Difference between revisions of "New York's 8th Congressional District elections, 2012"

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{{nydis8congtoc}}{{tnr}}The [[New York's 8th congressional district|8th congressional district of New York]] will hold an election for the U.S. House of Representatives on November 6, 2012.
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{{nydis8congtoc}}{{tnr}}The '''[[New York's 8th Congressional District|8th Congressional District of New York]]''' held an election for the U.S. House of Representatives on November 6, 2012.
 
+
[[Hakeem Jeffries]] was elected on November 6, 2012.<ref>[http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Elections/New York ''ABC News'', "2012 General Election Results," accessed November 6, 2012]</ref>
 
{{Congintro2012
 
{{Congintro2012
 
|Filing deadline=April 16, 2012
 
|Filing deadline=April 16, 2012
 
|Primary date=June 26, 2012
 
|Primary date=June 26, 2012
|Primary=New York has a [[Closed primary|closed primary]] system, meaning only registered members of a particular party may vote in that party's primary.
+
|Primary=New York had a [[Closed primary|closed primary]] system, meaning only registered members of a particular party could vote in that party's primary.
|Voter registration=Voters had to register to [[Voting in the 2012 primary elections|vote in the primary]] by June 1. For the [[Voting in the 2012 general elections|general election]], the voter registration deadline is October 12, or October 26 in person.<ref>[http://www.elections.ny.gov/VotingDeadlines.html ''New York State Board of Elections'' "Voting Deadline Page," Accessed June 30, 2012]</ref>
+
|Voter registration=Voters had to register to [[Voting in the 2012 primary elections|vote in the primary]] by June 1, 2012. For the [[Voting in the 2012 general elections|general election]], the voter registration deadline was October 12, 2012, or October 26, 2012 in person.<ref>[http://www.elections.ny.gov/VotingDeadlines.html ''New York State Board of Elections'', "Voting Deadline Page," accessed June 30, 2012]</ref>
 
|State=New York
 
|State=New York
|Incumbent=Heading into the election the incumbent is [[Jerrold Nadler]] (D), who was first elected to the House in 1992. Due to [[Redistricting in New York|redistricting]], Nadler will run for the new [[New York's 10th congressional district elections, 2012|10th district]]. }}
+
|Incumbent=Heading into the election was incumbent [[Jerrold Nadler]] (D), who was first elected to the House in 1992. Due to [[Redistricting in New York|redistricting]], Nadler will run for the new [[New York's 10th Congressional District elections, 2012|10th District]]. }}
 +
 
 +
This was the first election using [[Congressional redistricting maps implemented after the 2010 Census|new district maps based on 2010 Census data]]. [[New York's 8th Congressional District]] was located in the eastern portion of the [[New York|state]] and included Queens county.<ref>[http://ballotpedia.org/wiki/index.php/File:New_York_Congress_Map_2012.jpg ''New York Redistricting Map'', "Map" Accessed August 31, 2012]</ref>
  
 
==Fusion voting==
 
==Fusion voting==
New York is one of eight states that have "electoral fusion" -- which allows more than one political party to support a common candidate. This creates a situation where one candidate will appear multiple times on the same ballot, for the same position. Electoral fusion was once widespread across the United States, but is now commonly practiced only in New York.
+
{{Fusionvoting}}
  
Opponents of fusion voting argue that the process results in dealmarking to ensure that patronage is rampant.<ref>[http://wnymedia.net/wnymedia/buffalopundit/2010/05/electoral-fusion-ruins-new-york-some-more/ Electoral fusion ruins elections]</ref> Proponents maintain that fusion voting allows for minor parties to actually make a difference during the election, allowing voters the opportunity to vote for a minority party platform but still affect the general election result.<ref>[http://www.workingfamiliesparty.org/elections/fusion-the-secret-weapon/ Working Family Party: Fusion voting]</ref>
 
 
Candidates appearing in the general election will be listed below with colored dots corresponding to any party they will represent on the ballot.
 
