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{{Wisconsin ed infobox}}
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{{Wisconsin ed infobox}}{{tnr}}The '''Wisconsin public school system''' (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Wisconsin had 871,105 students enrolled in a total of 2,243 schools in [[Wisconsin school districts|462 school districts]]. There were 56,245 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15.5 students, which is lower than the national average of 1:16.<ref>[http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013441/tables/table_02.asp ''United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics'', "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014]</ref> On average Wisconsin spent $11,774 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 16th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate is 88 percent. This is the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.<ref>[http://eddataexpress.ed.gov/state-tables-main.cfm ''United States Department of Education'', "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014]</ref>
{{tnr}}The '''Wisconsin public school system''' (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards members and superintendents. Wisconsin has [[Wisconsin_school_districts|442 school districts]].
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The [[Wisconsin State Constitution|Wisconsin state constitution]] requires that the state offer a general and uniform public school system.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/wisconst.pdf ''Wisconsin Constitution'', "Article 10, Section 1," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref>
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==State agencies==
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{{WIDOE}}The [[Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction]] is in charge of advancing public education and libraries in [[Wisconsin]].<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/content/about-us ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "About Us," accessed June 4, 2014]</ref> The department is led by the [[Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction|State Superintendent of Public Instruction]]. [[Tony Evers]] was first elected to the position in April 2009 and re-elected in 2013.<ref>[http://statesupt.dpi.wi.gov/supt_biography ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Biography of Tony Evers," accessed June 4, 2014]</ref> The Department of Public Instruction is divided into six divisions: the Office of the State Superintendent, the Division for Academic Excellence, the Division for Finance and Management, the Division for Learning Support, the Division for Libraries and Technology and the Division for Student and School Success.<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/div-teams ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "DPI Divisions and Teams," accessed June 4, 2014]</ref>
  
==School revenues, expenditures and budget==
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==Demographics==
:: ''See also: [[Wisconsin state budget]]''  
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::''See also: [[Demographic information for all students in all 50 states]]''
===2011-2013 Bienium===
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The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Wisconsin as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.<ref>[http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/elsi ''United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics'', "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014]</ref>
[[Wisconsin]] Assembly approved a $66 billion two year budget on June 16, 2011<ref>[The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel "Budget passes Assembly with provisions on choice schools, broadband funds" June 16, 2011]</ref> and the [[Wisconsin State Senate|Senate]] passed it the following day.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/17/us-wisconsin-budget-idUSTRE75G0LW20110617 Reuters "Wisconsin Senate passes budget, sends to governor" June 17, 2011]</ref>  Gov. [[Scott Walker|Scott Walker]] signed the bill into law on June 26, 2011.<Ref name=signs>[http://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/article/20110627/GPG0101/106270493/Walker-signs-state-budget-Ashwaubenon-hundreds-protesters-gather-outside?odyssey=tab|topnews|img|GPG-News The Green Bay Press Gazette "Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker signs state budget in Green Bay area" June 27, 2011]</ref>
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The budget does not increase taxes but does cut funding to education and local government.<ref name=signs/>  Portions of the FY2012-13 budget related to collective bargaining by unions triggered days of protests in the state capitol.<ref name=missing>{http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/18/us/18wisconsin.html?_r=2&hpThe New York Times "Democrats Missing, Wisconsin Vote on Cuts Is Delayed" Feb. 17, 2011]</ref>
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{{Education k-12 ethnicity Wisconsin}}
  
According to the 2011-2013 budget in brief, school aid is reduced by $834 million, or 7.9%, over the biennium. In order to prevent property tax increases, the budget sets the school district revenue limit per pupil to 5.5% less than the amount authorized for 2010-2011.  The change in employee contributions to pension and healthcare costs is estimated to save nearly $1 billion over the biennium.<ref name=brief>[http://www.doa.state.wi.us/debf/pdf_files/bib1113.pdf Budget in Brief]</ref>
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===Enrollments by region type===
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Students in Wisconsin are almost equally split by school region type, with students slightly more likely to attend rural schools than city, suburban or town schools. This is very similar to school region demographics in Minnesota. However, students in Illinois and Michigan are more likely to attend suburban schools than city, town or rural schools.
  
The 2011-2013 budget also reduces funding to University of Wisconsin institutions by $250 million and by $71.6 million to technical college districts over the biennium. The savings is from cutting administrative costs and raising tuition costs.<ref name=brief/>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:500px;"
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! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
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|-
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | City schools
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Suburban schools
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Town schools
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Rural Schools
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|-
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|'''Wisconsin''' || '''27.5%'''  || '''24.0%''' || '''19.2%''' || '''29.3% '''
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|-
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|[[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]] || 31.3% || 43.3% || 10.3% || 15.1%
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|-
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|[[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]] || 23.8% || 40.2% || 11.4% || 24.6%
 +
|-
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|[[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]] || 20.8%  || 29.4% || 19.5% || 30.4%
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|-
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|U.S. average || 28.9% || 34.0% || 11.6% || 25.4%
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|-
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|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>'''Source:''' [http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013441/tables/table_04.asp U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)]</small>
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|}
  
In FY2013, general and categorical school aids is the largest general purpose revenue program at $5 billion, or 34.5%. The University of Wisconsin System and Madison account for $895 million in spending, or 6.1% of the budget. Combined, education accounts for approximately 40.6% of budget expenditures.<ref name=brief/>
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==Academic performance==
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===NAEP scores===
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The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the [[National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)]].  Wisconsin had a higher percentage of students score at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth and eighth grades than students in Illinois and Michigan. However, Minnesota had a higher percentage than Wisconsin.<ref name=statetables>[http://eddataexpress.ed.gov/state-tables-main.cfm ''United States Department of Education, ED Data Express'', "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014]</ref>
  
According to a statement released by Governor Scott Walker a month after the passage of the 2011-2013 budget, local governments and school districts reported savings of roughly $220 million.<ref>[http://www.scottwalker.org/press-release/2011/08/month-one-walker-budget-working "Scott Walker," "Month One: Walker Budget Working," August 1, 2011]</ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:500px"
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! colspan="5" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013  
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|-
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! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
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! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Math - Grade 4'''
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! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Math - Grade 8'''
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! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Reading - Grade 4'''
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! style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Reading - Grade 8'''
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|-
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| '''Wisconsin'''||47||40||35||36
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|-
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| [[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]]||39||36||34||36
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|-
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| [[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]]||37||30||31||33
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|-
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| [[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]]||59||47||41||41
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|-
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| '''U.S. average'''|| 41 || 34 || 34 || 34
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|-
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|}
  
====Effect of Budget Cuts on Education====
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{|class="wikitable" style="width:500px;"
The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction has maps regarding the impact of the 2011-13 Biennial Budget. The maps show that majority of school districts in the state will face teacher losses, class size increases, and more budget cuts during the biennium.<ref>[http://dpi.state.wi.us/pb/11-13_budget.html "Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction," 2011-13 Biennial Budget]</ref>
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|-
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! colspan="8" align="center" | <big>NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013</big>
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|-
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|
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<pbars size=500x300 title="" grid=true ymin=0 ymax=100 legend colorscheme=excel>
 +
,Math - Grade 4,Math - Grade 8,Reading - Grade 4, Reading - Grade 8
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Wisconsin,47,40,35,36
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Illinois,39,36,34,36
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Michigan,37,30,31,33
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Minnesota,59,47,41,41
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U.S. average,41,34,34,34
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</pbars>
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|}
  
* Graduation Rates
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===Graduation, ACT and SAT scores===
** Graduation rates have not yet been released for school years affected by the 2011-2013 budget.
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The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Wisconsin and surrounding states.<ref name=statetables>[http://eddataexpress.ed.gov/state-tables-main.cfm ''United States Department of Education, ED Data Express'', "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014]</ref><ref name=actscores>[http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2012/states.html ''ACT'', "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014]</ref><ref name=satscores>[http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/sat-scores-by-state-2013 ''Commonwealth Foundation'', "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013]</ref>
* Assessment
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:700px;"
** As of May 5, 2012, there are no reports of significantly lower or higher test scores after the passage of the 2011-2013 budget. The most recent data available is from November of 2011 from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.<ref>[http://data.dpi.state.wi.us/data/performance.aspx?OrgLevel=st&GraphFile=BlankPageUrl&S4orALL=1&SRegion=1&SCounty=47&SAthleticConf=45&SCESA=05&Qquad=performance.aspx&STYP=5&TQSubjects=CORESUM&TQShow=LICSTAT&SubjectID=0AS&Grade=56&Group=AllStudentsFAY&CompareTo=PRIORYEARS DPI Data Analysis]</ref>
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! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
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|-
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! rowspan="2" valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
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! colspan="2" valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Graduation rate, 2012
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! colspan="2" valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Average ACT Composite, 2012
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! colspan="2" valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Average SAT Composite, 2013
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|-
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Percent
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Quintile ranking**
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Score
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Participation rate
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Score
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Participation rate
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|-
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|'''Wisconsin''' || '''88%''' || '''First''' || '''22.1''' || '''71%''' || '''1771''' || '''4% '''
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|-
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|[[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]] || 82% || Third || 20.9 || 100% || 1807 || 5%
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|-
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|[[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]] || 76% || Fourth || 20.1 || 100% || 1782 || 4%
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|-
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|[[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]] || 78% || Fourth || 22.8 || 74% || 1780 || 6%
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|-
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|U.S. average || colspan="2"| 80% || colspan="2"| 21.1 ||colspan="2"| 1498
 +
|-
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|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).<br>**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.<br>Source: [http://eddataexpress.ed.gov/state-tables-main.cfm United States Department of Education, ED Data Express]</small>
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|}
  
