Recall is a process available in most jurisdictions whereby an elected official can be removed from office either for malfeasance or in some jurisdictions for any action the recall language specifies. For recalls, most state laws have set the highest signature threshold for any type of petition - most often requiring 25% of all registered voters or 25% of voters in the last election for the recalled office to sign a recall petition.
The most recent large recall was that of California Governor Gray Davis in 2003, leading to a special election on October 7, 2003 whereby Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to replace him. Davis was only the second Governor in US history to be recalled.
In 1983, two Democrat State Senators were recalled in Michigan shortly following the election of Governor James Blanchard, who upon taking office earlier that year promised to raise taxes. The State Senator switched hands into Republican control, and no tax increase occurred.
Known Current & Future Recall Efforts
In Michigan, Leon Drolet, former Michigan State Representative (2001 - 2007) and Macomb County Commissioner (2007 - ?), formed a group called the Michigan Taxpayers Alliance which has referred to Michigan's 1983 history with a button "Recall 1983." Drolet has threatened to recall any legislator who votes yes on tax increases in Michigan and has received considerable media attention as a result. Drolet is also known for co-chairing the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (2006) (MCRI) Committee, which successfully passed Michigan's Proposal 2 of 2006, ending race and gender-based types of affirmative action in government hiring, education, and contracting.
A group website www.RecallGranholm.com formed in the spring of 2007 following her re-election and promises to raise taxes, although it is unknown as to how serious the group is.
Recall of State Officials
Currently, eighteen states permit the recall of state officials. These are: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin.