Difference between revisions of "Recall"

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| <small>[[Political recall efforts#2010|2010]] • [[Political recall efforts#2009|2009]] • [[Political recall efforts#2008|2008]] • [[Political recall efforts#2007|2007]] • [[Political recall efforts#2006|2006]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#2005|2005]] • [[Political recall efforts#2003|2003]] • [[Political recall efforts#2002|2002]] • [[Political recall efforts#1999|1999]] • [[Political recall efforts#1996|1996]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#1995|1995]] • [[Political recall efforts#1994|1994]] • [[Political recall efforts#1993|1993]] • [[Political recall efforts#1992|1992]] •[[Political recall efforts#1988|1988]]  <br> [[Political recall efforts#1984|1984]] • [[Political recall efforts#1983|1983]] • [[Political recall efforts#1978|1978]] • [[Political recall efforts#1967|1967]] • [[Political recall efforts#1952|1952]]  <br> [[Political recall efforts#1949|1949]] • [[Political recall efforts#1932|1932]] • [[Political recall efforts#1924|1924]] • [[Political recall efforts#1921|1921]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#1916|1916]] • [[Political recall efforts#1914|1914]] • [[Political recall efforts#1913|1913]] • [[Political recall efforts#1911|1911]]  
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| <small>[[Political recall efforts#2014|2014]] • [[Political recall efforts#2013|2013]] • [[Political recall efforts#2012|2012]] • [[Political recall efforts#2011|2011]] • [[Political recall efforts#2010|2010]] • [[Political recall efforts#2009|2009]] • [[Political recall efforts#2008|2008]] • [[Political recall efforts#2007|2007]] • [[Political recall efforts#2006|2006]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#2005|2005]] • [[Political recall efforts#2003|2003]] • [[Political recall efforts#2002|2002]] • [[Political recall efforts#1999|1999]] • [[Political recall efforts#1996|1996]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#1995|1995]] • [[Political recall efforts#1994|1994]] • [[Political recall efforts#1993|1993]] • [[Political recall efforts#1992|1992]] •[[Political recall efforts#1988|1988]]  <br> [[Political recall efforts#1984|1984]] • [[Political recall efforts#1983|1983]] • [[Political recall efforts#1978|1978]] • [[Political recall efforts#1967|1967]] • [[Political recall efforts#1952|1952]]  <br> [[Political recall efforts#1949|1949]] • [[Political recall efforts#1932|1932]] • [[Political recall efforts#1924|1924]] • [[Political recall efforts#1921|1921]] <br> [[Political recall efforts#1916|1916]] • [[Political recall efforts#1914|1914]] • [[Political recall efforts#1913|1913]] • [[Political recall efforts#1911|1911]]  
 
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!style="background-color: #ECEBED"|[[Recall news]]
 
!style="background-color: #ECEBED"|[[Recall news]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
!style="background-color: #ECEBED"|[[Laws governing recall|Recall laws]]
 
!style="background-color: #ECEBED"|[[Laws governing recall|Recall laws]]
|}{{tnr}}'''Recall''' is a process available in most jurisdictions whereby an elected official can be removed from office either for malfeasance or in some jurisdictions for any action the recall language specifies.  For recalls, most state laws have set the highest signature threshold for any type of petition - most often requiring 25% of all registered voters or 25% of voters in the last election for the recalled office to sign a recall petition.
+
|}{{tnr}}'''Recall''' is a process available in most jurisdictions whereby an elected official can be removed from office either for malfeasance or in some jurisdictions for any action the recall language specifies.  For recalls, most state laws have set the highest signature threshold for any type of petition—most often requiring 25% of all registered voters or 25% of voters in the last election for the recalled office to sign a recall petition.
 +
 