====Cost of Teacher's Health Insurance====
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{{Dropout rate|State=Wisconsin|Level=sl|FY 2010-2011=2.0|FY 2011-2012=1.9}}
Some school districts have begun to transition their teachers on to high deductible insurance plans like the ones used in many private businesses. They feature a yearly deductible of $2,000 a year for individuals and $4,000 for families along with a variety of wellness incentives to get people more involved in their own health care. Some of the districts making the transition include Greendale, New Berlin, and Brown Deer. New Berlin expects to save $1.25 million over the year from the change.<ref>[http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/teachers-moving-to-pricier-health-plans-gu503nn-148413125.html ''Journal Sentinel'' Teachers moving to pricier health plans, April 21, 2012. Accessed May 5, 2012]</ref>
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===2009-2011 Bienium===
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==Educational choice options==
[[Image:Wisconsin education costs.png|right|250px|thumb|Wisconsin's education costs are about 40% of the state budget]]
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School Choice options in [[Wisconsin]] include:
As of [[SC (Sunshine Review)|June 30, 2009]] the [[Jim Doyle|Gov. Jim Doyle]] signed a $62 billion budget, of which education accounts for approximately 40%.<ref name="RecBudget">[http://www.doa.state.wi.us/debf/pdf_files/bib.pdf ''State of Wisconsin'',"2009-2011 Budget in Brief," February 2009]</ref> In light of the state's looming budget deficit, the governor cut about $10 million in spending before signing the final budget.<ref>[http://www.twincities.com/wisconsin/ci_12717644 ''Associated Press'',"With minor changes, Doyle signs Wisconsin's budget," June 29, 2009]</ref>
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*'''Charter schools:''' In the 2009-2010 school year, there were approximately 79 school boards and 206 [[charter schools]] across the state. About four new [[charter schools]] opened in 2009, while about 41 closed between 2008 and 2009. Charter schools were first authorized in 1993. Although, [[charter schools]] are funded by local public school districts, they offer different programs and curriculum.<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/pdf/2009-10yearbook.pdf ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Wisconsin Charter Schools Yearbook 2009-2010," accessed November 13, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/csindex.html ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Charter Schools in Wisconsin," accessed November 13, 2009]</ref>
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*'''Public school open enrollment:''' Wisconsin's open-enrollment program allows for students to attend school in a school district other than the one in which they reside. Any student from kindergarten through 12th grade may apply. However, students cannot apply for individual schools. Students may request to be placed in a particular public or charter school, but the placement is not guaranteed. This program does not allow for intra-district enrollment, which is transferring from one school to another within the same district.<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/doc/oeqa1005.doc ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Public School Open Enrollment," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/psctoc.html ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Public School Choice (open enrollment)," accessed July 9, 2009]</ref>
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*'''Milwaukee Parental Choice Program:''' Beginning in 1990, Wisconsin allowed for disadvantaged children to receive school vouchers to attend private schools. This program was restricted to the city of Milwaukee, until it was expanded to Milwaukee County and the City of Racine in 2011. In 2008, the [[Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction|Department of Public Instruction]] reported that 18,882 students participated in the program.<ref name="WIChoice">[http://www.heritage.org/Research/Education/SchoolChoice/detail.cfm ''The Heritage Foundation'', "School Choice in Wisconsin," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref> In 2012, enrollment in the program rose to 23,198 students using a voucher of up to $6,442.<ref>[http://watchdog.org/13437/milwaukee-voucher-enrollment-jumps-10/ "Watchdog," "Milwaukee voucher enrollment jumps 10%," February 15, 2012]</ref>
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*'''Online learning:''' The state offers a supplemental online program, which was established in 2008. In the 2010-2011 school year, the system put a cap on enrollment, leaving nearly 1,700 children locked out of the public school of their choice and waiting for others on the list to drop off before being able to enroll in their chosen school.<ref name="WIChoice"/><ref>[http://maciverinstitute.com/2010/08/advocates-say-virtual-school-lockout-still-in-effect-harming-families/ ''MacIver News Service'', "Advocates Say Virtual School Lockout Still in Effect, Harming Families,'' August 18, 2010]</ref>
  
In the [[governor (Sunshine Review)|governor's]] recommendations proposed in February 2009 the governor suggested a $201 million increase in state aids and federal economic stimulus education funding in fiscal year 2009-10 and an additional $24 million increase in fiscal year 2010-11 for a total increase of $426 million over the biennium compared with fiscal year 2008-09 for public education.<ref name="RecBudget"/>
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==Education funding and expenditures==
 +
:: ''See also: [[Wisconsin state budget]]''
  
In addition to state funding, Wisconsin approved of [[Approval rates of local school bond and tax elections in 2010|18 new bond measures]] and 18 new taxes.
+
[[File:Wisconsin expenditures by type 2012.png|right|thumb|400px|Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.<small><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>]]
  
The cost per pupil was $10,680, ranking 16th highest the nation according the Census Bureau 2007-2008 report.<ref>[http://maine.watchdog.org/2010/07/06/education-spending-per-child/ ''Maine Watchdog'', Education Spending Per Child, July 6, 2010]</ref>
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According to the [[National Association of State Budget Officers]] (NASBO), the state spent approximately 16.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 2.4 percentage points from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 19.1 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.<ref name=expenditures2013>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2011>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2010%20State%20Expenditure%20Report_0.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2012>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report%20%28Fiscal%202010-2012%29.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2009>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2009-State-Expenditure-Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2008>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/FY08%20State%20Expenditure%20Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref>
  
In 2009, the cost per pupil was $11,783 when adjusted for regional cost differences according to the Kids Count Data Center for The Annie E. Casey Foundcation.<ref>[http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/acrossstates/Rankings.aspx?ind=5199 ''Kids Count Data Center'', Per-pupil educational expenditures adjusted for regional cost differences, 2009]</ref>
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===Revenue breakdowns===
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According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Wisconsin totaled approximately $11.4 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Wisconsin and surrounding states.<ref name=revexpend>[http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013344/tables/table_01.asp ''United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics'', "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014]</ref>
  
Wisconsin was one of 40 schools who participated in the [[Race to the Top]] program for $3 billion in federal funding.  The school was not selected to make it to the second round.<ref>[http://watchdog.org/5984/wisconsin-once-again-fails-in-educational-race-to-the-top/ ''Watchdog'', Wisconsin Once Again Fails in Educational Race to the Top, July 27, 2010]</ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:500px;"
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! colspan="5" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
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|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Federal revenue'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''State revenue'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Local revenue'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Total revenue'''
 +
|-
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| Wisconsin||$1,002,909||$5,226,954||$5,175,978||$11,405,841
 +
|-
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| [[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]]||$2,895,524||$9,304,948||$16,499,969||$28,700,441
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]]||$2,677,078||$10,710,646||$6,075,517||$19,463,241
 +
|-
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| [[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]]||$886,619||$6,657,769||$3,641,015||$11,185,403
 +
|-
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| U.S. total ||$74,943,767 ||$267,762,416 ||$264,550,594 ||$607,256,777
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
====School deficits====
+
{|class="wikitable" style="width:500px;"
[[Milwaukee Public Schools, Wisconsin|Milwaukee Public Schools]] built up a $10.7 million deficit in 2010, with 93 schools going into debt this year. Milwaukee Public Schools racked up nearly $2.4 billion in long-term, non-pension obligations to retirees and their spouses, according to new figures released August 2010.<ref>[http://maciverinstitute.com/2010/08/mps%E2%80%99-costs-for-retiree-health-benefits-threatens-to-overwhelm-district/ "MPS’ Costs for Retiree Health Benefits Threaten to Overwhelm District," ''MacIver News Service'', August 24, 2010]</ref>  
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|-
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! colspan="8" align="center" | <big>Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)</big>
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|-
 +
|
 +
<pbars size=500x300 title="" grid=true ymin=0 ymax=100 legend colorscheme=excel>
 +
,Federal revenue,State revenue,Local revenue
 +
Wisconsin,8.79,45.83,45.38
 +
Illinois,10.09,32.42,57.49
 +
Michigan,13.75,55.03,31.22
 +
Minnesota,13.75,55.03,31.22
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U.S. total,12.34,44.09,43.56
 +
</pbars>
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|}
  
