Difference between revisions of "Nita Lowey"

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The '''[[Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)]]''' is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the [[United States Congress|U.S. Congress]] have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants. <br>
 
The '''[[Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)]]''' is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the [[United States Congress|U.S. Congress]] have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants. <br>
 
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the [[Government Accountability Institute]]:
 
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the [[Government Accountability Institute]]:
*'''The Net Worth Metric'''
+
*[[Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index)|Changes in Net Worth]]
*'''The K-Street Metric''' (coming soon)
+
*[[The K-Street Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)|The K-Street Metric]]
*'''The Donation Concentration Metric''' (coming soon)
+
*[[The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)|The Donation Concentration Metric]]
*'''The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric''' (coming soon)
+
*[[The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)|The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric]]
  
 
===PGI: Net worth===
 
===PGI: Net worth===

Revision as of 06:54, 10 July 2014

Nita Lowey
Nita Lowey.jpeg
U.S. House, New York, District 17
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 1989-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 25
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorEliot Engel (D)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$14.54 in 2012
First electedNovember 8, 1988
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$11,589,735
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
New York Assistant Secretary of State
1985-1987
Education
Bachelor'sMount Holyoke College
Personal
BirthdayJuly 5, 1937
Place of birthNew York, New York
ProfessionCivil Servant
Net worth$34,290,511.50
ReligionJudaism
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Nita Melnikoff Lowey (b. February, 1947, in New York, New York) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing New York's 17th Congressional District. Lowey was first elected to the House in 1988 and is currently serving his thirteenth consecutive term, having won re-election on November 6, 2012. Before redistricting in 2012, Lowey had previously served the 18th District. Politico reports that redistricting has made Lowey's district less favorable for Democrats.[1]

Lowey was a 2014 Democratic and Working Families Party candidate seeking re-election to the U.S. House to represent the 17th Congressional District of New York. Lowey also filed to run with the Independence Party, but the New York Board of Elections invalidated her petitions.[2] She ran unopposed for the Democratic and Working Families nominations in the primary on June 24, 2014.[3]

Prior to her congressional career, Lowey served as New York Assistant Secretary of State from 1985-1987.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Lowey is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning she will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Lowey was born in New York, New York. She earned a B.A. from Mount Holyoke College in 1959.[4]

Career

After earning her degree, Lowey served as assistant to the New York Secretary of State for Economic Development and Neighborhood Preservation, as Deputy Director of the New York State Division of Economic Opportunity from 1975-1985, and as New York Assistant Secretary of State from 1985-1987.[5]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Lowey serves on the following committees:[6]

  • Appropriations Committee Ranking member
    • Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Ranking member)

2011-2012

Lowey served on the following committees:[7]

  • Appropriations Committee
    • Subcommittee on State and Foreign Operations
    • Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
    • Subcommittee on Homeland Security

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[8] For more information pertaining to Lowey's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security

NDAA

Voted "Yes" Lowey voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[10]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Lowey voted in opposition of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[10]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Voted "Yes" Lowey voted in favor of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[10]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Lowey voted in opposition of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[11] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[10]

Economy

Farm Bill

See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

Voted "No" Lowey voted against the Farm Bill on July 11, 2013. The bill passed in a 216-208 vote.[12] The bill passed included farm policy, but did not include food stamps.[13]

King Amendment

Lowey signed a letter sent to Collin Peterson in August 2013, asking him to keep Steve King's amendment out of the final Farm Bill.[14] The "Protect Interstate Commerce Act" amendment prevents states from applying their own laws on agricultural products to agricultural products from another state.[15]. King introduced the amendment in response to a law in California, requiring a larger size cage for egg-producing chickens. King represents Iowa, which is a large egg producer.