 +
==Statewide recall==
 +
Currently, nineteen states permit the recall of state officials: [[Laws governing recall in Alaska|Alaska]], [[Laws governing recall in Arizona|Arizona]], [[Laws governing recall in California|California]], [[Laws governing recall in Colorado|Colorado]], [[Laws governing recall in Georgia|Georgia]], [[Laws governing recall in Idaho|Idaho]], [[Laws governing recall in Illinois|Illinois]], [[Laws governing recall in Kansas|Kansas]], [[Laws governing recall in Louisiana|Louisiana]], [[Laws governing recall in Michigan|Michigan]], [[Laws governing recall in Minnesota|Minnesota]], [[Laws governing recall in Montana|Montana]], [[Laws governing recall in Nevada|Nevada]], [[Laws governing recall in New Jersey|New Jersey]], [[Laws governing recall in North Dakota|North Dakota]], [[Laws governing recall in Oregon|Oregon]], [[Laws governing recall in Rhode Island|Rhode Island]], [[Laws governing recall in Washington|Washington]], and [[Laws governing recall in Wisconsin|Wisconsin]].<ref name=ncsl/>
 +
 
 +
===Officials eligible by state===
 +
Many states allow for the recall of all elected officials, while others only allow for recall in limited cases. The map below displays these variations and links to more information on the [[Laws governing recall|laws governing recalls]] in each state.
 +
 
 +
<onlyinclude><imagemap>
 +
Image:Recall_who_2013.png|450px
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 +
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 +
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 +
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 +
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</imagemap></onlyinclude>
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===Prerequisites for recall processes===
 +
Some states require that officials commit some offense, or that recall petitioners have a specific rationale for their recall efforts. The map below displays these requirements and links to more information on the [[Laws governing recall|laws governing recalls]] in each state.
 +
 
 +
<onlyinclude><imagemap>
 +
Image:Recall_why_2013.png|450px
 +
 
 +
poly 43 81 34 109 67 152 82 90 [[Laws governing recall in Nevada]]
 +
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 +
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 +
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poly 84 88 74 137 114 145 118 106 103 103 104 91 [[Utah]]
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poly 115 150 109 205 158 201 161 154 [[Laws governing recall in New Mexico]]
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poly 220 85 226 113 259 113 266 99 259 86 [[Iowa]]
 +
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 +
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poly 264 213 282 213 285 221 293 218 290 172 274 174 [[Mississippi]]
 +
poly 293 173 296 217 301 211 321 208 312 170  [[Laws governing recall in Alabama]]
 +
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poly 283 154 293 143 316 130 335 137 327 146 [[Kentucky]]
 +
poly 293 137 294 101 310 98 314 125 [[Indiana]]
 +
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 +
poly 301 212 331 220 364 261 372 254 354 211 [[Laws governing recall in Florida]]
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 +
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 +
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 +
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 +
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 +
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 +
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 +
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poly 368 108 387 121 384 106 [[Maryland]]
 +
poly 403 41 410 55 427 36 416 15 405 16 [[Laws governing recall in Maine]]
 +
 
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</imagemap></onlyinclude>
  
 
==Notable recalls==
 
==Notable recalls==
  
The most recent large recall was that of [[California]] Governor [[Gray Davis]] in 2003, leading to a special election on October 7, 2003 whereby [[California Governor - Arnold Schwarzenegger|Arnold Schwarzenegger]] was elected to replace him. Davis was only the second [[Governor]] in US history to be recalled.
+
===Gubernatorial recalls===
 +
Only three United States governors have faced recall elections.  Two of them (Lynn Frazier, 1921 and [[Gray Davis]], 2003) were consequently removed from office while the other ([[Scott Walker]], 2012) retained his seat.<ref name=frazier>[http://www.nndb.com/people/137/000208510/ ''NNDB'', Lynn J. Frazier profile]</ref><ref name=davis>[http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/10/08/davis.speech/index.html ''CNN'', "Davis in defeat: 'We'll have better nights to come'," October 8, 2003]</ref><ref name=walker>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/06/wisconsin-governor-scott-walker-survives-recall ''The Guardian'', "Wisconsin governor Scott Walker survives bitterly fought recall election," June 6, 2012]</ref>
  
