’s budget comes from the federal government. The number was the corresponding ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (if #1, the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation):

State 2008 2009 2010 2011
Missouri 35.35% (#6) 39.35% (#5) 45.19% (#4) 44.36% (#5)
  • Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue.[9][10]

Fiscal Year 2014 State Budget

Gov. Jay Nixon discussed details of his proposed fiscal plan for FY2014, including a $25.7 billion operating budget, in his State of the State address on Jan. 23, 2013. The proposal included a $900 million Medicaid expansion for low-income working adults that was called for under President Barack Obama's health care law.[11] Under the plan, an approximately 300,000 additional Missourians would receive health care coverage.[12]

His proposed budget included:[13]

  • $150 million more in education spending,[13] including a $66 million increase to the state's $3 billion basic aid program for K-12 public schools, but funding still falls $620 million shy of the amount called for by the state's school funding formula;[11]
  • $10 million increase for public safety programs related to mental health;[13]
  • a 2 percent pay increases for state employees, effective Jan. 1, 2014;[13]
  • $150 million more, a 4 percent increase, for higher education, with $34 million be distributed if public colleges and universities meet new performance criteria, such as student retention and graduation rates.[11][14]

The budget relied on $165 million from other legislation that had not passed at the time of his proposal, including money from the expansion of Medicaid, which Republican lawmakers had opposed.[13]

Fiscal Year 2013 State Budget

On April 25, 2012, the Senate passed a $24 billion budget that did not cut services to the blind at the House budget does, and gives state employees earning up to $45,000 annually a raise.[15] The budget went to a conference committee, and the legislature presented it to the governor.[15][16]

The enacted bills comprising the state budget can be found online.[17]

In Aug. 2012, the state borrowed $100 million from the Budget Reserve Fund to put in the general fund and plans to repay it by mid-May 2013, before the end of the fiscal year.[18]

Missouri officials in Dec. 2011 predicted a 3.9 increase in state revenue, giving the state approximately $7.6 billion for FY2013.[19] The budget was based on that assumption of 3.9 percent revenue growth.[20] The state faces a deficit of $500 million.[21]State Representative Tony Dugger said that the FY2013 budget discussions would include no plans for proposed tax increases or new taxes.[22]


Education funding was based on the assumption of that lottery proceeds would grow by $50 million in FY 2013, or 18.5 percent. If that increase did not materialize, the resulting shortfall could necessitate cuts in K-12 education or other areas of the budget funded by general revenue.[20]

Legislative Proposed Budget

The conference committee made up of lawmakers from both chambers agreed on a budget on May 10, 2012,[23] and sent the budget to the governor for his signature.[24] It spends $50 million less than the governor's proposed budget.[23] The budget spends $8 billion of general revenue, the most flexible area of the budget, and funding for public schools remains the same as FY2012.[24] Highlights of the budget include:[23]

  • A health care program for blind Missourians would receive most of its funding from the state budget;
  • Seven universities would split a $3 million boost to higher education funding;
  • Missouri's seven veterans homes would be funded primarily through the state's casino entrance fee;
  • State workers who earn less than $70,000 annually would receive 2 percent raises in the coming year.

The House Budget Committee added $1 billion to the budget. The House budget plan allots just 75 percent of the additional Medicaid money requested to cover an increased use of some Department of Mental Health services. It also allots 75 percent of the amount needed to offset a decline in the federal matching rate for Missouri's Medicaid services in the departments of social services and health.[25]

The House approved the 13 appropriations bills that make up the state’s FY2013 operating budget[26] on March 22, 2012.[27] The budget included $6 million for a scaled-down version of the health care program, with $4 million of that total coming from legislation that hasn’t passed yet that ends a sales tax exemption for newspapers.[27] It eliminates a $28 million health care program that serves about 2,800 blind people who did not qualify for Medicaid, and directed that money toward higher education to avoid cuts at the state's universities.[27]

The Senate Appropriations Committee agreed to keep the House’s proposals for higher education funding, which would keep spending stable relative to this year’s amount. Senators said they were also looking for a way to restore funding to the program for the blind, which the House had cut to fund higher education.[28]

The Senate also differed with Nixon and the House on an increase in pay for state employees, who had not seen a raise in four years. Nixon recommended all employees get an increase but delayed its effective start until Jan. 1. The House approved a pay raise starting July 1 but would apply it only to those workers making less than $70,000. The Senate approved a plan that would also start on July 1 but only cover workers making less than $45,000.[28]

Governor's Proposed Budget

Gov. Jay Nixon presented his proposed FY2013 budget on Jan. 17, 2012.