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[16] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[17] Lowey voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[18]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[19] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Lowey voted for HR 2775.[20]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Lowey voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[21] The vote largely followed party lines.[22]

Healthcare

Repealing Obamacare

Voted "No" Lowey voted against all attempts to repeal or delay the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[23]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "No" Lowey voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[24]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Lowey voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. She was 1 of 172 Democrats that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[25]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Nita Lowey's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of all Congressional members based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Lowey is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Lowey received a score of 61 percent on personal issues and 12 percent on economic issues.[26]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[27]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Favors Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Neutral
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Opposes
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[26]

Campaign themes

2012

Lowey listed her campaign themes on her website:[28]

  • Environmental Protection & Energy Independence
  • Security & Public Safety
  • Educational Opportunity
  • Defense & International Affairs
  • Economic Growth & Fiscal Responsibility
  • Quality, Affordable Healthcare

Elections

2014

See also: New York's 17th Congressional District elections, 2014

Lowey ran in the 2014 election for the U.S. House to represent New York's 17th District. Lowey ran unopposed for the Democratic and Working Families nominations in the primary on June 24, 2014. She attempted to run for the Independence Party nomination as well, but her petitions with the New York Board of Elections were invalidated. The general election took place November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: New York's 17th Congressional District elections, 2012

Lowey won re-election in 2012. Because of New York's redistricting, Lowey ran in the newly drawn 17th District. Politico reports that the new district is less supportive of Lowey.[1]

Lowey ran on the Democratic and Working Families tickets.[29] She was unopposed in the primaries and defeated Joe Carvin (R) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[30][31]

U.S. House, New York District 17 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngNita Lowey Incumbent 57.6% 171,417
     Republican Joe Carvin 30.9% 91,899
     Independent Francis Morganthaler 0.9% 2,771
     N/A Blank/Void/Scattering 10.5% 31,292
Total Votes 297,379
Source: New York State Board of Elections "U.S. House of Representatives Results"

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Lowey is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Lowey raised a total of $11,589,735 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 23, 2013.[44]

Nita Lowey's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 17) Won $2,165,669
2010 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $2,062,770
2008 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $1,394,481
2006 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $1,344,129
2004 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $1,636,465
2002 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $1,227,782
2000 U.S. House of Representatives (New York, District 18) Won $1,758,439
Grand Total Raised $11,589,735

2014

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Lowey’s reports.[45]

Nita Lowey (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[46]April 15, 2013$417,573.87$382,454.15$(474,142.01)$325,886.01
July Quarterly[47]July 15, 2013$325,886.01$142,689.76$(103,382.88)$365,192.89
October Quarterly[48]October 15, 2013$365,192.89$187,330.86$(104,462.94)$448,060.81
Year-End Quarterly[49]December 31, 2013$448,060$209,406$(92,662)$556,355
April Quarterly[50]April 15, 2014$556,355.52$298,172.95$(146,011.68)$708,516.79
Pre-Primary[51]June 12, 2014$708,516.79$172,887.52$(152,410.38)$728,993.93
July Quarterly[52]July 15, 2014$728,993.93$130,722.19$(7,427.15)$852,288.97
October Quarterly[53]October 15, 2014$852,288.97$316,745.26$(379,327.12)$789,707.11
Pre-General[54]October 23, 2014$789,707.11$123,208.41$(372,462.59)$540,452.93
Running totals
$1,963,617.1$(1,832,288.75)

Individual breakdown

2012

Breakdown of the source of Lowey's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Lowey won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Lowey's campaign committee raised a total of $2,165,669 and spent $2,491,789.[55]

Cost per vote

Lowey spent $14.54 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Lowey's campaign funds before the 2010 election.
Lowey was re-elected to the U.S. House for a twelfth term in 2010. Her campaign committee raised a total of $2,062,770 and spent $2,033,256.[56]

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have personally benefited from their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics pioneered by the Government Accountability Institute:

PGI: Net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Lowey's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $12,816,023 and $55,765,000. That averages to $34,290,511.50, which is higher than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Lowey ranked as the 20th most wealthy representative in 2012.[57] Between 2004 and 2012, Lowey's calculated net worth[58] decreased by an average of 1 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[59]

Nita Lowey Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$36,878,745
2012$34,290,511
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-7%
Average annual growth:-1%[60]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[61]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Lowey is a "rank-and-file Democrat," as of June 20, 2013.[62]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[63]

Lowey most often votes with:

Lowey least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Lowey missed 465 of 15,369 roll call votes from January 1989 to April 2013, which is 3.0% of votes during that period. This is worse than the median of 2.2% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[64]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Lowey paid his congressional staff a total of $870,292 in 2011. Overall, New York ranked 28th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[65]