Recall experts [[Orville Seymer]] and [[Chris Kliesmet]] of [[Citizens for Responsible Government]] have recalled a number of local officials in eastern [[Wisconsin]].
+
====Wisconsin, 2012====
 +
Shortly after taking office in 2011, [[Republican]] Governor [[Scott Walker]] of [[Wisconsin]] proposed legislation (Wisconsin Act 10, known as the "Scott Walker Budget Repair Bill") that restricted public workers' collective bargaining abilities.<ref name=walkerelected>[http://www.todaystmj4.com/news/local/112495344.html ''TMJ4'', "Walker Works Last Day as County Executive," December 27, 2010]</ref>  The proposal sparked massive protests statewide, most notably in downtown Madison, as unionized workers gathered to resist the measure.<ref name=walker/> 
  
In 1983, two Democrat State Senators were recalled in [[Michigan]] shortly following the election of Governor James Blanchard, who upon taking office earlier that year promised to raise taxesThe State Senator switched hands into Republican control, and no tax increase occurred.
+
The bill's opponents targeted Walker for recall, successfully forcing him to face a recall election on June 5, 2012.<ref name=walkerrecall>[http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2012/03/15/Recall-election-schedule-set-in-Wisconsin/UPI-32421331789711/ ''UPI.com'', "Recall election schedule set in Wisconsin," March 15, 2012]</ref>  He ran against Democrat [[Tom Barrett]], whom he had previously faced in the general election, and defeated him 53 percent to 46 percentHe became the first governor to survive a recall.<ref name=walker/>
  
In [[Michigan]], [[Leon Drolet]], former Michigan State Representative (2001 - 2007) and Macomb County Commissioner (2007 - ?), formed a group called the [[Michigan Taxpayers Alliance]] which has referred to Michigan's 1983 history with a button "Recall 1983."  Drolet has threatened to recall any legislator who votes yes on tax increases in Michigan and has received considerable media attention as a result.  Drolet is also known for co-chairing the [[Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (2006)]] (MCRI) Committee, which successfully passed Michigan's Proposal 2 of 2006, ending race and gender-based types of affirmative action in government hiring, education, and contracting.
+
The legislation also triggered several recalls of State Senators. See below for a list of other Wisconsin officials recalled in the 2012 conflict.<ref name=walker/>
  
A group website www.RecallGranholm.com formed in the spring of 2007 following her re-election and promises to raise taxes, although it is unknown how serious the group is.
+
====California, 2003====
 +
The most recent successful recall was that of [[Democratic]] Governor [[Gray Davis]] of [[California]] in 2003.<ref name=davis/>
  
A recall proceeding is underway in Washington State in regard to Thurston County Commissioners Wolfe, Valenzuela and Romero, for alleged illegal expenditures of public funds to a private "Shadow Government" agency, the Washington State Association of Counties. www.theolympian.com/southsound/story/1059961.html
+
Davis, first elected in 1998, enjoyed popularity for much of his first term, maintaining a 58 percent approval rating.<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/politics/article/Voters-Well-Pleased-With-Governor-s-First-100-2940969.php ''San Francisco Chronicle'', "Voters Well Pleased With Governor's First 100 Days, Poll Finds / 5-to-1 approval rating puts Davis on solid footing out of the gate," March 19, 1999]</ref>  Then in May 2001, in the midst of the California electricity crisis, his numbers began slipping—only to be further aggravated by his middle-of-the-road approach to politics, such that by October 2003 his approval rating was only 27 percent.<ref>[http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/10/07/recall.exit/ ''CNN.com'', "Women supported Schwarzenegger, exit polls show," October 8, 2003]</ref>
  