 
==Candidates==
 
==Candidates==
 +
{{Candidate list noteB|Date=October 15, 2012}}
 +
 
{{nycong8cand12}}
 
{{nycong8cand12}}
 +
 +
==Election results==
 +
===General Election===
 +
{{Template:Nydis8genelecbox12}}
  
 
==Race background==
 
==Race background==
[[File:New York's 8th Congressional District Before and After the 2010 Census Redistricting.jpg|link=http://www.censusviewer.com/district-maps/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/NY-CD-08.jpg|thumb|450px|[http://www.censusviewer.com/district-maps/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/NY-CD-08.jpg Map of the 8th congressional district of New York] before and after the [[Redistricting in New York|2010 redistricting]].]]
+
[[File:New York's 8th Congressional District Before and After the 2010 Census Redistricting.jpg|link=http://nycd2011.ballotpedia.censusviewer.com/client|thumb|450px|[http://nycd2011.ballotpedia.censusviewer.com/client Map of the 8th Congressional District of New York] before and after the [[Redistricting in New York|2010 redistricting]]. Click on the link for an interactive map of the congressional districts in New York. For an interactive map of the districts prior to the 2010 Census, click [http://nycd2001.ballotpedia.censusviewer.com/client here].]]
 
===Democratic primary===
 
===Democratic primary===
With [[Ed Towns]] (D) retiring, Brooklyn councilman [[Charles Barron]] and state [[New York Assembly|Assemblyman]] [[Hakeem Jeffries]] sought the party nod in the June 26 Democratic primary. The winner faces [[Alan Bellone]] in the November general election, but the 8th is heavily Democratic,<ref>[http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/category/2012-house/ ''Sabato Crystal Ball'' "2012 House Ratings," June 13, 2012]</ref> so the winner of the Democratic primary will likely be the next 8th district representative.<ref name="fx"/>
+
With [[Ed Towns]] (D) retiring, Brooklyn councilman [[Charles Barron]] and state [[New York Assembly|Assemblyman]] [[Hakeem Jeffries]] sought the party nod in the June 26 Democratic primary. The winner faced [[Alan Bellone]] in the November general election, but the 8th was heavily Democratic,<ref>[http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/category/2012-house/ ''Sabato Crystal Ball'', "2012 House Ratings," June 13, 2012]</ref> so the winner of the Democratic primary would likely be the next 8th district representative.<ref name="fx"/>
  
Barron fought back from a fundraising disadvantage and gained an endorsement from the state's largest public employees union, as well as the nod from the retiring incumbent, [[Ed Towns]]. This worried many Democrats, as Barron is a controversial figure prone to outspoken comments.<ref name="nyt">[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/16/nyregion/in-brooklyn-councilman-charles-barron-surges-in-a-primary-race-for-congress.html?pagewanted=all ''New York Times'' "In Brooklyn, a Longtime Provocateur Surges in a Primary Race for Congress," June 15, 2012]</ref> A former Black Panther, Barron has expressed a desire to "go up to the closest white person and... slap him," and has said Israel is "the world's greatest terrorist."<ref name="fx">[http://politics.blogs.foxnews.com/2012/06/15/democrats-nervous-about-possible-towns-sucessor ''Fox News'' "Democrats Nervous About Possible Towns' Sucessor," June 15, 2012]</ref> These and other similar comments worried the Democratic establishment about Barron's potential to alienate people on the national scale.<ref name="nyt"/>
+
Barron fought back from a fundraising disadvantage and gained an endorsement from the state's largest public employees union, as well as the nod from the retiring incumbent, [[Ed Towns]]. This worried many Democrats, as Barron was a controversial figure prone to outspoken comments.<ref name="nyt">[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/16/nyregion/in-brooklyn-councilman-charles-barron-surges-in-a-primary-race-for-congress.html?pagewanted=all ''New York Times'', "In Brooklyn, a Longtime Provocateur Surges in a Primary Race for Congress," June 15, 2012]</ref> A former Black Panther, Barron had expressed a desire to "go up to the closest white person and... slap him," and had said Israel was "the world's greatest terrorist."<ref name="fx">[http://politics.blogs.foxnews.com/2012/06/15/democrats-nervous-about-possible-towns-sucessor ''Fox News'', "Democrats Nervous About Possible Towns' Sucessor," June 15, 2012]</ref> These and other similar comments worried the Democratic establishment about Barron's potential to alienate people on the national scale.<ref name="nyt"/>
  
Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY), among others, denounced Barron's "anti-Israel" stance.<ref>[http://www.politico.com/blogs/burns-haberman/2012/06/gillibrand-rebukes-charles-barron-126272.html ''Politico'' "Gillibrand rebukes Charles Barron," June 15, 2012]</ref>
+
Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY), among others, denounced Barron's "anti-Israel" stance.<ref>[http://www.politico.com/blogs/burns-haberman/2012/06/gillibrand-rebukes-charles-barron-126272.html ''Politico'', "Gillibrand rebukes Charles Barron," June 15, 2012]</ref>
  
 
Jeffries, on the other hand, had widespread support from the other New York representatives in the [[U.S. House]], along with greater campaign coffers.<ref name="nyt"/>
 
Jeffries, on the other hand, had widespread support from the other New York representatives in the [[U.S. House]], along with greater campaign coffers.<ref name="nyt"/>
  
On the issues, the two candidates had some variance. Jeffries worked to legalize same-sex marriage at the state level, while Barron opposes gay marriage. And in contrast to Barron's stated views on Israel, Jeffries has visited Israel as part of a community relations group.<ref name="nyt"/>
+
On the issues, the two candidates had some variance. Jeffries worked to legalize same-sex marriage at the state level, while Barron opposed gay marriage. And in contrast to Barron's stated views on Israel, Jeffries had visited Israel as part of a community relations group.<ref name="nyt"/>
  
Barron unabashedly stuck to his statements, even if they are viewed as alienating and controversial. Despite his abrasive remarks, however, he is admitted by many to be charming.<ref name="nyt"/> Jeffries takes an opposite approach, seeking to unite a broad range of people. Rep. [[Yvette Clarke]], among others, sees Jeffries as a rising star.<ref name="nyt"/>
+
Barron unabashedly stuck to his statements, even if they were viewed as alienating and controversial. Despite his abrasive remarks, however, he was admitted by many to be charming.<ref name="nyt"/> Jeffries took an opposite approach, by seeking to unite a broad range of people. Rep. [[Yvette Clarke]], among others, saw Jeffries as a rising star.<ref name="nyt"/>
  
 
The AFSCME local DC37, the state's largest public employee union, threw their weight behind Barron.<ref name="fx"/> Jeffries gathered endorsements from smaller unions.<ref name="nyt"/>
 
The AFSCME local DC37, the state's largest public employee union, threw their weight behind Barron.<ref name="fx"/> Jeffries gathered endorsements from smaller unions.<ref name="nyt"/>
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::''See also: [[Redistricting in New York]]''
 
::''See also: [[Redistricting in New York]]''
 
Following the results of the 2010 Census, New York lost two congressional seats, bringing its total number of representatives down from 29 to 27. According to a report in the ''Washington Post'' political blog "The Fix," New York was one of the top 10 redistricting battles in the nation.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/post/redistricting-battles-hit-a-fever-pitch/2011/06/03/AGN7h7HH_blog.html ''Washington Post, "The Fix,"'' "Redistricting battles hit a fever pitch," June 3, 2011]</ref>
 