The budget cut $508 million, and those cuts include:

  • $191 million from Medicaid,
  • $89 million from higher education, and
  • 816 state jobs[29]

The proposed budget increased funding in some areas, including:

  • K-12 school funding by $5 million, but it was still nearly $500 million less than what was called for by the state’s school funding formula, and
  • a 2 percent raise for state employees, starting Jan. 1, 2013, at a cost of $23.6 million.[30]

The plan relied on $52 million in increased revenue from a tax amnesty plan that twice failed to clear the legislature in 2011.[30] Other sources of new revenue include:

  • expanding a state license ban for professionals and businesses that haven’t paid state taxes;
  • transfer of money from a fund of the Missouri Health and Educational Facilities Authority; and
  • increasing casino fees.

The governor's plan predicts that all together, a total of $100 million in new revenue could be generated.[31]

The governor proposed finding money to plug a budget shortfall by asking universities to give the state money from their reserve funds. The governor's proposal called for the University of Missouri to chip in $63 million and four other schools to come up with lesser amounts, for a total of $107 million.[32] On Jan. 5, 2012, the governor said that plan was now "off the table."[21] When the House cut a program for the blind to offset cuts to higher education, the governor proposed using $17.75 million in new federal money related to the Medicaid program to supplement blind health care.[28]

Fiscal Year 2012 State Budget

Missouri faced an estimated $500 million budget deficit for FY2012[33], equivalent to $83 for each state resident.[34] Lawmakers passed a $23.2 billion operating budget for FY2012 on May 5, 2011.[35] Gov. Nixon signed the budget on June 10, 2011, but he first cut $172 million from the budget.[4] A summary of the budget bills from the Office of Administration can be found online.[36]

The state's net general revenue collections grew 3.2 percent for FY 2012, but they were lower than those collected in FY 2008 and did not increase as much as revenues did in FY2011.[37]

When a mortgage foreclosure settlement between banks and states was announced in Feb. 2012, Attorney General Chris Koster said that he plans to put $40 million of Missouri's mortgage foreclosure settlement money -- about 20 percent of the total $196 million that the state would receive -- into the general state fund.[38] Gov. Jay Nixon then said he planned to use nearly all of the state's $41 million settlement payment to offset some of the budget cuts he made earlier in the fiscal year, although he did not specify which cuts.[39]

In August, the governor restored $1.2 million of his prior cuts to programs for elderly and children. He did so because of a 9.13 percent rise in state individual income tax collections in the prior 12 months, taking that as a sign that revenue growth was likely to continue through FY2012. The state's budget director said that it on target to meet its budget growth figure, estimated at around two percent, despite a 0.9 percent decline in sale tax revenue.[40]

Natural Disaster Costs and the Governor's Authority

Following devastating tornadoes in Joplin, Missouri, the governor withheld $172 million in state funding, including $57 million in general revenue funds, for various programs in order to pay for disaster recovery. Missouri state Auditor Tom Schweich filed a lawsuit against Gov. Nixon on Aug. 26, 2011, alleging the governor violated the state constitution when he withheld the funds, saying that the process was not legal and not transparent. Republicans had commented that, after Nixon withheld the funds in June, the budget was more closely aligned with his original recommendations than it was when the Legislature adjourned.[41]

On Oct. 31, 2011, a Cole County judge heard arguments on whether the governor cut the state budget regardless of whether revenue was running short. The case was expected to focus on a provision in the Missouri Constitution that reads: "a section of the Missouri Constitution that states: "The governor may control the rate at which any appropriation was expended during the period of the appropriation by allotment or other means, and may reduce the expenditures of the state or any of its agencies below their appropriations whenever the actual revenues were less than the revenue estimates upon which the appropriations were based."[42]

Gov. Nixon's Cuts

After the passage of the bill, Gov. Jay Nixon cautioned that he may had to make additional cuts because it spends at least $30 million more than he expects the state to receive in revenues that he may had to make cuts.[35] Nixon made good on that threat on June 10, 2011, when he announced that he would cut $172 million in order to balance state finances and also help rebuild portions of the state damaged by natural disasters. State Budget Director Linda Luebbering said additional cuts may had to be made down the road depending on the cost of the disaster and future revenue projections.[43]

His cuts included:

  • $14.9 million from universities[43]
  • $1.9 million from community colleges[43]
  • $13.9 million to Medicaid[43]
  • $8 million for school buses[4]
  • $6 million to the judicial branch[43]
  • $3 million for college scholarships[4]
  • $2 million to corrections with management encouraged to use comp time and other tools to save money[43]
  • $800,000 million from the Legislature's budget[43]

