Difference between revisions of "Redistricting in Kansas"

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m (Text replace - "Kansas' 1st congressional district" to "Kansas' 1st Congressional District")
m (Text replace - "Kansas' 2nd congressional district" to "Kansas' 2nd Congressional District")
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===Committee plans surface===
 
===Committee plans surface===
  
On Monday, January 23, two draft congressional maps surfaced in Kansas. The competing plans agreed on placing all of Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd congressional district|District 2]] but disagreed about whether to place Manhattan in the [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|1st]].<ref>[http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2012/jan/23/legislators-criticize-emerging-congressional-maps/ ''Lawrence Journal,'' "Legislators criticize emerging Kansas congressional maps," January 23, 2012]</ref>
+
On Monday, January 23, two draft congressional maps surfaced in Kansas. The competing plans agreed on placing all of Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd Congressional District|District 2]] but disagreed about whether to place Manhattan in the [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|1st]].<ref>[http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2012/jan/23/legislators-criticize-emerging-congressional-maps/ ''Lawrence Journal,'' "Legislators criticize emerging Kansas congressional maps," January 23, 2012]</ref>
  
 
===Committee adopts US House plan===
 
===Committee adopts US House plan===
  
On February 1, the [[Kansas State Senate|Kansas State Senate's]] [[Reapportionment Committee, Kansas State Senate|redistricting committee]] approved a bipartisan congressional redistricting plan. The plan consolidated Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd congressional district|US House District 2]], and moved Manhattan from District 2 to [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|District 1]]. However, state Republicans and the Kansas Chamber of Commerce lashed out against the plan. State party chairwoman Amanda Adkins argued that the plan was intended to create a Democratic 2nd District. A chamber official said the map hurt Republicans and furthered [[Barack Obama|President Obama's]] political agenda. Proponents of the plan defended it as non-partisan and noted that registered Republicans in the district only decreased by 2 percent under the plan.<ref>[http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2012/feb/01/senate-committee-approves-map-putting-lawrence-2nd/ ''LJWorld,'' "Senate committee approves map putting Lawrence in 2nd U.S. House District," February 1, 2012]</ref>
+
On February 1, the [[Kansas State Senate|Kansas State Senate's]] [[Reapportionment Committee, Kansas State Senate|redistricting committee]] approved a bipartisan congressional redistricting plan. The plan consolidated Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd Congressional District|US House District 2]], and moved Manhattan from District 2 to [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|District 1]]. However, state Republicans and the Kansas Chamber of Commerce lashed out against the plan. State party chairwoman Amanda Adkins argued that the plan was intended to create a Democratic 2nd District. A chamber official said the map hurt Republicans and furthered [[Barack Obama|President Obama's]] political agenda. Proponents of the plan defended it as non-partisan and noted that registered Republicans in the district only decreased by 2 percent under the plan.<ref>[http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2012/feb/01/senate-committee-approves-map-putting-lawrence-2nd/ ''LJWorld,'' "Senate committee approves map putting Lawrence in 2nd U.S. House District," February 1, 2012]</ref>
  
 
*The redistricting bill (SB 344) and maps can be found [http://www.kslegislature.org/li/b2011_12/measures/sb344/ here.]
 
*The redistricting bill (SB 344) and maps can be found [http://www.kslegislature.org/li/b2011_12/measures/sb344/ here.]
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===Senate approves congressional map===
 
===Senate approves congressional map===
  
On February 9, the [[Kansas State Senate]] approved a controversial congressional plan by a 23-17 margin. The plan consolidated Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd congressional district|US House District 2]], and moved Manhattan (ergo, Kansas State University) from District 2 to [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|District 1]]. The plan slightly weakened the Republican base in District 1 and drew fire from more conservative lawmakers. Ultimately, only 15 Republicans supported the plan (with 17 opposed). However, with all eight Democrats supporting the plan, it was finally passed. The map moved to the state House, whose speaker, [[Mike O'Neal]] (R), expressed concerns about the bill.<ref>[http://www.eldoradotimes.com/newsnow/x392620462/Senate-passes-Congress-map-derided-by-state-GOP ''El Dorado Times,'' "Senate passes Congress map derided by state GOP," February 9, 2012]</ref>
+
On February 9, the [[Kansas State Senate]] approved a controversial congressional plan by a 23-17 margin. The plan consolidated Lawrence in [[Kansas' 2nd Congressional District|US House District 2]], and moved Manhattan (ergo, Kansas State University) from District 2 to [[Kansas' 1st Congressional District|District 1]]. The plan slightly weakened the Republican base in District 1 and drew fire from more conservative lawmakers. Ultimately, only 15 Republicans supported the plan (with 17 opposed). However, with all eight Democrats supporting the plan, it was finally passed. The map moved to the state House, whose speaker, [[Mike O'Neal]] (R), expressed concerns about the bill.<ref>[http://www.eldoradotimes.com/newsnow/x392620462/Senate-passes-Congress-map-derided-by-state-GOP ''El Dorado Times,'' "Senate passes Congress map derided by state GOP," February 9, 2012]</ref>
  