Following the results of the 2010 Census, New York lost two congressional seats, bringing its total number of representatives down from 29 to 27. According to a report in the ''Washington Post'' political blog "The Fix," New York was one of the top 10 redistricting battles in the nation.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/post/redistricting-battles-hit-a-fever-pitch/2011/06/03/AGN7h7HH_blog.html ''Washington Post, "The Fix,"'' "Redistricting battles hit a fever pitch," June 3, 2011]</ref>
 +
 +
The [[New York's 8th Congressional District|8th district]] was re-drawn after the 2010 Census. The new district was composed of the following percentages of voters of the old congressional districts.<ref>[http://www.censusviewer.com/district-maps/2012/08/new-york-congressional-districts-comparison-2001-2011/ ''Moonshadow Mobile's CensusViewer'', "New York's congressional districts 2001-2011 comparison"]</ref><ref>[http://www.votermapping.com ''Labels & Lists'', "VoterMapping software voter counts"]</ref>
 +
*2 percent from the [[New York's 6th Congressional District|6th Congressional District]]
 +
*9 percent from the [[New York's 8th Congressional District|8th Congressional District]]
 +
*11 percent from the [[New York's 9th Congressional District|9th Congressional District]]
 +
*75 percent from the [[New York's 10th Congressional District|10th Congressional District]]
 +
*2 percent from the [[New York's 11th Congressional District|11th Congressional District]]
 +
*2 percent from the [[New York's 12th Congressional District|12th Congressional District]]
 +
 +
===Registration statistics===
 +
 +
As of October 29, 2012, District 8 had the following partisan registration breakdown according to the New York State Board of Elections:
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #a3bfb1 solid;" width=70%;
 +
|- style="background-color:#9400d3; color: white;"
 +
! colspan="8" | New York Congressional District 8<ref>[http://www.elections.ny.gov/NYSBOE/enrollment/congress/congress_apr12.pdf ''New York State Board of Elections,'' "District Active Enrollment 2012," April, 2012]</ref>
 +
|-bgcolor="#cef2e0 align="center"
 +
!Congressional District
 +
!District Total
 +
!Democrats
 +
!Republicans
 +
!Other & Unaffiliated
 +
!Advantage
 +
!Party Advantage
 +
!Change in Advantage from 2010
 +
|-
 +
|District 8
 +
|370,944
 +
|279,517
 +
|29,744
 +
|61,683
 +
|style="background-color:blue; color: white;"|Democratic
 +
|839.74%
 +
|437.65%
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="8" align="center" |<small>"Party advantage" is the percentage gap between the two major parties in registered voters. "Change in advantage" is the spread in difference of party advantage between 2010 and 2012 based on the congressional district number only.</small>
 +
|}
 +
 +
===District partisanship===
 +
====FairVote's Monopoly Politics 2012 study====
 +
:''See also: [[FairVote's Monopoly Politics 2012]]''
 +
In 2012, FairVote did a study on partisanship in the congressional districts, giving each a percentage ranking (D/R) based on the new 2012 maps and comparing that to the old 2010 maps.  New York's 8th District became more less Democratic because of redistricting.<ref>[http://www.fairvote.org/assets/2012-Redistricting/NYRedistrictingAnalysis.pdf,'' "2011 Redistricting and 2012 Elections in New York," September 2012]</ref>
 +
 +
*'''2012''': 82D / 18R
 +
*'''2010''': 87D / 13R
 +
 +
====Cook Political Report's PVI====
 +
:''See also: [[Cook Political Report's Partisan Voter Index]]''
 +
In 2012, ''Cook Political Report'' released its updated figures on the [[Cook Political Report's Partisan Voter Index|Partisan Voter Index]], which measured each congressional district's partisanship relative to the rest of the country. [[New York's 8th Congressional District]] had a PVI of D+33, which was the 8th most Democratic district in the country. In 2008, this district was won by [[Barack Obama]] (D), 86-14 percent over [[John McCain]] (R). In 2004, [[John Kerry]] (D) won the district 82-18 percent over George W. Bush (R).<ref>[http://cookpolitical.com/application/writable/uploads/2012_PVI_by_District.pdf ''Cook Political Report'', "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008" Accessed October 2012]</ref>
  
 
==District history==
 
==District history==
 +
{{ballot access short}}
 
===2010===
 
===2010===
On November 2, 2010, [[Jerrold Nadler]] was re-elected to the [[United States House]] for a seventh term. He defeated Susan L. Kone ([[Republican|R]] who also ran on the [[Conservative Party]] ticket).<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2010election.pdf ''U.S. Congress House Clerk'' "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"]</ref>  
+
On November 2, 2010, [[Jerrold Nadler]] was re-elected to the [[United States House]] for a seventh term. He defeated Susan L. Kone ([[Republican|R]] who also ran on the [[Conservative Party]] ticket).<ref>[http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2010election.pdf ''U.S. Congress House Clerk'', "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"]</ref>  
[[File:NY8.jpg|thumb|300px|This is the 8th congressional district prior to the [[Redistricting in New York|2011 redistricting]].]]
+
[[File:NY8.jpg|thumb|300px|This is the 8th Congressional District prior to the [[Redistricting in New York|2011 redistricting]].]]
  
 
{{Election box 2010
 
{{Election box 2010

Revision as of 07:15, 2 May 2014

2014



CongressLogo.png

New York's 8th Congressional District

General Election Date
November 6, 2012

Primary Date
June 26, 2012

November 6 Election Winner:
Hakeem Jeffries Democratic Party
Incumbent prior to election:
Jerrold Nadler Democratic Party
Jerrold Nadler.jpg

New York U.S. House Elections
District 1District 2District 3District 4District 5District 6District 7District 8District 9District 10District 11District 12District 13District 14District 15District 16District 17District 18District 19District 20District 21District 22District 23District 24District 25District 26District 27

2012 U.S. Senate Elections

Flag of New York.png
The 8th Congressional District of New York held an election for the U.S. House of Representatives on November 6, 2012.