The cuts to universities and colleges match those that Nixon first proposed identical cuts in January, when he released his initial budget proposal. Overall, he cut 46 programs.[43]

Legislative Budget

The legislature approved a $23.2 billion operating budget for FY2012 on May 5, 2011. The budget included a $1.1 million increase for the state's oversight of dog-breeding businesses and cuts $1.6 million from state aid to conduct property assessments, which help set a property tax base for local schools. It also eliminates funding for the chef at the governor's mansion.[35] The budget would phase out the corporate franchise fee, costing the state $24 million in FY2012.[43] The budget reduces state aid to conduct property assessments by $1.6 million. he budget included a $1.1 million increase for the state's oversight of dog-breeding businesses, which had been a focal-point of controversy in Missouri.[44]


Under the legislative version of the budget, K-12 public schools would receive $3 billion in basic aid, the same amount as the current year but $180 million less than what the state's school funding formula dictates. The budget provides $107 million for school transportation, which provides funding for busing, $45 million less than what schools were supposed to get this year, but about $10 million more than what they actually got after Nixon's budget cuts.[44]

For higher education, the governor's budget plan would have reduced core budgets of colleges and universities by 7 percent, but the legislative budget included a roughly 5.5 percent cut. For the second year, the primary college scholarship program would rely on the transfer of $30 million from the Missouri Higher Education Loan Authority, which services college loans.[44][35]

Initial House and Senate Proposals

The Senate approved its state budget proposal, which totals $23.2 billion, on April 20, 2011.[45] It keeps basic school aid the same as last year’s budget[45] and would restore part of the cuts that had been proposed for school busing aid and for public colleges and universities.[46]

The House approved its $23.2 billion version of the state budget.[47] The plan approved by the House was $700 million less than what the state planned to spend in FY2011 and $142 million more Gov. Nixon's proposed FY2012 budget.[48] The House budget provided $200,000 for the Film Commission, which was cut in the governor's version of the budget, added $200,000 more for Parents as Teachers and spends $2 million for a program at Missouri State University that aims to bring more pharmacists to the area. The budget plan would allot about $3 billion in basic aid for public schools in the upcoming academic year, the same amount they received this year. [49]


Presumptive House Speaker Steven Tilley said Republicans would not support tax increases, meaning that the General Assembly would likely had to make $500 million in cuts to the budget.[34] Just under one third -- about $7.5 billion -- of the FY2011 budget comes from "general revenue," or places where legislators were free to cut.[34] Most of the general revenue budget goes toward health care or education.[34]

In his State of the State address on Jan. 19, 2011, the governor said that he would reduce total state spending and while keeping K-12 school funding the same, he planned to reduce aid to colleges and cut around 860 state employee positions.[50] In addition, the governor said he would either cap or eliminate the state's tax credit programs for businesses.[50]

Net general revenue collections in March for the fiscal year-to-date, starting July 1, totaled $4.98 billion, up 6.5 percent from $4.69 billion in the same period last year, according to numbers from the Missouri Office of Administration.[51] The state could miss out on as much as $190 million in revenue over FY2011 due to federal tax changes and because the state's tax laws were linked, or "coupled," to federal tax rules for business purchases.[52]

Governor's Proposed Budget

Gov. Nixon proposed a $23.1 billion operating budget on Jan. 19, 2011. The governor's spending proposal breaks down as follows:[53]

Conservation: $146 million, $146 million
Category Proposed Spending for FY2012 Budgeted Spending for FY2011
Public Debt $48 million $77 million
K-12 Education $5.36 billion $5.15 billion
Higher Education $1.23 billion $1.11 billion
Revenue $432 million $441 million
Transportation $2.63 billion $2.24 billion
Administration Office $287 million $251 million
Employee Benefits $900 million $821 million
Agriculture $42 million $49 million
Natural Resources $310 million $310 million
Economic Development $257 million $258 million
Insurance $38 million $40 million
Labor $112 million $112 million
Public Safety $524 million $542 million
Corrections $660 million $661 million
Mental Health $1.2 billion $1.24 billion
Health, Senior Services $921 million $955 million
Social Services $7.66 billion $8.17 billion
Elected Officials $112 million $107 million
Judiciary $190 million $190 million
Public Defender $38 million $38 million
Legislature $34 million $33 million
Real Estate $148 million $150 million
Total $23.27 billion $23.09 billion

Budget transparency

Missouri Accountability Portal is the name of the publicly available website created by the Missouri government. It discloses information about the Missouri government's spending, and includes data on state employee salaries, agency expenditures, and tax credit information. The Missouri Accountability Portal was created at the Executive Order of Governor Matt Blunt in July 2007.

Government tools

Missouri Accountability Portal provides a database of state financial information, which was searchable by criteria such as expenditures, vendors, contracts, and employee names. The following table was helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by Missouri Accountability Portal:

Criteria for evaluating spending databases
State Database Searchability Grants Contracts Line Item Expenditures Dept/Agency Budgets Public Employee Salary
Missouri Accountability Portal
600px-Red x.png
See also: Evaluation of Missouri state website

Multi-Measure Budget Transparency Profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for Missouri, which measures state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measure both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presents four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[54][55]

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[56][57]

Budget background

Missouri's fiscal year begins July 1 and ends June 30th of the following year. In October state department agencies prepare budget requests and revenue estimates for the upcoming budget year. By the end of December the Governor reviews both the requests and the revenue estimates prior to presenting a budget recommendation to the Legislature. Both the House and the Senate review the bill, hold a series of hearings and make any necessary amendments prior to approving the budget. The Senate usually finishes their work on budget about three weeks before the Legislature adjourns at the end of April. But, all appropriations bills must be passed by the General Assembly one week before the session ends, May 8, 2009. The appropriations were then forwarded to the Governor who had line item veto power and can reduce or eliminate any amount of funding for any item in a bill before signing it into law.[58]

Accounting principles

See also: Missouri government accounting principles

The Missouri State Auditor is Missouri's independent watchdog agency, charged with auditing approximately 200 state agencies and boards and commissions; the state court system, including 45 judicial circuits and nearly 400 municipal courts; and the 89 counties in Missouri that did not had a county auditor. The State Auditor may also be called on to audit local units of government by citizen petition. On average, 20 audits of local government entities were performed each year. Missouri's audit reports are published online.[59]Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

The Missouri Division of Accounting is responsible for operation of the statewide accounting and payroll systems and was the custodian of the official accounting records of the state. The division prepares payments, publishes annual financial reports, administers bond sales for the Board of Fund Commissioners and Board of Public Buildings, and administers the social security coverage for state political subdivisions. Mark A. Kaiser was Director of the Division of Accounting.[60]

Credit Ratings

Credit Rating Fitch Moody's S&P
Missouri[61] AAA Aaa AAA[62]


Missouri received $4.46 billion in federal stimulus funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act between February 2009 and June 2013.[63]

Public Employees

See also: Missouri public employee salaries and Missouri public pensions

The Missouri Accountability Portal provides information about state employees pay. Users can view pay information about the employees of the State of Missouri by their Agency of employment, Position Title or Employee Name. It provides gross pay amounts by the last pay cycle and year to date.

According to 2011 Census data, the state of Missouri employed a total of 374,571 people.[64] Of those employees, 286,566 were full-time employees receiving a net pay of $1.01 billion per month and 88,005 were part-time employees paid $80.3 million per month.[64]