 
===Proposals submitted in House===
 
===Proposals submitted in House===

Revision as of 15:38, 17 December 2013

Kansas

BP Redistricting logo.jpg

General Information
Process:   Reapportionment Commission
Deadline:   Before end of 2012 legislative session
Total Seats to be Drawn
Congress:   4
State Senate:   40
State House:   125
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Contents

Redistricting in Kansas is carried out by the Kansas Legislature. Kansas is one of the only states to use state-adjusted census figures. These adjusted figures account for non-resident students and military personnel.

The 2010 Census showed 6.1% population growth, with a notable concentration in the state's northeast. Kansas City and other eastern areas picked up population largely due to growth among Hispanics. In contrast, the state's rural West lost populations in almost all its counties.[1] The legislative committees in charge of redistricting met for the first time on June 1 to begin the redistricting process.[2]

Process

The Kansas Legislature is responsible for legislative, congressional, and state Board of Education redistricting. The House and Senate each appoint members to a committee to develop plans which are then presented to the respective chambers for consideration. Kansas redistricting is based on figures adjusted by the Secretary of State. These figures are adjusted for the student, prison, and military populations, using state survey data. Redistricting plans are subject to mandatory judicial review by the Kansas Supreme Court.[3][4]

Both chambers held orientation meetings for their redistricting work on June 2, 2011.[5]

House Speaker Mike O'Neill appointed himself head of redistricting for the House, an unusual step even given his marked interest and prior experience with the process. Explaining the decision, "There are really only a couple of us who've had experience doing this. Given that I was going to have a substantial interest in it and probably would be working on it anyway, I just decided that we'd run it out of our office."[6]

Leadership

Senate Reapportionment Committee

The Kansas State Senate appointed its reapportionment committee members. The committee was composed of 17 Republicans and 6 Democrats. The members were as follows:

Republican Party Tim Owens Chair
Republican Party Dwayne Umbarger Vice Chair
Democratic Party Anthony Hensley Ranking Minority Member
Republican Party Pete Brungardt
Democratic Party David Haley
Democratic Party Tom Holland
Republican Party Dick Kelsey

Republican Party Carolyn McGinn
Republican Party Ralph Ostmeyer
Republican Party Mike Petersen
Republican Party Ruth Teichman
Republican Party John Vratil
Republican Party Susan Wagle

House Reapportionment Committee

The Kansas House of Representatives appointed its reapportionment committee members. They were as follows:

Republican Party Michael O'Neal Chair
Republican Party Joe Patton
Republican Party Clay Aurand
Republican Party Steven Brunk
Republican Party Anthony Brown
Republican Party Richard Carlson
Republican Party Lance Kinzer
Republican Party Forrest Knox
Republican Party Brenda Landwehr

Republican Party Peggy Mast
Republican Party Larry Powell
Republican Party Don Schroeder
Republican Party Scott Schwab
Republican Party Sharon Schwartz
Republican Party Gene Suellentrop
Republican Party Caryn Tyson
Republican Party Brian Weber

Democratic Party Paul Davis
Democratic Party Annie Kuether
Democratic Party Robert Grant
Democratic Party Janice Pauls
Democratic Party Michael Peterson
Democratic Party Jim Ward

Public meetings

Members of the reapportionment committees planned to hold several meetings around the state in the summer of 2011.[7] The full schedule can be found here. Additional meetings were scheduled in September and October.[8][9]

Committee meets to establish guidelines

The Kansas State Sentate's Reapportionment Committee met Friday, January 13 to establish rules to guide its drafting of new redistricting maps. The House committee adopted its own guidelines prior, permitting a five percent deviation from ideal district populations.[10]

Census results

Kansas did not gain or lose any seats from the reapportionment after the 2010 census. The state population grew to over 2.85 million residents, an increase of 6.1 percent.[11]

Kansas receives local data

On March 2, Kansas received its local 2010 census data. The data would guide the state as it redrew congressional, state, and local electoral districts.[12] The local data showed sharp declines in Kansas' rural counties. Of the state's 105 counties, 77 saw population declines in the previous ten years. 23 of these saw declines greater than 10 percent. These declines had to be contrasted with the state's overall population growth of 6.1 percent, indicating significant shifts in the distribution of Kansas residents. Many of these shifts moved residents away from the state's western districts although southeast Kansas might also lose a district.[13][14] Analysts contended that this was part of a longer trend away from labor intensive agriculture to more efficient, mechanized farming.[15] The largest growth was seen in Kansas' small cities.[16][17]

Kansas also saw an increase in its Hispanic population. The Hispanic population grew 59 percent since 2000, accounting for 10.5 percent of the total population.[18] Since redistricting must respect minority voting rights, growing minority populations promised to create new challenges for state mapmakers.