Milwaukee Public School teachers reportedly have an average salary of $56,500, but with benefits included, the total compensation average is $100,005 for 2011.<ref>[http://maciverinstitute.com/2010/03/average-mps-teacher-compensation-tops-100kyear/ "MacIver Institute," Average MPS Teacher Compensation Tops $100k/year, March 2010]</ref>
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===Expenditure breakdowns===
 +
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Wisconsin totaled approximately $11.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Wisconsin and surrounding states.<ref name=revexpend/>
  
Nineteen of the schools reported deficits of more than $200,000.<ref>[http://watchdog.org/7088/19-individual-public-schools-in-milwaukee-run-up-deficits-in-excess-of-200000/ ''Watchdog'', 19 Individual Public Schools in Milwaukee Run up Deficits in Excess of $200,000, Oct. 27, 2010]</ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:500px;"
 +
! colspan="5" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Current expenditures**'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Capital outlay'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Other***'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Total expenditures'''
 +
|-
 +
| Wisconsin||$10,175,521||$541,918||$469,214||$11,186,653
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]]||$24,525,567||$1,884,976||$1,138,206||$27,548,749
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]]||$16,728,164||$1,334,386||$1,269,168||$19,331,718
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]]||$8,907,505||$1,077,969||$882,342||$10,867,816
 +
|-
 +
| U.S. total||$520,577,893 ||$52,984,139 ||$29,581,293 ||$603,143,325
 +
|-
 +
| align="left" colspan="5" | <small>**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.<br>***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.<br>'''Source:''' [http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013342.pdf National Center for Education Statistics]</small>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{|class="wikitable" style="width:500px;"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="8" align="center" | <big>Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)</big>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<pbars size=500x300 title="" grid=true ymin=0 ymax=100 legend colorscheme=excel>
 +
,Current expenditures,Capital outlay,Other
 +
Wisconsin,90.96,4.84,4.19
 +
Illinois,89.03,6.84,4.13
 +
Michigan,86.53,6.90,6.57
 +
Minnesota,81.96,9.92,8.12
 +
U.S. total,86.31,8.78,4.90
 +
</pbars>
 +
|}
  
 
===Personnel salaries===
 
===Personnel salaries===
*On June 29, 2009 the Gov. Doyle signed the state budget for 2009-11 and with it the governor eliminated qualified economic offer (QEO) which allows for school districts to cap increases in teacher pay and benefits to 3.8% a year. The governor also decreased the amount of the state's commitment to public schools' operations. Usually the state contributes 2/3rds but for the upcoming fiscal year the state will instead contributed 60%.<ref>[http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/49471077.html ''Milwaukee Journal Sentinel'',"School funding getting precarious," June 29, 2009]</ref>
+
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Wisconsin, the average salary decreased by 1.9 percent.<ref>[http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_211.60.asp ''United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics'', "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014]</ref>
  
==Role of unions==
+
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:500px;"
In late June 2009 when Gov. Doyle signed the new state budget it included the elimination of the Qualified Economic Offer rule, created in 1993. The rule allowed school boards to settle contracts by offering 3.8 percent total compensation increase. Additionally, new bargaining laws allow arbitrators to disregard revenue limits and local economic conditions when settling disputes. The new law, said school board members, will lead to an increase in binding arbitration and thus a possible increase in settlement costs. However, Mary Bell, president of the [[Wisconsin Education Association Council]], said "It isn't in employees' best interest to put forward a settlement the district can't afford. It isn't that we don't understand resources. We do."<ref>[http://www.thenorthwestern.com/article/20090712/OSH0101/907120335/1987 ''The Northwestern'',"Budget alters contract talks between board, teachers' union," July 12, 2009]</ref>
+
! colspan="6" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''1999-2000'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''2009-2010'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''2011-2012'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''2012-2013'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |'''Percent difference'''
 +
|-
 +
| Wisconsin||$56,239||$54,721||$54,687||$55,171||-1.9%
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Illinois|Illinois]]||$63,527||$66,264||$58,595||$59,113||-6.9%
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Michigan|Michigan]]||$67,023||$61,867||$62,585||$61,560||-8.2%
 +
|-
 +
| [[Public education in Minnesota|Minnesota]]||$54,393||$55,967||$55,874||$56,268||3.4%
 +
|-
 +
| U.S. average ||$57,133 ||$58,925 ||$56,340 ||$56,383 ||-1.3%
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
During the 2009-2010 legislative session, the [[Wisconsin Education Association Council]] spent $2.5 million on lobbying the legislature. The organization focused on lobbying on Senate Bill 405 which would have given more power to the district superintendent in Milwaukee Public Schools at expense of the school board and only allowed the superintendent to negotiate contracts with labor organizations.<Ref>[http://www.wisconsinreporter.com/millions-spent-for-legislature-lobbyists "Wisconsin Reporter," "Millions spent for Legislature lobbyists," August 15, 2011]</ref>
+
==Organizations==
 +
===Unions===
 +
In late June 2009, [[Governor of Wisconsin|Governor]] [[James Doyle (Wisconsin)|Jim Doyle]] signed a new state budget that eliminated the Qualified Economic Offer Rule. Created in 1993, the rule had allowed school boards to settle contracts by offering a 3.8 percent total compensation increase. With this rule as well as new bargaining laws, arbitrators were allowed to disregard revenue limits and local economic conditions when settling disputes. School board members believed the elimination of the Qualified Economic Offer Rule would lead to an increase in binding arbitration and lead to a possible increase in settlement costs. However, Mary Bell, president of the [[Wisconsin Education Association Council]], said, "It isn't in employees' best interest to put forward a settlement the district can't afford. It isn't that we don't understand resources. We do."<ref>[http://www.thenorthwestern.com/article/20090712/OSH0101/907120335/1987 ''The Northwestern'', "Budget alters contract talks between board, teachers' union," July 12, 2009]</ref>
  
===Union Protests===
+
During the 2009-2010 legislative session, the [[Wisconsin Education Association Council]] spent $2.5 million on lobbying the [[Wisconsin State Legislature]]. The organization focused on lobbying for Senate Bill 405, which would have given more power to the district superintendent in Milwaukee Public Schools, at the expense of the school board, and only allowed the superintendent to negotiate contracts with labor organizations.<ref>[http://www.wisconsinreporter.com/millions-spent-for-legislature-lobbyists ''Wisconsin Reporter'', "Millions spent for Legislature lobbyists," August 15, 2011]</ref>
  
Protests erupted over a bill that would require state employees to contribute an average of 8% more to their pension and health care costs and the right to collective bargaining.<ref name=leave/> Gov. Walker said that asking employees to pay half the national average for health care "is truly a modest request."<ref name=cbs>[http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/02/18/earlyshow/main20033283.shtml CBSNews.com "Wis. gov: I took "bold political move" on budget" Feb. 18, 2011]</ref>  Walker also denied that his proposal is trying to break the unions.<ref name=cbs/>
+
====Union Protests====
Up to 40,000 thousands of union protesters filled the state capitol for a week.<Ref name=leave/><Ref name=protest/><ref name=tea>[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41664858/ns/us_news-life/ MSNBC.com "Tea Party to rally for Wisconsin anti-union bill" Feb. 18, 2011]</ref>  After four days of pro-union protests, the Tea Party staged a rally in support of the legislation.<ref name=tea/>
+
In 2011, protests erupted over a bill that required state employees to contribute an average of eight percent more to their pension and health care costs and took away the right of collective bargaining.<ref name=leave>[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41644074/ns/us_news-life/ ''MSNBC'', "Wis. union vote on hold after Democrats leave state," February 17, 2011]</ref> [[Governor of Wisconsin|Governor]] [[Scott Walker]] said that asking employees to pay half the national average for health care was "truly a modest request." Walker also denied that his proposal tried to break unions.<ref name=cbs>[http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/02/18/earlyshow/main20033283.shtml ''CBS News'', "Wis. gov: I took 'bold political move' on budget," February 18, 2011]</ref>
  