See also

External links

Additional reading


  1. Missouri Watchdog, Missouri could face budget shortfall of $1 billion in 2012, Aug. 6, 2010
  2. Businessweek "Missouri lawmakers pass $23B budget for next year" May 6, 2011
  3. [1]
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 St. Louis Public Radio "Nixon signs, and cuts, FY2012 Mo. budget" June 10, 2011
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting" April 2011
  6. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' third annual State Debt Report shows total state debt over $4 trillion" Aug. 28, 2012
  7. State Budget Solutions “Report reveals aggregate state debt exceeds $4 trillion” Oct. 24, 2011
  8. State Budget Solutions "State debt more than $37,000 per private worker, $13,000 per capita" Oct. 2, 2012
  9. US Census Federal Aid to State and Local Governments
  10. Tax Foundation' "Monday Map: Federal Aid to State Budgets. Accessed October 15, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 The Southeast Missourian "Nixon outlines budget, policy priorities for Mo. in State of the State" Jan. 29, 2013
  12. Press Release from the Governor's Website "Gov. Nixon details plans to provide health care coverage for additional estimated 300,000 Missourians during visit to Kirksville Regional Economic Development Inc." Jan. 31, 2013
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 "Nixon's budget proposal relies on $165M from other legislation" Jan. 29, 2013
  14. CBS St. Louis "Higher Education Institutions Favor Performance-Based State Funding" Jan. 30, 2013
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Mo. Senate budget funds pay hikes, blind benefits" April 25, 2012
  16. "Legislature Sends 2013 Budget to Gov. Nixon's Desk" May 10, 2012
  17. FY2012 Enacted Budget Bills
  18. "Mo. taps reserve fund to help with cash flow" Aug. 2, 2012
  19. [Businessweek "Mo. estimate predicts 3.9 percent revenue growth" Dec. 21, 2011]
  20. 20.0 20.1 The Missouri Budget Project "Missouri FY 2013 Budget Relies on Risky Assumptions" June 1, 2012
  21. 21.0 21.1 The News-Leader "Plan to tap universities' reserve funds was out" Jan. 6, 2012
  22. The Marshfield Mail "Missouri’s dbudget to be big legislative issue for 2012" Dec. 22, 2011
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 "Missouri lawmakers reach budget agreement" May 10, 2012
  24. 24.0 24.1 The Columbia Tribune "Lawmakers send budget bills to Nixon" May 10, 2012
  25. "Mo. lawmakers asserting more control over budget" March 18, 2012
  26. Missouri House of Representatives "House Gives Initial Approval to FY 2013 State Operating Budget" March 20, 2012
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 The Kansas City Star "Missouri House passes $24 billion budget" March 2, 2012
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 The Springfield News Leader "Senators start work on budget, look for ways to avoid cutting health care funds for blind Missourians" April 5, 2012
  29. "Gov. Jay Nixon proposes budget cuts, boost to K-12 education" Jan. 17, 2012
  30. 30.0 30.1 The Kansas City Star "Nixon proposes $106 million cut from Missouri higher ed" Jan. 17, 2012
  31. CBS St. Louis "Analysis: Nixon’s Budget Depends On New Revenues" Jan. 23, 2012
  32. "Nixon considers asking 5 Missouri universities to lend money to state" Dec. 16, 2011
  33. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named slowly
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 "State's budget deficit presents difficulties" Jan. 2, 2011
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Forbes "Missouri lawmakers pass $23B budget for next year" May 6, 2011
  36. FY 2012 Budget Bill Summaries
  37. The Missouri Budget Project "Missouri General Revenue Report, FY 2012 Summary" July 31, 2012
  38. The Huffington Post "National Mortgage Settlement: Some States Using Mortgage Deal Funds To Close Budget Gaps " Feb. 10, 2012
  39. CBS MoneyWatch "States diverting foreclosure settlement funds" March 14, 2012
  40. Missouri News Horizon "State Revenues Rise, Governor Restores Some Cuts" Aug. 4, 2011
  41. The St. Louis Post Dispatch "Tom Schweich sues Jay Nixon over budget decisions" Aug. 27, 2011
  42. St. Louis Today "Court case could settle constitutional fight over budget cuts" Oct. 31, 2011
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 43.7 43.8 "Jay Nixon cuts millions from state budget" June 11, 2011
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Businessweek "Missouri lawmakers pass $23B budget for next year" May 6, 2011
  45. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named senate
  46. Businessweek "Missouri Senate may take up state budget proposals" April 18, 2011
  47. "Missouri House Gives Final Passage To State Budget" March 30, 2011
  48. Businessweek "Mo. budget panel backs Nixon on K-12, universities" March 16, 2011
  49. The News Leader "Budget submitted with major shortfalls" March 16, 2011
  50. 50.0 50.1 Bloomberg "Nixon touts jobs even with state budget shrinking" Jan. 20, 2010
  51. Missouri "Missouri lawmakers on track to reduce spending" April 4, 2011
  52. Forbes "Analysis: Tax change could affect Mo. budget" May 2, 2011
  53. The News Tribune "A look at Gov. Nixon’s proposed Missouri budget" Jan. 19, 2011
  54. Institute of Government and Public Affairs
  55. University of Illinois Transparency Profile for Missouri
  56. [ University of Illinois 50 State Transparency Comparison
  57. University of Illinois State Transparency Profiles
  58. St. Louis Childrens,"Missouri Budget Process," retrieved March 17,2009
  59. Missouri State Auditor Web site, retrieved October 29, 2009
  60. Missour Division of Accounting Web site, retrieved October 29, 2009
  61. State of Indiana, “State Credit Ratings-as of June 24, 2009"
  62. Pew Stateline Infographic on State Credit Ratings. Accessed September 26, 2013
  63. Recovery, "Stimulus Spending by State"
  64. 64.0 64.1 2011 Missouri Public Employment U.S. Census Data