Difference between revisions of "Public education in Maryland"
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Revision as of 13:25, 12 June 2014
- 1 State agencies
- 2 Regional comparison
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Academic performance
- 5 Educational choice options
- 6 Education funding and expenditures
- 7 Organizations
- 8 Taxpayer-funded lobbying
- 9 Education ballot measures
- 10 Studies and reports
- 11 See also
- 12 External links
- 13 References
Maryland school districts
List of school districts in Maryland
Public education in Maryland
School board elections portal
The State Board of Education is comprised of 12 members appointed by the Governor. With the exception of the student member (who serves for one year), all members serve four-year terms. Board members may serve two full terms.
- See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
- See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states
The following chart shows how Maryland compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.
|State||Schools||Districts||Students||Teachers||Teacher/pupil ratio||Administrator/pupil ratio||Per pupil spending|
| Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.|
National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Maryland as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.
|Demographic information for Maine's K-12 public school system|
|Ethnicity||Students||State Percentage||United States Percentage**|
|Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students||1,184||0.14%||0.42%|
|Two or more||31,381||3.67%||2.54%|
|**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.|
Enrollments by region type
A majority of students in Maryland attend suburban schools. Approximately 77 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 23 percent who attend rural or town schools.
|Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)|
|State||City schools||Suburban schools||Town schools||Rural schools|
|Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)|
- See also: NAEP scores by state
The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Delaware, New Jersey, and Virginia), Maryland had the highest share of the fourth graders who scored at or above proficient in reading.
|Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013|
|Math - Grade 4||Math - Grade 8||Reading - Grade 4||Reading - Grade 8|
|Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014|
|NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013|
Graduation, ACT and SAT scores
|Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*|
|State||Graduation rate, 2012||Average ACT Composite, 2012||Average SAT Composite, 2013|
|Percent||Quintile ranking**||Score||Participation rate||Score||Participation rate|
| *Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).|
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express
- See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states
The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Maryland was higher than the national average at 3.3 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 3.8 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.
Educational choice options
- Charter schools: In Maryland, charter schools are free public schools "designed to offer a personalized environment and unique experiences." The state charter school law was enacted in 2003. The first charter school opened to 196 students. As of February 2014, there were 54 charter schools operating in the state.
- Public school open enrollment: As of 2009, the state had not enacted an open enrollment policy.
- Online learning: The state offers supplemental online learning via the Maryland Virtual Learning Opportunities (MVLO) program. Additionally, the Maryland Virtual School (MVS) provides supplemental learning for grades six through 12.
Education funding and expenditures
- See also: Maryland state budget
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.5 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.40 percentage points, or 6.70 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.
|Comparison of financial figures for school systems|
|State||Percent of budget (2012)||Per pupil spending (2011)||Revenue sources (2011)|
|Percent federal funds||Percent state funds||Percent local funds|
| Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures |
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Maryland totaled approximately $13.4 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Maryland and surrounding states.
|Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Federal revenue||State revenue||Local revenue||Total revenue|
|Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Maryland totaled approximately $13 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Maryland and surrounding states.
|Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Current expenditures**||Capital outlay||Other***||Total expenditures|
| **Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.|
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
|Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Maryland, the average salary increased by 8.4 percent.
|Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)|
|**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."|
In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Maryland ranked 23rd overall, or "average," which was in the third of five tiers.
The main unions related to the Maryland school system are the Maryland State Education Association (MSEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA) and AFT Maryland. For the 2003 tax period MSEA had: $13.9 million in total revenue, $13.7 million in total expenses and $11.5 million in total assets. For the same period, AFT Maryland had: $1.1 million in total revenue, $1.1 million in total expenses and $337,687 in total assets.
List of local Maryland school unions:
- Maryland State Education Association
- AFT Maryland
- Baltimore Teachers Union
- Montgomery County Education Association, Maryland
- Teachers Association of Baltimore County
- Frederick County Teachers Association Of Maryland
- Teachers Association of Anne Arundel County
- Washington County Teachers Association
- Cecil County Classroom Teachers Association
- See also: Maryland government sector lobbying
The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Maryland Association of Boards of Education.
Education ballot measures
Ballotpedia staff have tracked 3 statewide ballot measures relating to education.
- Maryland In-State Tuition Referendum, Question 4 (2012)
- Maryland Private School Scholarship, Question 18 (1972)
- Maryland Services for Private School Students, Question 14 (1974)
Studies and reports
"Leaders and Laggards"
A 2009 study, Leaders and Laggards, conducted by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for a Competitive Workplace, Frederick M. Hess of the conservative American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, and the Center for American Progress, gave Maryland: a "C" for academic achievement; a "C" for truth in advertising about student proficiency; a "C" for rigor of standards; an "A" for post-secondary and workforce readiness; an "A" for its teacher workforce policies; and an "F" for data quality.
State Budget Solutions education study
State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.
- Maryland state budget
- Maryland Department of Education
- Maryland school districts
- Education Policy in the U.S.
- Maryland State Department of Education (MSDOE)
- Maryland State Superintendent of Schools
- Maryland State Board of Education
- Maryland Schools and Districts (MSDOE)
- Maryland Charter Schools (MSDOE)
- Accountability and Assessment (MSDOE)
- Maryland Education Report Card
- Association of Independent Maryland Schools
- Maryland Virtual High School
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
- ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
- United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
- United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
- Maryland State Department of Education, "Superintendent's Biography," accessed May 20, 2014
- Maryland State Department of Education, "Maryland State Board of Education," accessed May 20, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
- United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
- ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
- Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
- Maryland Department of Education, "Charter Schools Overview," accessed September 23, 2009
- The Heritage Foundation, "School Choice in Maryland," accessed September 22, 2009
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
- Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
- Center for Union Facts, "Maryland State Education Association," accessed September 22, 2009
- Center for Union Facts, "AFT Maryland," accessed September 22, 2009
- Center for Union Facts, "State of Maryland," accessed September 22, 2009
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute, "Maryland Education Report Card," accessed November 17, 2009