To avoid a vote on the measure, 14 Senate Democrats disappeared and could not be found.<Ref name=missing/> They reportedly went to a hotel in  [[Illinois]].<ref name=leave/> Republicans control the State Senate by 19 to 14, but to have a vote on fiscal matters, 20 senators must be present.<ref name=missing/>  The Senate Democrats, however, threatened to stay away for weeks.<ref>[http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110219/ap_on_re_us/us_wisconsin_budget_unions Yahoo! News "Wisconsin Democrats could stay away for weeks" Feb. 18, 2011]</ref>
+
Up to 40,000 union protesters filled the state capitol for a week after the bill was proposed.<ref name=leave/><ref name=protest/><ref name=tea>[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41664858/ns/us_news-life/ ''MSNBC'', "Tea Party to rally for Wisconsin anti-union bill," February 18, 2011]</ref> After four days of pro-union protests, the Tea Party staged a rally in support of the legislation.<ref name=tea/>
  
The Assembly had sufficient attendance to hold a vote on the bill but delayed doing so on Feb. 18, 2011, until the following week,<ref name=tea/> and Republican Speaker [[Jeff Fitzgerald|Jeff Fitzgerald]] said that the bill has the votes to pass when lawmakers reconvene on Feb. 22, 2011.<ref>[http://www.wkow.com/Global/story.asp?S=14056892 "Wisconsin Assembly delays vote on union bill" Feb. 18, 2011]</ref>  
+
To avoid a vote on the measure, 14 [[Wisconsin State Senate|Senate]] [[Democrats]] disappeared and could not be found.<ref name=missing>{http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/18/us/18wisconsin.html?_r=2&hpThe New York Times "Democrats Missing, Wisconsin Vote on Cuts Is Delayed" Feb. 17, 2011]</ref> They reportedly went to a hotel in [[Illinois]].<ref name=leave/> Republicans controlled the [[Wisconsin State Senate|Senate]] by 19 to 14, but to have a vote on fiscal matters, 20 senators had to be present.<ref name=missing/> The Senate Democrats, however, threatened to stay away for weeks.<ref>[http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110219/ap_on_re_us/us_wisconsin_budget_unions ''Yahoo! News'', "Wisconsin Democrats could stay away for weeks," February 18, 2011]</ref>
 +
 
 +
The [[Wisconsin State Assembly]] had sufficient attendance to hold a vote on the bill but delayed doing so on February 18, 2011.<ref name=tea/> Republican Speaker [[Jeff Fitzgerald]] said that the bill had the votes to pass when lawmakers reconvened on February 22, 2011.<ref>[http://www.wkow.com/Global/story.asp?S=14056892 ''WKOW'', "Wisconsin Assembly delays vote on union bill," February 18, 2011]</ref>  
  
 
'''Union Benefit Cuts'''
 
'''Union Benefit Cuts'''
  
State employees are unhappy with the governor's budget that forces them to  contribute 5.8% of their salary toward their pensions, and also pay 12.6% of their health insurance premiums.<ref name=protest/> The move is anticipated to save nearly $300 million over the following two fiscal years.<ref name=crowd/>
+
The governor's budget proposed state employees contribute 5.8 percent of their salary toward their pensions and pay 12.6 percent of their health insurance premiums.<ref name=protest/> The move was anticipated to save nearly $300 million over the following two fiscal years.<ref name=crowd>[http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/116228594.html ''The Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel'', "Budget bill draws a crowd," February 15, 2011]</ref>  
  
 
'''Collective Bargaining'''
 
'''Collective Bargaining'''
  
The governor's proposed budget also eliminated almost all union bargaining rights.<ref name=crowd>[http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/116228594.html The Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel "Budget bill draws a crowd" Feb. 15, 2011]</ref>  
+
The governor's proposed budget also eliminated almost all union bargaining rights.<ref name=crowd/>
  
The proposal would take away most state and local workers of collective bargaining rights on everything except salary.<ref>[http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/W/WI_BUDGET_WOES_PROTEST_WIOL-?SITE=WIMIL&SECTION=STATE&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel "Wis. state workers and allies descend on Madison to protest halt to collective bargaining" Feb. 15, 2011]</ref> Unions would be unable to seek pay increases above those pegged to the Consumer Price Index unless approved by a public referendum.<Ref name=leave>[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41644074/ns/us_news-life/ MSNBC.com "Wis. union vote on hold after Democrats leave state" Feb. 17, 2011]</ref>  In addition, unions also  would have to hold annual votes to stay organized and would be unable to force employees to pay dues.<ref name=leave/>
+
The proposal took away collective bargaining rights on everything except salary from state and local workers.<ref>[http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/W/WI_BUDGET_WOES_PROTEST_WIOL-?SITE=WIMIL&SECTION=STATE&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT ''The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel'', "Wis. state workers and allies descend on Madison to protest halt to collective bargaining," February 15, 2011]</ref> Unions would be unable to seek pay increases above those pegged to the Consumer Price Index unless approved by a public referendum. In addition, unions also  would have to hold annual votes to stay organized and would be unable to force employees to pay dues.<ref name=leave/>
  
Republican lawmakers said collective bargaining rules must be changed so governments can avoid laying off thousands of workers.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/15/us-wisconsin-protests-idUSTRE71E7BY20110215 Reuters "Thousand of Wisconsin union workers protest budget plan" Feb. 15, 2011]</ref> Gov. Scott Walker has said that he will have to lay off up to 6,000 state workers if the measure does not pass.<ref name=leave/>
+
Republican lawmakers said collective bargaining rules must be changed so the government could avoid laying off thousands of workers.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/15/us-wisconsin-protests-idUSTRE71E7BY20110215 ''Reuters'', "Thousands of Wisconsin union workers protest budget plan," February 15, 2011]</ref> Gov. Walker said that he would have to lay off up to 6,000 state workers if the measure did not pass.<ref name=leave/>
  
Employees who would retain their collective bargaining rights are local police, firefighters and state troopers.<ref name=leave/>
+
The proposal allowed local police, firefighters and state troopers to retain their bargaining rights.<ref name=leave/>
  
In the case of a walkout, Walker has put the National Guard on alert.<ref>[http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-ap-wi-budgetwoes-nation,0,771747.story The Chicago Tribune "Walker says National Guard is prepared" Feb. 11, 2011]</ref>
+
In the case of a walkout, Walker put the National Guard on alert.<ref>[http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-ap-wi-budgetwoes-nation,0,771747.story ''The Chicago Tribune'', "Walker says National Guard is prepared," February 11, 2011]</ref>
  
 
'''School Closures'''
 
'''School Closures'''
  
More than 15 [[Wisconsin school districts|school districts]], including the [[Madison Metropolitan School District, Wisconsin|Madison schools]] were closed for four days due to teachers and staff calling in sick.<ref name=order>[http://www.wkow.com/Global/story.asp?S=14060347 WKOW.com "MMSD denied temporary restraining order" Feb. 18, 2011]</ref><ref>[http://www.wfrv.com/news/local/Madison-schools-remain-closed-4th-day-in-a-row--116602448.html WFRV.com "Madison schools remain closed, Fourth day in a row" Feb. 21, 2011]</ref> Judge [[judgepedia:Maryann Sumi|Maryann Sumi]] of the [[judgepedia:Dane County District Court|Dane County District Court]] denied the Madison school district requests for an injunction against Madison Teachers Inc. so that schools could reopen.<Ref name=order/>
+
More than 15 [[Wisconsin school districts|school districts]], including the [[Madison Metropolitan School District, Wisconsin|Madison Metropolitan School District]], were closed for four days due to teachers and staff calling in sick.<ref name=order>[http://www.wkow.com/Global/story.asp?S=14060347 ''WKOW'', "MMSD denied temporary restraining order," February 18, 2011]</ref><ref>[http://www.wfrv.com/news/local/Madison-schools-remain-closed-4th-day-in-a-row--116602448.html ''WFRV'', "Madison schools remain closed, Fourth day in a row," February 21, 2011]</ref> Judge [[judgepedia:Maryann Sumi|Maryann Sumi]] of the [[judgepedia:Dane County District Court|Dane County District Court]] denied the Madison school district requests for an injunction against Madison Teachers Inc. so that schools could reopen.<ref name=order/>
 
+
==Role of school boards==
+
The school board is comprised of a superintendent and "such other officers as the legislature shall direct." The superintendent is appointed by the state legislature in the same manner as members of the [[Judgepedia:Wisconsin Supreme Court|Wisconsin Supreme Court]]. The superintendent can hold office for 4 years.<ref>[http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/wisconst.pdf ''Wisconsin Constitution'',"Article 10, Section 1," accessed July 9, 2009]</ref> According to the state constitution the board of education may not prevent a non−union teacher from speaking of a bargaining issue at an open meeting, as was ruled in the [[Judgepedia:United States Supreme Court|U.S. Supreme Court case [http://supreme.justia.com/us/429/167/ Madison School District v. Wisconsin Employment Commission].<ref>[http://www.legis.state.wi.us/statutes/wisconst.pdf ''Wisconsin Constitution'',"Article 1, Section 3," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref>
+
  
 
==Taxpayer-funded lobbying==
 
==Taxpayer-funded lobbying==
:: ''See also: [[Wisconsin government sector lobbying]]''
+
::''See also: [[Wisconsin government sector lobbying]]''
  
 
The main education government sector lobbying organization is the [[Wisconsin Association of School Boards]].
 