Hakeem Jeffries was elected on November 6, 2012.[1]

Candidate Filing Deadline Primary Election General Election
April 16, 2012
June 26, 2012
November 6, 2012

Primary: New York had a closed primary system, meaning only registered members of a particular party could vote in that party's primary.

Voter registration: Voters had to register to vote in the primary by June 1, 2012. For the general election, the voter registration deadline was October 12, 2012, or October 26, 2012 in person.[2]

See also: New York elections, 2012

Incumbent: Heading into the election was incumbent Jerrold Nadler (D), who was first elected to the House in 1992. Due to redistricting, Nadler will run for the new 10th District.

This was the first election using new district maps based on 2010 Census data. New York's 8th Congressional District was located in the eastern portion of the state and included Queens county.[3]

Fusion voting

New York is one of eight states that have "electoral fusion" -- which allows more than one political party to support a common candidate. This creates a situation where one candidate will appear multiple times on the same ballot, for the same position. Electoral fusion was once widespread across the United States, but is now commonly practiced only in New York.

Opponents of fusion voting argue that the process results in dealmarking to ensure that patronage is rampant.[4] Proponents maintain that fusion voting allows for minor parties to actually make a difference during the election, allowing voters the opportunity to vote for a minority party platform but still affect the general election result.[5]

Candidates appearing in the general election will be listed below with colored dots corresponding to any party they will represent on the ballot.


Candidates

Note: Election results were added on election night as races were called. Vote totals were added after official election results had been certified. For more information about Ballotpedia's election coverage plan, click here. If you find any errors in this list, please email: Geoff Pallay.

General election candidates

Democratic PartyWorking Families Party Hakeem Jeffries Green check mark transparent.png
Republican Party Conservative Party Alan Bellone
Green Party Colin Beavan


June 26, 2012 primary results

Democratic Party Democratic Primary

Note: Ed Towns, 10th District incumbent, is not running.[7]

Republican Party Republican Primary

Conservative Party Conservative candidate

Working Families Party Working Families candidate

Green Party Green candidate


Election results

General Election

U.S. House, New York District 8 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngHakeem Jeffries 77.9% 184,038
     Republican Alan Bellone 7.5% 17,650
     Green Colin Beavan 1% 2,441
     N/A Blank/Void/Scattering 13.6% 32,163
Total Votes 236,292
Source: New York State Board of Elections "U.S. House of Representatives Results"

Race background

Map of the 8th Congressional District of New York before and after the 2010 redistricting. Click on the link for an interactive map of the congressional districts in New York. For an interactive map of the districts prior to the 2010 Census, click here.

Democratic primary

With Ed Towns (D) retiring, Brooklyn councilman Charles Barron and state Assemblyman Hakeem Jeffries sought the party nod in the June 26 Democratic primary. The winner faced Alan Bellone in the November general election, but the 8th was heavily Democratic,[9] so the winner of the Democratic primary would likely be the next 8th district representative.[10]

Barron fought back from a fundraising disadvantage and gained an endorsement from the state's largest public employees union, as well as the nod from the retiring incumbent, Ed Towns. This worried many Democrats, as Barron was a controversial figure prone to outspoken comments.[11] A former Black Panther, Barron had expressed a desire to "go up to the closest white person and... slap him," and had said Israel was "the world's greatest terrorist."[10] These and other similar comments worried the Democratic establishment about Barron's potential to alienate people on the national scale.[11]

Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY), among others, denounced Barron's "anti-Israel" stance.[12]

Jeffries, on the other hand, had widespread support from the other New York representatives in the U.S. House, along with greater campaign coffers.[11]

On the issues, the two candidates had some variance. Jeffries worked to legalize same-sex marriage at the state level, while Barron opposed gay marriage. And in contrast to Barron's stated views on Israel, Jeffries had visited Israel as part of a community relations group.[11]

Barron unabashedly stuck to his statements, even if they were viewed as alienating and controversial. Despite his abrasive remarks, however, he was admitted by many to be charming.[11] Jeffries took an opposite approach, by seeking to unite a broad range of people. Rep. Yvette Clarke, among others, saw Jeffries as a rising star.[11]