Staff bonuses

According to an analysis by CNN, Lowey was one of nearly 25 percent of House members who gave their staff bonuses in 2012. Lowey's staff was given an apparent $6,000.00 in bonus money.[66]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

2012

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Lowey tied with two other members of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 115th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[67]

2011

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Lowey tied with one other member of the U.S. House of Representatives, ranking 118th in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.[68]

Voting with party

June 2013

Lowey voted with the Democratic Party 96.5% of the time, which ranked 9th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June, 2013.[69]

Personal

Nita and Stephen Lowey have been married for more than 45 years and have three grown children and eight grandchildren.[70]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Nita + Lowey + New York + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Nita Lowey News Feed

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See also

External links

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Politico, "Incumbents at risk in final N.Y. map," March 19, 2012
  2. New York Board of Elections, "Candidate Petition List," accessed April 16, 2014
  3. Associated Press, "New York - Summary Vote Results," accessed June 24, 2014
  4. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "LOWEY, Nita M., (1937 - )"
  5. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "LOWEY, Nita M., (1937 - )"
  6. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  7. Congresswoman Nita Lowey, Serving New York's 18th District, "About Nita"
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Project Vote Smart, "Representative Lowey's Voting Records on National Security," accessed October 9, 2013
  11. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  12. Vote Smart, "Lowey on agriculture," accessed October 9, 2013
  13. New York Times, "House Republicans Push Through Farm Bill, Without Food Stamps," accessed September 17, 2013
  14. Vote Smart, "Letter to Ranking Member Collin Peterson, House Committee on Agriculture - Reject Rep. King's Provision on Farm Bill," accessed September 23, 2013
  15. Time.com, "King Farm Bill Amendment Angers Animal Advocates," accessed September 18, 2013
  16. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  17. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  18. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  19. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  20. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed August 28, 2013
  22. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Lowey's Voting Records on Immigration," accessed October 9, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Lowey's Voting Records on Issue: Health and Healthcare," accessed October 9, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "Lowey," accessed October 9, 2013
  25. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  26. 26.0 26.1 On The Issues, "Nita Lowey Vote Match," accessed June 19, 2014
  27. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  28. Campaign Website "Issues"
  29. New York Board of Elections, "Filings for June 26, 2012 Federal Primary," April 17, 2012
  30. New York Board of Elections "2012 Candidate List" accessed October 17, 2012
  31. Politico, "2012 Election Map, New York"
  32. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  33. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  34. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1990," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1988," accessed March 28, 2013
  44. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Nita Lowey" March 2013
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey Summary Report," accessed July 31, 2013
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey April Quarterly," accessed July 31, 2013
  47. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey July Quarterly," accessed July 31, 2013
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  49. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey Year-End Quarterly," accessed February 13, 2014
  50. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey April Quarterly," accessed April 24, 2014
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey Pre-Primary," accessed October 27, 2014
  52. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey July Quarterly," accessed October 27, 2014
  53. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey October Quarterly," accessed October 27, 2014
  54. Federal Election Commission, "Nita Lowey Pre-General," accessed October 27, 2014
  55. Open Secrets, "Nita Lowey 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 1, 2013
  56. Open Secrets, "Nita M. Lowey 2010 Election Data," accessed December 21, 2011
  57. OpenSecrets.org,"Nita Lowey (D-NY), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  58. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  59. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  60. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  61. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  62. GovTrack, "Lowey" accessed June 20, 2013
  63. OpenCongress, "Nita Lowey," accessed August 6, 2013
  64. GovTrack, "Nita Lowey" accessed April 2013
  65. LegiStorm, "Nita M. Lowey," accessed October 1, 2012
  66. CNN Politics, "Congressional bonuses in a time of cuts," accessed March 8, 2013
  67. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013
  68. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  69. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  70. Congresswoman Nita Lowey, Serving New York's 18th District, "About Nita"
Political offices
Preceded by
Eliot Engel
U.S. House of Representatives - New York District 17
2013-Present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
José Serrano
U.S. House of Representatives - New York District 18
1993–2013
Succeeded by
Sean Maloney
Preceded by
Joseph J. DioGuardi
U.S. House of Representatives - New York District 20
1989-1993
Succeeded by
Benjamin A. Gilman
Preceded by
'
New York Assistant Secretary of State
1985-1987
Succeeded by
'