The main education government sector lobbying organization is the [[Wisconsin Association of School Boards]].
  
 
==Transparency==
 
==Transparency==
A year after the [[Citizens for Responsible Government]] launched a transparency spending database for [[Wisconsin]], the [[Milwaukee Public Schools, Wisconsin|Milwaukee Public Schools]] launched its own database, which will allow searches for school purchases from 2005 to 2010.<ref>[http://www.crgnetwork.com/media/press/GASP%20MPS%20Spending.doc ''CRG Press Release'', CRG Network Applauds Milwaukee Public Schools for Publishing Online Spending Database, July 5, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://sunshinereview.org/images/2/2b/MPS.pdf ''MPS press release, MPS expense records now available online, July 2, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dev.www.jsonline.com/blogs/news/50159412.html ''JS Online'', Quick Hit: A step toward accountability, July 7, 2009]</ref>  There are over 432,000 invoices which archive over $2.2 billion dollars in spending in the database.<ref>[http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/50090037.html ''JS Online'', New MPS database wins kudos from taxpayer group, July 6, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://www.jsonline.com/blogs/news/50043162.html ''JS Online'', More welcome transparency at MPS, July 6, 2009]</ref>  
+
A year after the [[Citizens for Responsible Government]] launched a transparency spending database for [[Wisconsin]], the [[Milwaukee Public Schools, Wisconsin|Milwaukee Public Schools]] launched its own database, which allows searches for school purchases from 2005 and on.<ref>[http://www.crgnetwork.com/media/press/GASP%20MPS%20Spending.doc ''CRG Press Release'', "CRG Network Applauds Milwaukee Public Schools for Publishing Online Spending Database," July 5, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://sunshinereview.org/images/2/2b/MPS.pdf ''Milwaukee Public Schools'', "Press Release: MPS expense records now available online," July 2, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dev.www.jsonline.com/blogs/news/50159412.html ''JS Online'', "Quick Hit: A step toward accountability," July 7, 2009]</ref>
  
===Reports===
+
==Education ballot measures==
A 2009 study, '''Leaders and Laggards''', conducted by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for a Competitive Workplace, Frederick M. Hess of the conservative American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, and the Center for American Progress, gave Wisconsin: "B" in academic achievement; "C" in truth in advertising about student proficiency; "D" in rigor of standards; "B" in post-secondary and workforce readiness; "C" for its teacher workforce policies; "B" in data quality.<ref>[http://www.uschamber.com/assets/icw/07reportcard/state_reports/state_report_WI.pdf ''U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute'',"Wisconsin Education Report Card," accessed November 17, 2009]</ref>
+
::See also: ''[[Education on the ballot]]'' and ''[[List of Wisconsin ballot measures]]''
 +
{{#dpl:
 +
|category = Education,_Wisconsin
 +
|notnamespace = Category
 +
|titlematch=Wisconsin%
 +
|suppresserrors=true
 +
|noresultsheader =
 +
|format = ,\n#[[%PAGE%{{!}}%TITLE%]],,
 +
|resultsheader = Ballotpedia staff have tracked %PAGES% statewide ballot measures relating to education.
 +
}}
  
===Audits===
+
==Studies and reports==
*In 2007, [[Weyauwega-Fremont School District, Wisconsin|Weyauwega-Fremont School Board]] lost a suit against Barry Hoerz after he was kicked out of a board meeting in July 2006 "for writing notes." In January 2007, a [[Waupaca County, Wisconsin|Waupaca County]] circuit judge ruled that the board violated the state's open meeting law and ordered the district to pay a $300 fine as well as attorney expenses and other fees totaling $9,133.<ref name="Court">[http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/29300754.html ''Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel'',"School District loses 2 suits over lack of transparency," March 14, 2007]</ref>
+
===ABCs of school choice===
*In fall 2006 the ''Appleton Post-Crescent'' newspaper filed suit against the Weyauwega-Freemont School District after requesting and receiving district legal expense documents that were heavily edited. The school district refused to provide more information, after the newspaper made a second request, until a $430 fee was paid. In February 2007, the suit was settled and the district agreed to release the information and pay $10,000 in legal expenses.<ref name="Court"/>
+
The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice publishes a comprehensive guide to private school choice programs across the U.S. In its 2014 edition, the Foundation reviewed four Wisconsin programs: the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, the Racine Parental Private School Choice Program, the statewide Parental Choice Program and the K-12 Private School Tuition Deduction Program.<ref>[http://www.edchoice.org/School-Choice/The-ABCs-of-School-Choice/ABCs-Blue/2014-The-ABCs-of-School-Choice-Blue ''The Friedman Foundation for Education Choice'', "The ABCs of School Choice," 2014 Edition]</ref> The full Friedman Foundation report can be found [http://www.edchoice.org/School-Choice/The-ABCs-of-School-Choice/ABCs-Blue/2014-The-ABCs-of-School-Choice-Blue here].
**From 1997-2007, the district has spent approximately an average of $60,000 on legal expenses and has an annual budget of about $9.5 million.<ref name="Court"/>
+
==="Leaders and Laggards"===
 +
A 2009 study, '''Leaders and Laggards''', conducted by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for a Competitive Workplace, Frederick M. Hess of the conservative American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and the Center for American Progress, gave Wisconsin the following scores: a "B" in academic achievement; a "C" in truth in advertising about student proficiency; a "D" in rigor of standards; a "B" in post-secondary and workforce readiness; a "C" for its teacher workforce policies; a "B" in data quality.<ref>[http://www.uschamber.com/assets/icw/07reportcard/state_reports/state_report_WI.pdf ''U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute'',"Wisconsin Education Report Card," accessed November 17, 2009]</ref>
 +
===State Budget Solutions education study===
 +
{{SBS education study}}
  
==Academic performance==
+
==Recent news==
===Public schools===
+
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "'''Wisconsin + Education '''"
For the 2008-09 school year, based on the Wisconsin Knowledge & Concepts Examinations (WKCE) and the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) administered in Fall 2008, two school districts - [[Milwaukee Public Schools, Wisconsin|Milwaukee School District]] and [[Beloit School District, Wisconsin|Beloit School District]] - were "identified for improvement." Also, in 2008-09 Wisconsin reported the highest number of schools in need of improvement. In the 2007-08 school year the state saw it's highest number of schools that missed AYP, followed by the second highest in 2008-09.
+
:''All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.''
 +
{{RSS|feed=http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&gl=us&q=Wisconsin+education&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss|template=slpfeed|max=10|title=Wisconsin Education News Feed}}
  
Every school year student, school and district performance is generated through state performance exams, WKCE and WAA, and through the national No Child Left Behind Program - the Adequate Yearly Progress or AYP.<ref name="AYP"/>
+
==See also==
 
+
*[[Wisconsin state budget]]
The chart below depicts the number of public schools "identified for improvement" and the number of schools that "missed AYP" for school years 2002-03 through 2008-09.<ref name="Performance">[http://www2.dpi.state.wi.us/sifi/default.asp ''Wisconsin Department of Instruction'',"Office of Educational Accountability," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref>
+
*[[Wisconsin Department of Education]]
 
+
*[[Wisconsin school districts]]
{|class="wikitable"
+
*[[Wisconsin]]
! School Year
+
*[[Education Policy in the U.S.]]
! Schools Identified for improvement
+
! Schools Missed AYP
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2010-11 || text align="center"|84 || text align="center"|217
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2009-10 || text align="center"|84 || text align="center"|135 
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2008-09 || text align="center"|79 || text align="center"|145
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2007-08 || text align="center"|54 || text align="center"|146
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2006-07 || text align="center"|45 || text align="center"|89
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2005-06 || text align="center"|37 || text align="center"|87
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2004-05 || text align="center"|44 || text align="center"|47
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2003-04 || text align="center"|50 || text align="center"|103
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2002-03 || text align="center"|67 || text align="center"|99
+
|}
+
 
+
Despite having some of the highest spending-per-pupil in the country, a recent study by the  National Assessment of Educational Progress found in 2009 that only 34 percent of Wisconsin public-school eighth graders earned a “proficient” or higher rating for reading proficiency.<ref>[http://cnsnews.com/news/article/two-thirds-wisconsin-public-school-8th-g ''CNS News'', Two-Thirds of Wisconsin Public-School 8th Graders Can’t Read Proficiently—Despite Highest Per Pupil Spending in Midwest, Feb. 22, 2011]</ref>
+
 