The AFSCME local DC37, the state's largest public employee union, threw their weight behind Barron.[10] Jeffries gathered endorsements from smaller unions.[11]

Impact of redistricting

See also: Redistricting in New York

Following the results of the 2010 Census, New York lost two congressional seats, bringing its total number of representatives down from 29 to 27. According to a report in the Washington Post political blog "The Fix," New York was one of the top 10 redistricting battles in the nation.[13]

The 8th district was re-drawn after the 2010 Census. The new district was composed of the following percentages of voters of the old congressional districts.[14][15]

Registration statistics

As of October 29, 2012, District 8 had the following partisan registration breakdown according to the New York State Board of Elections:

New York Congressional District 8[16]
Congressional District District Total Democrats Republicans Other & Unaffiliated Advantage Party Advantage Change in Advantage from 2010
District 8 370,944 279,517 29,744 61,683 Democratic 839.74% 437.65%
"Party advantage" is the percentage gap between the two major parties in registered voters. "Change in advantage" is the spread in difference of party advantage between 2010 and 2012 based on the congressional district number only.

District partisanship

FairVote's Monopoly Politics 2012 study

See also: FairVote's Monopoly Politics 2012

In 2012, FairVote did a study on partisanship in the congressional districts, giving each a percentage ranking (D/R) based on the new 2012 maps and comparing that to the old 2010 maps. New York's 8th District became more less Democratic because of redistricting.[17]

  • 2012: 82D / 18R
  • 2010: 87D / 13R

Cook Political Report's PVI

See also: Cook Political Report's Partisan Voter Index

In 2012, Cook Political Report released its updated figures on the Partisan Voter Index, which measured each congressional district's partisanship relative to the rest of the country. New York's 8th Congressional District had a PVI of D+33, which was the 8th most Democratic district in the country. In 2008, this district was won by Barack Obama (D), 86-14 percent over John McCain (R). In 2004, John Kerry (D) won the district 82-18 percent over George W. Bush (R).[18]

District history

Candidate Ballot Access
Ballot Access Requirements Final.jpg

Find detailed information on ballot access requirements in all 50 states and Washington D.C.

2010

On November 2, 2010, Jerrold Nadler was re-elected to the United States House for a seventh term. He defeated Susan L. Kone (R who also ran on the Conservative Party ticket).[19]

This is the 8th Congressional District prior to the 2011 redistricting.
U.S. House, New York Congressional District 8 General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngJerrold Nadler Incumbent 69.1% 98,839
     Republican Susan L. Kone 22.4% 31,996
     Blank/Scattering 8.6% 12,291
Total Votes 143,126

See also

References

  1. York ABC News, "2012 General Election Results," accessed November 6, 2012
  2. New York State Board of Elections, "Voting Deadline Page," accessed June 30, 2012
  3. New York Redistricting Map, "Map" Accessed August 31, 2012
  4. Clarence Bee, "State Senate candidate calls for an end to fusion voting", accessed September 19, 2013
  5. Oregon Working Family Party, "What is Fusion Voting?", accessed September 19, 2013
  6. 6.0 6.1 Brooklyn Papers "Barron makes the fight against Rep. Ed Towns a three-way," accessed December 22, 2011
  7. Roll Call "New York: Edolphus Towns Retiring After 15 Terms," April 15, 2012
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 New York Board of Elections "List of Filings for June 26, 2012 Federal Primary," accessed May 30, 2012
  9. Sabato Crystal Ball, "2012 House Ratings," June 13, 2012
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Fox News, "Democrats Nervous About Possible Towns' Sucessor," June 15, 2012
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 New York Times, "In Brooklyn, a Longtime Provocateur Surges in a Primary Race for Congress," June 15, 2012
  12. Politico, "Gillibrand rebukes Charles Barron," June 15, 2012
  13. Washington Post, "The Fix," "Redistricting battles hit a fever pitch," June 3, 2011
  14. Moonshadow Mobile's CensusViewer, "New York's congressional districts 2001-2011 comparison"
  15. Labels & Lists, "VoterMapping software voter counts"
  16. New York State Board of Elections, "District Active Enrollment 2012," April, 2012
  17. "2011 Redistricting and 2012 Elections in New York," September 2012
  18. Cook Political Report, "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008" Accessed October 2012
  19. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"