==Statewide recall==
+
Davis was defeated by [[California Governor - Arnold Schwarzenegger|Arnold Schwarzenegger]] in the special election held on October 7, 2003.<ref name=davis/>  He said in his concession speech,
Currently, eighteen states permit the recall of state officials.  These are: [[Laws governing recall in Alaska|Alaska]], [[Laws governing recall in Arizona|Arizona]], [[Laws governing recall in California|California]], [[Laws governing recall in Colorado|Colorado]], [[Laws governing recall in Georgia|Georgia]], [[Laws governing recall in Idaho|Idaho]], [[Laws governing recall in Kansas|Kansas]], [[Laws governing recall in Louisiana|Louisiana]], [[Laws governing recall in Michigan|Michigan]], [[Laws governing recall in Minnesota|Minnesota]], [[Laws governing recall in Montana|Montana]], [[Laws governing recall in Nevada|Nevada]], [[Laws governing recall in New Jersey|New Jersey]], [[Laws governing recall in North Dakota|North Dakota]], [[Laws governing recall in Oregon|Oregon]], [[Laws governing recall in Rhode Island|Rhode Island]], [[Laws governing recall in Washington|Washington]], and [[Laws governing recall in Wisconsin|Wisconsin]].
+
 
 +
{{quote|We've had a lot of good nights over the last 20 years, but tonight the people did decide it is time for someone else to serve, and I accept their judgment.<ref name=davis/>}}
 +
 
 +
====North Dakota, 1921====
 +
Though a popular governor throughout his first two terms (spanning 1917 to 1920), [[Republican]] (Nonpartisan League) Governor Lynn Frazier met political dissonance upon his third election.  Economic trouble in [[North Dakota]] following poor farming seasons and World War I led to conflict between political forces, especially in light of the newly established Industrial Commission, put in place to oversee state-owned industries.<ref name=frazierbio/>
 +
 
 +
The state constitution had recently been amended to provide for the recall of public officials, and was immediately used to recall Frazier and the other officials that comprised the Industrial Commission.<ref name=frazierbio>[http://www.history.nd.gov/exhibits/governors/governors12.html ''The State Historical Society of North Dakota'', Exhibits - North Dakota Governors - Lynn J. Frazier]</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Other recalls===
 +
* [[Phil Mastin recall, Michigan (1983)|Phil Mastin recall]]: In 1983, two [[ democratic_Party | D]]emocratic State Senators were recalled in [[Michigan]] shortly following the election of Governor James Blanchard, who upon taking office earlier that year promised to raise taxes.  The State Senator switched hands into Republican control, and no tax increase occurred. 
 +
* [[Leon Drolet|Leon Drolet recall threats]]: In [[Michigan]], [[Leon Drolet]], former Michigan State Representative (2001-2007) and Macomb County Commissioner (2007-?), formed a group called the [[Michigan Taxpayers Alliance]] which has referred to Michigan's 1983 history with a button "Recall 1983."  Drolet has threatened to recall any legislator who votes yes on tax increases in Michigan and has received considerable media attention as a result.  Drolet is also known for co-chairing the [[Michigan Civil Rights Amendment, Proposal 2 (2006)]] (MCRI) Committee, which successfully passed Michigan's Proposal 2 of 2006, ending race and gender-based types of affirmative action in government hiring, education, and contracting.
 +
*Thurston County Commissioners recall: A recall proceeding is underway in Washington State in regard to Thurston County Commissioners Cathy Wolfe, Karen Valenzuela and Sandra Romero, for alleged illegal expenditures of public funds to a private "Shadow Government" agency, the Washington State Association of Counties.<ref>[https://www.facebook.com/VoteOutCorruptCommissionersOfThurstonCounty?filter=1 Facebook Page: Vote Out Corrupt Commissioners of Thurston County]</ref>
  
 
==Recalls by type of political office==
 
==Recalls by type of political office==
Line 35: Line 188:
 
* [[State legislative recalls]]
 
* [[State legislative recalls]]
 
* [[Mayoral recalls]]
 
* [[Mayoral recalls]]
* [[Gubernatorial recalls]]
+
* [[List of gubernatorial recalls]]
 
* [[School board recalls]]
 
* [[School board recalls]]
 
* [[Sheriff recalls]]
 
* [[Sheriff recalls]]
 
* [[Special district recalls]]
 
* [[Special district recalls]]
 +
* [[County official recalls]]
  
 
{{colend}}
 
{{colend}}
Line 45: Line 199:
 
* [[Political recall efforts|List of political recalls]]
 
* [[Political recall efforts|List of political recalls]]
 