+
The table below shows the results for all students in the Wisconsin Student Assessment System (WSAS) according to the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.<ref>[http://dpi.state.wi.us/ Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction]</ref>
+
 
+
{| class=wikitable
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Year'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Math'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Reading'''
+
|-
+
| 2005-06||72.8||81.7
+
|-
+
| 2006-07||75.1||82.1
+
|-
+
| 2007-08||74.7||81.9
+
|-
+
| 2008-09||76.7||81.4
+
|-
+
| 2009-10||77.3||81.6
+
|-
+
| 2010-11||77.2||83
+
|-
+
| 2011-12||78||81.9
+
|-
+
|}
+
*Source: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
+
 
+
===Charter schools===
+
For the 2008-09 school year, based on the Wisconsin Knowledge & Concepts Examinations (WKCE) and the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) administered in Fall 2008, three [[charter schools]] were "identified for improvement" - [http://www.all-milwaukee.org/ Academy of Learning & Leadership], Business and Economics Academy and [http://www.milwaukeeacademyofscience.org/ Milwaukee Academy of Science]. According to reports, for the consecutive school years 2002-03 through 2005-06 [http://www.cyberschool-milwaukee.org/ Center City Cyberschool] was identified as a school in need for improvement. Wisconsin [[charter schools]] had the most number of schools that missed AYP standards in 2007-08, followed by the second highest in 2003-04.
+
 
+
Every school year student, school and district performance is generated through state performance exams, WKCE and WAA, and through the national No Child Left Behind Program - the Adequate Yearly Progress or AYP.<ref name="AYP">[http://www.ed.gov/nclb/accountability/ayp/edpicks.jhtml ''U.S. Department of Education'',"Adequate Yearly Progress," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref>
+
 
+
The chart below depicts the number of [[charter schools]] "identified for improvement" and the number of schools that "missed AYP" for school years 2002-03 through 2008-09.<ref name="Performance"/>
+
 
+
{|class="wikitable"
+
! School Year
+
! Schools Identified for improvement
+
! Schools Missed AYP
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2010-11 || text align="center"|4 || text align="center"|6
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2009-10 || text align="center"|5 || text align="center"|5
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2008-09 || text align="center"|3 || text align="center"|3
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2007-08 || text align="center"|2 || text align="center"|7
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2006-07 || text align="center"|0 || text align="center"|3
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2005-06 || text align="center"|1 || text align="center"|0
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2004-05 || text align="center"|1 || text align="center"|2
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2003-04 || text align="center"|1 || text align="center"|5
+
|-valign="top"
+
| 2002-03 || text align="center"|1 || text align="center"|3
+
|}
+
 
+
The WKCE tests were administered again in fall 2010.<ref>[http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/oea/pdf/testtimes_10-11.pdf WKCE Test Administration Timing for Fall 2010 PDF Document]</ref>
+
 
+
==State Budget Solutions’ Education Study: “Throwing Money At Education Isn’t Working”==
+
 
+
[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org State Budget Solutions’]  examined national trends in education from 2009-2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study shows that states that spend the most do not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor do they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available [http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/throwing-money-at-education-isnt-working here]. Download the full report here: [http://sbs2.eresources.ws/doclib/201209111_SBSEducationReport911.pdf Throwing Money At Education Isn’t Working].
+
 
+
See [[State_spending_on_education_v._academic_performance_%282012%29_(Sunshine_Review)|National Chart]] to compare data from all 50 states.
+
 
+
===State Spending on Education vs. Academic Performance 2012===
+
 
+
{|class="wikitable"
+
!State
+
!2011 Total Spending<ref>[http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017AKb_13s1li111mcn_F0t USGovernmentSpending.com "Alabama Government Spending Chart - Total Spending" Aug. 4, 2012]</ref>
+
!2011 Education Spending<reF>[http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017ALb_13s1li111mcn_20t http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017ALb_13s1li111mcn_20t USGovernmentSpending.com "Alabama Government Spending Chart - Education Spending"Aug. 4, 2012]</ref>
+
!2011 Percent Education Spending
+
!2012 Total Spending<ref>[http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017AKb_13s1li111mcn_F0t USGovernmentSpending.com "Alabama Government Spending Chart - Total Spending" Aug. 4, 2012]</ref>
+
!2012 Education Spending<reF>[http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017ALb_13s1li111mcn_20t http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/spending_chart_1997_2017ALb_13s1li111mcn_20t USGovernmentSpending.com "Alabama Government Spending Chart - Education Spending"Aug. 4, 2012]</ref>
+
!2012 Percent Education Spending
+
!2010 Avg. ACT score<ref>[http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2010/states.html 2010 ACT National and State Scores "Average Scores by State"]</ref>
+
!2011 Avg. ACT score<ref>[http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2011/states.html 2011 ACT National and State Scores "
+
Average Scores by State"]</ref>
+
!2012 Avg. ACT score<ref>[http://www.act.org/newsroom/data/2011/states.html 2011 ACT National and State Scores "
+
Average Scores by State"]</ref>
+
!2010 Graduation Rate<ref>[http://www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Graduation/2010 National Center for Education Statistics]</ref>
+
!2011 Graduation Rate<ref>[http://www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Graduation/2011 National Center for Education Statistics]</ref>
+
|-
+
|[[Wisconsin]]||$55.6 billion||$17.0 billion||30.5%||$55.0 billion||$17.3 billion||31.4%||22.1||22.2||22.1||88.5%||89.6%
+
|}
+
 
+
==School choice==
+
'''School Choice options include:'''
+
*'''Charter schools:''' In the 2009-10 school year, there were approximately 79 school boards and 206 [[charter schools]] across the state. About 4 new [[charter schools]] opened in 2009, while about 41 closed between 2008 and 2009. There were a reported 37 non-instrumentality [[charter schools]] (169 instrumentality). Charter schools were first authorized in 1993. Although, [[charter schools]] are funded by local public school districts, they offer different programs and curriculum.<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/pdf/2009-10yearbook.pdf ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'',"Wisconsin Charter Schools Yearbook 2009-2010," accessed November 13, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/csindex.html ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'',"Charter Schools in Wisconsin," accessed November 13, 2009]</ref>
+
*'''Public school open enrollment:''' Wisconsin's open-enrollment program allows for students to attend school in a school district other than the one in which they reside. Any student from kindergarten through 12th grade may apply. However, through the program students cannot apply for individual schools. Students may request to be placed in a particular public or charter school but the placement is not guaranteed. This program does not allow for intra-district enrollment - transferring from one school to another within the same district.<ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/doc/oeqa1005.doc ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'', "Public School Open Enrollment," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://dpi.wi.gov/sms/psctoc.html ''Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction'',"Public School Choice (open enrollment)," accessed July 9, 2009]</ref>
+
*'''Milwaukee Parental Choice Program:'''beginning in 1990, Wisconsin allowed for disadvantaged children to receive school vouchers to attend private schools. This program was restricted to the city of Milwaukee, until it was expanded to Milwaukee County and the City of Racine in 2011. In 2008, the state department of education reported that 18,882 students participated in the program.<ref name="WIChoice"/> In 2012, enrollment in the program has risen to 23,198 students using a voucher of up to $6,442.<ref>[http://watchdog.org/13437/milwaukee-voucher-enrollment-jumps-10/ "Watchdog," "Milwaukee voucher enrollment jumps 10%," February 15, 2012]</ref>
+
*'''Online learning:''' The state of Wisconsin offers a supplemental online program, established in 2008. In the 2010-11 school year, the system put a cap on enrollment, leaving nearly 1,700 children locked out of the public school of their choice and had to wait for others on the list to drop off before being able to enroll in their chosen school.<ref name="WIChoice">[http://www.heritage.org/Research/Education/SchoolChoice/detail.cfm ''The Heritage Foundation'',"School Choice in Wisconsin," accessed July 13, 2009]</ref><ref>[http://maciverinstitute.com/2010/08/advocates-say-virtual-school-lockout-still-in-effect-harming-families/ "Advocates Say Virtual School Lockout Still in Effect, Harming Families,'' ''MacIver News Service'', August 18, 2010]</ref>
+
 
+
===School Choice Academic Performance===
+
The table below shows the academic performance of students in two school choice programs: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) and Parental Private School Choice Program (PPSCP) for Racine which allow students eligible based on income to attend private schools using tax dollars. Results are from the 2011 Wisconsin Student Assessment System (WSAS). The report notes that while MPCP students saw a 5.5 percentage point increase in reading and 1.1 percent point increase in math compared to the previous year.<ref>[http://www.doa.state.wi.us/debf/pdf_files/bib1113.pdf "Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction," Second year of choice school data, March 27, 2012]</ref>
+
 
