Public education in Connecticut
Energy • Public education • Higher education • School choice • Public pensions • State budget and finances • Taxes • Voting • Ballot access • Redistricting • Nonprofit regulation
- 1 State agencies
- 2 Regional comparison
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Academic performance
- 5 Educational choice options
- 6 Education funding and expenditures
- 7 Organizations
- 8 Taxpayer-funded lobbying
- 9 Education ballot measures
- 10 Studies and reports
- 11 See also
- 12 External links
- 13 References
List of school districts in Connecticut
Public education in Connecticut
School board elections portal
The Connecticut Commissioner of Education is the executive officer of the Department of Education. The Commissioner is recommended by the State Board of Education and appointed by the governor to four-year terms. The current Commissioner of Education is Stefan Pryor.
The State Board of Education is comprised of 13 members.
- At least two members must have experience in manufacturing or a trade offered through the Technical High School System.
- One must have a background in vocational agriculture.
- Two must be nonvoting Grade 12 student members.
Voting members of the board serve four-year terms, while the nonvoting student members serve one-year terms. The Commissioner of Education serves as an ex officio member of the board. All members are appointed by the governor.
Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Connecticut State Board of Education adopted the standards on July 7, 2010. Full implementation was set to be achieved in the 2013-2014 academic year.
- See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
- See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states
The following chart shows how Connecticut compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.
|State||Schools||Districts||Students||Teachers||Teacher/pupil ratio||Administrator/pupil ratio||Per pupil spending|
| Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.|
National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Connecticut as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.
|Demographic information for Connecticut's K-12 public school system|
|Ethnicity||Students||State Percentage||United States Percentage**|
|Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students||373||0.07%||0.42%|
|Two or more||9,819||1.77%||2.54%|
|**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.|
Enrollments by region type
A majority of students in Connecticut attend suburban schools. Nearly 82 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 18 percent who attend rural or town schools.
|Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)|
|State||City schools||Suburban schools||Town schools||Rural schools|
|Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)|
- See also: NAEP scores by state
The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island), Connecticut had the second smallest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in both math and reading.
|Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013|
|Math - Grade 4||Math - Grade 8||Reading - Grade 4||Reading - Grade 8|
|Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014|
|NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013|
Graduation, ACT and SAT scores
|Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*|
|State||Graduation rate, 2012||Average ACT Composite, 2012||Average SAT Composite, 2013|
|Percent||Quintile ranking**||Score||Participation rate||Score||Participation rate|
| *Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).|
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express
- See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states
The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Connecticut was lower than the national average at 1.9 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.1 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.
Educational choice options
- See also: School choice in Connecticut
School choice options in Connecticut include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and some online learning programs. In addition, about 10.89 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.
Education funding and expenditures
- See also: Connecticut state budget
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 13.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.3 percentage points, or 8.6 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 15.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.
|Comparison of financial figures for school systems|
|State||Percent of budget (2012)||Per pupil spending (2011)||Revenue sources (2011)|
|Percent federal funds||Percent state funds||Percent local funds|
| Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures |
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013
- See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S. to compare all states.
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Connecticut and surrounding states.
|Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Federal revenue||State revenue||Local revenue||Total revenue|
|Source: National Center for Education Statistics|
|Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Connecticut and surrounding states.
|Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Current expenditures**||Capital outlay||Other***||Total expenditures|
| **Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.|
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
|Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Connecticut, the average salary decreased by 1.4 percent.
|Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)|
|**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."|
In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Connecticut ranked 17th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.
The main unions related to the Connecticut school system are the Connecticut Education Association (CEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Connecticut, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period, CEA had: $16.56 million in total revenue, $12.45 million in total expenses and $32.22 million in total assets. For the same period, AFT Connecticut had: $4.36 million in total revenue, $4.53 million in total expenses and $3.75 million in total assets.
The teacher unions have repeatedly brought the "Project Opening Doors" program to court for offering financial incentives for passing AP tests to students and teachers.
List of local Connecticut school unions:
- Connecticut Education Association
- AFT Connecticut
- Norwalk Federation Of Teachers
- West Hartford Education Association
- New Haven Federation of Teachers
- AFT Local 4200
- Hartford Federation of Teachers, Local 1018
- See also: Connecticut government sector lobbying
The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Connecticut Association of Boards of Education and the Connecticut Association of School Personnel Administrators.
Education ballot measures
Studies and reports
State Budget Solutions education study
State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.
- Connecticut state budget
- Connecticut Department of Education
- Connecticut school districts
- Education Policy in the U.S.
- Connecticut State Department of Education (CSDE)
- Connecticut State Board of Education
- Connecticut School Choice (CSDE)
- Connecticut School and District Data (CSDE)
- Connecticut Education Staff Data and Salaries (CSDE)
- Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium
- Connecticut Virtual Learning Center
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
- ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
- United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
- United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
- Connecticut State Department of Education, "About Us," accessed May 15, 2014
- Connecticut State Department of Education, "Stefan Pryor - Commissioner of Education," accessed May 15, 2014
- Connecticut State Department of Education, "State Board of Education Home," accessed May 15, 2014
- Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
- Connecticut State Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards in Connecticut," accessed June 13, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
- United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
- ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
- Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
- Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
- Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut Education Association," accessed January 3, 2010
- Center for Union Facts, "AFT Connecticut," accessed January 3, 2010
- Watchdog, "Union challenges teacher bonuses for AP scores," November 10, 2010
- Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut teachers unions," accessed January 3, 2010
State of Connecticut
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of the State | Comptroller | Treasurer | Commissioner of Education | Commissioner of Insurance | Commissioner of Agriculture | Commissioner of Environmental Protection | Commissioner of Labor | Chairman of Public Utility Control |