* [[Laws governing recall]]
 
* [[Laws governing recall]]
 +
 +
==References==
 +
{{reflist}}
  
 
{{recalls by office}}
 
{{recalls by office}}
 
{{Types of ballot measures}}
 
{{Types of ballot measures}}
 
[[Category:Ballot terms]]
 
[[Category:Ballot terms]]
 +
[[Category:Terms and definitions]]
 
[[Category:Laws governing the recall of politicians]]
 
[[Category:Laws governing the recall of politicians]]

Latest revision as of 08:01, 21 March 2014

Recall campaigns by year
201420132012201120102009200820072006
20052003200219991996
19951994199319921988
19841983197819671952
1949193219241921
1916191419131911
Recall news
Recall laws
Recall is a process available in most jurisdictions whereby an elected official can be removed from office either for malfeasance or in some jurisdictions for any action the recall language specifies. For recalls, most state laws have set the highest signature threshold for any type of petition—most often requiring 25% of all registered voters or 25% of voters in the last election for the recalled office to sign a recall petition.

Statewide recall

Currently, nineteen states permit the recall of state officials: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin.[1]

Officials eligible by state

Many states allow for the recall of all elected officials, while others only allow for recall in limited cases. The map below displays these variations and links to more information on the laws governing recalls in each state.

Laws governing recall in NevadaLaws governing recall in AlaskaHawaiiLaws governing recall in ArizonaUtahLaws governing recall in New MexicoLaws governing recall in ColoradoLaws governing recall in WyomingLaws governing recall in CaliforniaLaws governing recall in OregonLaws governing recall in WashingtonLaws governing recall in IdahoLaws governing recall in MontanaLaws governing recall in North DakotaLaws governing recall in South DakotaLaws governing recall in NebraskaLaws governing recall in KansasLaws governing recall in OklahomaLaws governing recall in TexasLaws governing recall in MinnesotaIowaLaws governing recall in MissouriLaws governing recall in ArkansasLaws governing recall in LouisianaMississippiLaws governing recall in AlabamaLaws governing recall in WisconsinLaws governing recall in IllinoisLaws governing recall in TennesseeKentuckyIndianaLaws governing recall in MichiganLaws governing recall in OhioLaws governing recall in GeorgiaLaws governing recall in FloridaSouth CarolinaNorth CarolinaLaws governing recall in VirginiaLaws governing recall in West VirginiaPennsylvaniaLaws governing recall in New YorkVermontVermontLaws governing recall in New HampshireLaws governing recall in New HampshireLaws governing recall in MassachusettsLaws governing recall in MassachusettsLaws governing recall in Rhode IslandLaws governing recall in Rhode IslandLaws governing recall in ConnecticutLaws governing recall in ConnecticutLaws governing recall in New JerseyLaws governing recall in New JerseyDelawareDelawareMarylandMarylandLaws governing recall in MaineRecall who 2013.png

Prerequisites for recall processes

Some states require that officials commit some offense, or that recall petitioners have a specific rationale for their recall efforts. The map below displays these requirements and links to more information on the laws governing recalls in each state.

Laws governing recall in NevadaLaws governing recall in AlaskaHawaiiLaws governing recall in ArizonaUtahLaws governing recall in New MexicoLaws governing recall in ColoradoLaws governing recall in WyomingLaws governing recall in CaliforniaLaws governing recall in OregonLaws governing recall in WashingtonLaws governing recall in IdahoLaws governing recall in MontanaLaws governing recall in North DakotaLaws governing recall in South DakotaLaws governing recall in NebraskaLaws governing recall in KansasLaws governing recall in OklahomaLaws governing recall in TexasLaws governing recall in MinnesotaIowaLaws governing recall in MissouriLaws governing recall in ArkansasLaws governing recall in LouisianaMississippiLaws governing recall in AlabamaLaws governing recall in WisconsinLaws governing recall in IllinoisLaws governing recall in TennesseeKentuckyIndianaLaws governing recall in MichiganLaws governing recall in OhioLaws governing recall in GeorgiaLaws governing recall in FloridaSouth CarolinaNorth CarolinaLaws governing recall in VirginiaLaws governing recall in West VirginiaPennsylvaniaLaws governing recall in New YorkVermontVermontLaws governing recall in New HampshireLaws governing recall in New HampshireLaws governing recall in MassachusettsLaws governing recall in MassachusettsLaws governing recall in Rhode IslandLaws governing recall in Rhode IslandLaws governing recall in ConnecticutLaws governing recall in ConnecticutLaws governing recall in New JerseyLaws governing recall in New JerseyDelawareDelawareMarylandMarylandLaws governing recall in MaineRecall why 2013.png