+
{| class=wikitable
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''2011-2012 WSAS Results'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Math'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Reading'''
+
|-
+
| State||78||81.9
+
|-
+
| State Economically Disadvantaged||64.7||70.5
+
|-
+
| Milwaukee Public Schools||48.6||58.2
+
|-
+
| MPCP Enrolled||39.9||56.3
+
|-
+
| MPCP (Enrolled Minus Parent Opt Out)||40.4||57
+
|-
+
| PPSCP Enrolled||50.8||55.7
+
|-
+
| PPSCP (Enrolled Minus Parent Opt Out)||51.7||56.7
+
|-
+
| Racine Unified School District||61.5||69.2
+
|-
+
|}
+
*Source: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
+
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
{{colbegin|3}}
 
 
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/ Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction]
 
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/ Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction]
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/cal/standards-revisions.html Wisconsin Academic Standards]
 
 
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/spr/index.html Wisconsin School Performance]
 
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/spr/index.html Wisconsin School Performance]
 
* [http://www2.dpi.state.wi.us/sfsdw/ Wisconsin School Finance]
 
* [http://www2.dpi.state.wi.us/sfsdw/ Wisconsin School Finance]
* [http://dpi.wi.gov/sig/dm-demographics.html Wisconsin Public School Demographics]
 
 
* [http://mpsspending.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/pls/apex/f?p=144:1:1920306005516156 Milwaukee Public Schools Spending Tracker]
 
* [http://mpsspending.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/pls/apex/f?p=144:1:1920306005516156 Milwaukee Public Schools Spending Tracker]
* [http://milwaukeecounty.headquarters.com/ CRG Network Government Accountability in Spending Project]
 
 
* [http://www.psk12.com/rating/USindexphp/STATE_WI.html Wisconsin Public School Ratings by PSK12]
 
* [http://www.psk12.com/rating/USindexphp/STATE_WI.html Wisconsin Public School Ratings by PSK12]
 
* [http://www.greatschools.net/modperl/go/WI Wisconsin Public School Ratings by Great Schools]
 
* [http://www.greatschools.net/modperl/go/WI Wisconsin Public School Ratings by Great Schools]
{{colend (Sunshine Review)}}
 
  
 
==Additional reading==
 
==Additional reading==
* [http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/50182777.html ''Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel'',"Aid cut shocks school districts," July 7, 2009]
+
* [http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/50182777.html ''Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel'', "Aid cut shocks school districts," July 7, 2009]
* [http://www.wisconsinrapidstribune.com/article/20090701/WRT0101/907010672/1982 ''Wisconsin Rapids Tribune'',"Budget alters contract talks between teachers' unions, school boards," July 1, 2009]
+
* [http://www.wisconsinrapidstribune.com/article/20090701/WRT0101/907010672/1982 ''Wisconsin Rapids Tribune'', "Budget alters contract talks between teachers' unions, school boards," July 1, 2009]
*[http://www.wrn.com/gestalt/go.cfm?objectid=51077827-5056-B82A-371050FDA79A92F7 ''Wisconsin Radio Network'',"Tough times ahead for schools," July 6, 2009]
+
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 283: Line 318:
 
{{Wisconsin}}
 
{{Wisconsin}}
  
[[category:Wisconsin]]
 
 
[[Category:Education policy information by state]]
 
[[Category:Education policy information by state]]
 +
[[Category:Wisconsin]]

Revision as of 11:49, 5 June 2014

K-12 Education in Wisconsin
Flag of Wisconsin.png
Education facts
State Superintendent: Tony Evers
Number of students: 871,105[1]
Number of teachers: 56,245
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.5
Number of school districts: 462
Number of schools: 2,243
Graduation rate: 88%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $11,774[3]
See also
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Wisconsin school districts
List of school districts in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Wisconsin
Glossary of education terms
The Wisconsin public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Wisconsin had 871,105 students enrolled in a total of 2,243 schools in 462 school districts. There were 56,245 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15.5 students, which is lower than the national average of 1:16.[4] On average Wisconsin spent $11,774 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 16th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate is 88 percent. This is the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

School Board badge.png
State Education Departments

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See also
Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction
Wisconsin school districts
List of school districts in Wisconsin
Public education in Wisconsin
School board elections portal
The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction is in charge of advancing public education and libraries in Wisconsin.[6] The department is led by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Tony Evers was first elected to the position in April 2009 and re-elected in 2013.[7] The Department of Public Instruction is divided into six divisions: the Office of the State Superintendent, the Division for Academic Excellence, the Division for Finance and Management, the Division for Learning Support, the Division for Libraries and Technology and the Division for Student and School Success.[8]

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Wisconsin as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[9]

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Wisconsin as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[10]

Demographic Information for Wisconsin's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 11,277 1.29% 1.10%
Asian 30,742 3.53% 4.68%
African American 85,495 9.81% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 665 0.08% 0.42%
Hispanic 84,561 9.71% 24.37%
White 642,176 73.72% 51.21%
Two or More 16,189 1.86% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

Students in Wisconsin are almost equally split by school region type, with students slightly more likely to attend rural schools than city, suburban or town schools. This is very similar to school region demographics in Minnesota. However, students in Illinois and Michigan are more likely to attend suburban schools than city, town or rural schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
Wisconsin 27.5% 24.0% 19.2% 29.3%
Illinois 31.3% 43.3% 10.3% 15.1%
Michigan 23.8% 40.2% 11.4% 24.6%
Minnesota 20.8% 29.4% 19.5% 30.4%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

NAEP scores

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Wisconsin had a higher percentage of students score at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth and eighth grades than students in Illinois and Michigan. However, Minnesota had a higher percentage than Wisconsin.[11]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Wisconsin 47 40 35 36
Illinois 39 36 34 36
Michigan 37 30 31 33
Minnesota 59 47 41 41
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Wisconsin and surrounding states.[11][12][13]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Wisconsin 88% First 22.1 71% 1771 4%
Illinois 82% Third 20.9 100% 1807 5%
Michigan 76% Fourth 20.1 100% 1782 4%
Minnesota 78% Fourth 22.8 74% 1780 6%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Wisconsin was lower than the national average at 2.0 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 1.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[14]

Educational choice options

School Choice options in Wisconsin include:

  • Charter schools: In the 2009-2010 school year, there were approximately 79 school boards and 206 charter schools across the state. About four new charter schools opened in 2009, while about 41 closed between 2008 and 2009. Charter schools were first authorized in 1993. Although, charter schools are funded by local public school districts, they offer different programs and curriculum.[15][16]
  • Public school open enrollment: Wisconsin's open-enrollment program allows for students to attend school in a school district other than the one in which they reside. Any student from kindergarten through 12th grade may apply. However, students cannot apply for individual schools. Students may request to be placed in a particular public or charter school, but the placement is not guaranteed. This program does not allow for intra-district enrollment, which is transferring from one school to another within the same district.[17][18]
  • Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Beginning in 1990, Wisconsin allowed for disadvantaged children to receive school vouchers to attend private schools. This program was restricted to the city of Milwaukee, until it was expanded to Milwaukee County and the City of Racine in 2011. In 2008, the Department of Public Instruction reported that 18,882 students participated in the program.[19] In 2012, enrollment in the program rose to 23,198 students using a voucher of up to $6,442.[20]
  • Online learning: The state offers a supplemental online program, which was established in 2008. In the 2010-2011 school year, the system put a cap on enrollment, leaving nearly 1,700 children locked out of the public school of their choice and waiting for others on the list to drop off before being able to enroll in their chosen school.[19][21]

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Wisconsin state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 16.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 2.4 percentage points from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 19.1 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[22][23][24][25][26]

Revenue breakdowns

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Wisconsin totaled approximately $11.4 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Wisconsin and surrounding states.[27]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Wisconsin $1,002,909 $5,226,954 $5,175,978 $11,405,841
Illinois $2,895,524 $9,304,948 $16,499,969 $28,700,441
Michigan $2,677,078 $10,710,646 $6,075,517 $19,463,241
Minnesota $886,619 $6,657,769 $3,641,015 $11,185,403
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Wisconsin totaled approximately $11.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Wisconsin and surrounding states.[27]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Wisconsin $10,175,521 $541,918 $469,214 $11,186,653
Illinois $24,525,567 $1,884,976 $1,138,206 $27,548,749
Michigan $16,728,164 $1,334,386 $1,269,168 $19,331,718
Minnesota $8,907,505 $1,077,969 $882,342 $10,867,816
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Wisconsin, the average salary decreased by 1.9 percent.[28]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Wisconsin $56,239 $54,721 $54,687 $55,171 -1.9%
Illinois $63,527 $66,264 $58,595 $59,113 -6.9%
Michigan $67,023 $61,867 $62,585 $61,560 -8.2%
Minnesota $54,393 $55,967 $55,874 $56,268 3.4%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%