Notable recalls

Gubernatorial recalls

Only three United States governors have faced recall elections. Two of them (Lynn Frazier, 1921 and Gray Davis, 2003) were consequently removed from office while the other (Scott Walker, 2012) retained his seat.[2][3][4]

Wisconsin, 2012

Shortly after taking office in 2011, Republican Governor Scott Walker of Wisconsin proposed legislation (Wisconsin Act 10, known as the "Scott Walker Budget Repair Bill") that restricted public workers' collective bargaining abilities.[5] The proposal sparked massive protests statewide, most notably in downtown Madison, as unionized workers gathered to resist the measure.[4]

The bill's opponents targeted Walker for recall, successfully forcing him to face a recall election on June 5, 2012.[6] He ran against Democrat Tom Barrett, whom he had previously faced in the general election, and defeated him 53 percent to 46 percent. He became the first governor to survive a recall.[4]

The legislation also triggered several recalls of State Senators. See below for a list of other Wisconsin officials recalled in the 2012 conflict.[4]

California, 2003

The most recent successful recall was that of Democratic Governor Gray Davis of California in 2003.[3]

Davis, first elected in 1998, enjoyed popularity for much of his first term, maintaining a 58 percent approval rating.[7] Then in May 2001, in the midst of the California electricity crisis, his numbers began slipping—only to be further aggravated by his middle-of-the-road approach to politics, such that by October 2003 his approval rating was only 27 percent.[8]

Davis was defeated by Arnold Schwarzenegger in the special election held on October 7, 2003.[3] He said in his concession speech,

We've had a lot of good nights over the last 20 years, but tonight the people did decide it is time for someone else to serve, and I accept their judgment.[3][9]

North Dakota, 1921

Though a popular governor throughout his first two terms (spanning 1917 to 1920), Republican (Nonpartisan League) Governor Lynn Frazier met political dissonance upon his third election. Economic trouble in North Dakota following poor farming seasons and World War I led to conflict between political forces, especially in light of the newly established Industrial Commission, put in place to oversee state-owned industries.[10]

The state constitution had recently been amended to provide for the recall of public officials, and was immediately used to recall Frazier and the other officials that comprised the Industrial Commission.[10]

Other recalls

  • Phil Mastin recall: In 1983, two Democratic State Senators were recalled in Michigan shortly following the election of Governor James Blanchard, who upon taking office earlier that year promised to raise taxes. The State Senator switched hands into Republican control, and no tax increase occurred.
  • Leon Drolet recall threats: In Michigan, Leon Drolet, former Michigan State Representative (2001-2007) and Macomb County Commissioner (2007-?), formed a group called the Michigan Taxpayers Alliance which has referred to Michigan's 1983 history with a button "Recall 1983." Drolet has threatened to recall any legislator who votes yes on tax increases in Michigan and has received considerable media attention as a result. Drolet is also known for co-chairing the Michigan Civil Rights Amendment, Proposal 2 (2006) (MCRI) Committee, which successfully passed Michigan's Proposal 2 of 2006, ending race and gender-based types of affirmative action in government hiring, education, and contracting.
  • Thurston County Commissioners recall: A recall proceeding is underway in Washington State in regard to Thurston County Commissioners Cathy Wolfe, Karen Valenzuela and Sandra Romero, for alleged illegal expenditures of public funds to a private "Shadow Government" agency, the Washington State Association of Counties.[11]

Recalls by type of political office

See also

References