Organizations

Unions

In late June 2009, Governor Jim Doyle signed a new state budget that eliminated the Qualified Economic Offer Rule. Created in 1993, the rule had allowed school boards to settle contracts by offering a 3.8 percent total compensation increase. With this rule as well as new bargaining laws, arbitrators were allowed to disregard revenue limits and local economic conditions when settling disputes. School board members believed the elimination of the Qualified Economic Offer Rule would lead to an increase in binding arbitration and lead to a possible increase in settlement costs. However, Mary Bell, president of the Wisconsin Education Association Council, said, "It isn't in employees' best interest to put forward a settlement the district can't afford. It isn't that we don't understand resources. We do."[29]

During the 2009-2010 legislative session, the Wisconsin Education Association Council spent $2.5 million on lobbying the Wisconsin State Legislature. The organization focused on lobbying for Senate Bill 405, which would have given more power to the district superintendent in Milwaukee Public Schools, at the expense of the school board, and only allowed the superintendent to negotiate contracts with labor organizations.[30]

Union Protests

In 2011, protests erupted over a bill that required state employees to contribute an average of eight percent more to their pension and health care costs and took away the right of collective bargaining.[31] Governor Scott Walker said that asking employees to pay half the national average for health care was "truly a modest request." Walker also denied that his proposal tried to break unions.[32]

Up to 40,000 union protesters filled the state capitol for a week after the bill was proposed.[31][33][34] After four days of pro-union protests, the Tea Party staged a rally in support of the legislation.[34]

To avoid a vote on the measure, 14 Senate Democrats disappeared and could not be found.[35] They reportedly went to a hotel in Illinois.[31] Republicans controlled the Senate by 19 to 14, but to have a vote on fiscal matters, 20 senators had to be present.[35] The Senate Democrats, however, threatened to stay away for weeks.[36]

The Wisconsin State Assembly had sufficient attendance to hold a vote on the bill but delayed doing so on February 18, 2011.[34] Republican Speaker Jeff Fitzgerald said that the bill had the votes to pass when lawmakers reconvened on February 22, 2011.[37]

Union Benefit Cuts

The governor's budget proposed state employees contribute 5.8 percent of their salary toward their pensions and pay 12.6 percent of their health insurance premiums.[33] The move was anticipated to save nearly $300 million over the following two fiscal years.[38]

Collective Bargaining

The governor's proposed budget also eliminated almost all union bargaining rights.[38]

The proposal took away collective bargaining rights on everything except salary from state and local workers.[39] Unions would be unable to seek pay increases above those pegged to the Consumer Price Index unless approved by a public referendum. In addition, unions also would have to hold annual votes to stay organized and would be unable to force employees to pay dues.[31]

Republican lawmakers said collective bargaining rules must be changed so the government could avoid laying off thousands of workers.[40] Gov. Walker said that he would have to lay off up to 6,000 state workers if the measure did not pass.[31]

The proposal allowed local police, firefighters and state troopers to retain their bargaining rights.[31]

In the case of a walkout, Walker put the National Guard on alert.[41]

School Closures

More than 15 school districts, including the Madison Metropolitan School District, were closed for four days due to teachers and staff calling in sick.[42][43] Judge Maryann Sumi of the Dane County District Court denied the Madison school district requests for an injunction against Madison Teachers Inc. so that schools could reopen.[42]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Wisconsin government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Wisconsin Association of School Boards.

Transparency

A year after the Citizens for Responsible Government launched a transparency spending database for Wisconsin, the Milwaukee Public Schools launched its own database, which allows searches for school purchases from 2005 and on.[44][45][46]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Wisconsin ballot measures

Ballotpedia staff have tracked 16 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Wisconsin Local Debt Limit and School Bonds Amendment, Question 2 (April 1963)
  2. Wisconsin Local Debt Limit for School Districts Amendment, Question 1 (April 1961)
  3. Wisconsin Property Tax for School Aid Referendum, Question 1 (April 1944)
  4. Wisconsin Public Television Advisory, Question 2 (1954)
  5. Wisconsin Repeal of Draft Exemption Purchase Amendment, Question 6 (1982)
  6. Wisconsin School Debt Limit Amendment, Question 1 (April 1955)
  7. Wisconsin School Release for Religious Instruction Amendment, Question 4 (April 1972)
  8. Wisconsin State Control and Funding of Vocational Education, Question 3 (April 1969)
  9. Wisconsin State Superintendent Amendment, Question 1 (1888)
  10. Wisconsin State Superintendent Amendment, Question 2 (1902)
  11. Wisconsin State Superintendent Salary Amendment, Question 1 (1896)
  12. Wisconsin Teacher Retirement Benefits Amendment, Question 1 (April 1956)
  13. Wisconsin Teacher Tenure Law Repeal Referendum, Question 1 (April 1940)
  14. Wisconsin Transportation for Private School Students Amendment, Question 7 (April 1967)
  15. Wisconsin Transportation to Schools Amendment, Question 2 (1946)
  16. Wisconsin Women Suffrage in School Matters Referendum, Question 1 (1886)

Studies and reports

ABCs of school choice

The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice publishes a comprehensive guide to private school choice programs across the U.S. In its 2014 edition, the Foundation reviewed four Wisconsin programs: the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, the Racine Parental Private School Choice Program, the statewide Parental Choice Program and the K-12 Private School Tuition Deduction Program.[47] The full Friedman Foundation report can be found here.

"Leaders and Laggards"

A 2009 study, Leaders and Laggards, conducted by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for a Competitive Workplace, Frederick M. Hess of the conservative American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and the Center for American Progress, gave Wisconsin the following scores: a "B" in academic achievement; a "C" in truth in advertising about student proficiency; a "D" in rigor of standards; a "B" in post-secondary and workforce readiness; a "C" for its teacher workforce policies; a "B" in data quality.[48]

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

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See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "About Us," accessed June 4, 2014
  7. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Biography of Tony Evers," accessed June 4, 2014
  8. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "DPI Divisions and Teams," accessed June 4, 2014
  9. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  10. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  12. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  14. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Wisconsin Charter Schools Yearbook 2009-2010," accessed November 13, 2009
  16. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Charter Schools in Wisconsin," accessed November 13, 2009
  17. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Public School Open Enrollment," accessed July 13, 2009
  18. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Public School Choice (open enrollment)," accessed July 9, 2009
  19. 19.0 19.1 The Heritage Foundation, "School Choice in Wisconsin," accessed July 13, 2009
  20. "Watchdog," "Milwaukee voucher enrollment jumps 10%," February 15, 2012
  21. MacIver News Service, "Advocates Say Virtual School Lockout Still in Effect, Harming Families, August 18, 2010
  22. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  23. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  24. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  25. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  26. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  27. 27.0 27.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  28. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  29. The Northwestern, "Budget alters contract talks between board, teachers' union," July 12, 2009
  30. Wisconsin Reporter, "Millions spent for Legislature lobbyists," August 15, 2011
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 MSNBC, "Wis. union vote on hold after Democrats leave state," February 17, 2011
  32. CBS News, "Wis. gov: I took 'bold political move' on budget," February 18, 2011
  33. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named protest
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 MSNBC, "Tea Party to rally for Wisconsin anti-union bill," February 18, 2011
  35. 35.0 35.1 {http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/18/us/18wisconsin.html?_r=2&hpThe New York Times "Democrats Missing, Wisconsin Vote on Cuts Is Delayed" Feb. 17, 2011]
  36. Yahoo! News, "Wisconsin Democrats could stay away for weeks," February 18, 2011
  37. WKOW, "Wisconsin Assembly delays vote on union bill," February 18, 2011
  38. 38.0 38.1 The Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, "Budget bill draws a crowd," February 15, 2011
  39. The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Wis. state workers and allies descend on Madison to protest halt to collective bargaining," February 15, 2011
  40. Reuters, "Thousands of Wisconsin union workers protest budget plan," February 15, 2011
  41. The Chicago Tribune, "Walker says National Guard is prepared," February 11, 2011
  42. 42.0 42.1 WKOW, "MMSD denied temporary restraining order," February 18, 2011
  43. WFRV, "Madison schools remain closed, Fourth day in a row," February 21, 2011
  44. CRG Press Release, "CRG Network Applauds Milwaukee Public Schools for Publishing Online Spending Database," July 5, 2009
  45. Milwaukee Public Schools, "Press Release: MPS expense records now available online," July 2, 2009
  46. JS Online, "Quick Hit: A step toward accountability," July 7, 2009
  47. The Friedman Foundation for Education Choice, "The ABCs of School Choice," 2014 Edition
  48. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute,"Wisconsin Education Report Card," accessed November 17, 2009