Secretary releases revised census data

On July 26, Secretary of State Kris Kobach (R) released revised census figures accounting for non-resident students and military personnel. The revised population total was about 14,000 lower than the federal count of 2,583,118. The revision process is a remnant of the days when Kansas used the state agricultural census to conduct redistricting. District 66, home to Kansas State University, lost the most residents (10,000) in the revised count.[19][20]

Congressional redistricting

Analysts expected a redistricting fight to take place over the 3rd Congressional district. The 3rd included Johnson, Wyandotte, and parts of Douglas County. While the state population grew by just about five percent from April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009, Johnson grew by nearly 20 percent and Douglas by 15 percent. This growth necessitated a smaller 3rd district, leaving a question of how to draw one fairly.[21][22] Some speculated that the 1st Congressional district would have to grow as other districts absorbed District 3 voters and crowded eastward.[23]

Figure 1: This map shows the Kansas Congressional Districts after the 2000 census.

Since the previous redistricting, the 3rd district re-elected Democrat Dennis Moore until his retirement in 2010, when voters chose Republican Kevin Yoder. With Yoder's election, Republicans controlled all four congressional districts in the state.[24]

Possible plan circulates

A Congressional plan, rumored to be the GOP proposal, circulated around the state. The plan would have added an arm to the 1st District, reaching over the 2nd District to encompass the northeast corner of the state. The arm would have joined the rural western half of the state with Kansas City. Democrats quickly decried the plan, accusing it of doing "a disservice" to both regions in a Republican attempt to "dominate" the state. U.S. Rep. Tim Huelskamp (R-1st) said he was "confident our representatives will work to preserve the character of the First District.”[25]

  • See the full plan here.

Along with this plan, another considered plan would have moved Manhattan from District 2 to District 1 and part of Lawrence from District 3 to District 2. This would have made less dramatic changes to the state's existing districts, but Districts 2 and 3 would have become 'soft' GOP seats, opening the door to Democratic challengers. Also, the plan would move Fort Riley and Kansas State University out of the 2nd District, where Rep. Lynn Jenkins (R) had been a long-time advocate for both institutions.[26]

Committee plans surface

On Monday, January 23, two draft congressional maps surfaced in Kansas. The competing plans agreed on placing all of Lawrence in District 2 but disagreed about whether to place Manhattan in the 1st.[27]

Committee adopts US House plan

On February 1, the Kansas State Senate's redistricting committee approved a bipartisan congressional redistricting plan. The plan consolidated Lawrence in US House District 2, and moved Manhattan from District 2 to District 1. However, state Republicans and the Kansas Chamber of Commerce lashed out against the plan. State party chairwoman Amanda Adkins argued that the plan was intended to create a Democratic 2nd District. A chamber official said the map hurt Republicans and furthered President Obama's political agenda. Proponents of the plan defended it as non-partisan and noted that registered Republicans in the district only decreased by 2 percent under the plan.[28]

  • The redistricting bill (SB 344) and maps can be found here.

Senate approves congressional map

On February 9, the Kansas State Senate approved a controversial congressional plan by a 23-17 margin. The plan consolidated Lawrence in US House District 2, and moved Manhattan (ergo, Kansas State University) from District 2 to District 1. The plan slightly weakened the Republican base in District 1 and drew fire from more conservative lawmakers. Ultimately, only 15 Republicans supported the plan (with 17 opposed). However, with all eight Democrats supporting the plan, it was finally passed. The map moved to the state House, whose speaker, Mike O'Neal (R), expressed concerns about the bill.[29]

Proposals submitted in House

On March 2, 2012, Kansas lawmakers submitted a slew of proposed congressional maps to the House Redistricting Committee. In total, 18 maps were submitted. The Kansas State Senate already approved a bi-partisan congressional map on February 9, 2012. However, conservatives in the House worried that the plan favored Democrats. Most of the plans divided either Topeka or Kansas City, and reunified Lawrence. A meeting to narrow down the proposals was held on Monday, March 5. The committee planned to adopt one of the proposals outright, rather than working from scratch.[30][31]

  • Congressional proposals and drafts can be found here.

Committee chooses map

A House committee passed a new congressional map by a vote of 12-11 on March 14. The controversial bill moved a portion of Wyandotte County -- home to Democratic-leaning Kansas City -- into the conservative 1st congressional district of Kansas. The map was a stark contrast to the one passed by the State Senate. The upper chamber chose a bipartisan map that kept Wyandotte in the 3rd congressional district of Kansas. The overall effect of the House map was to increase Republican majorities in Districts 2 and 3, while sacrificing part of the GOP's considerable advantage in District 1. District 1, however, would remain a Republican-friendly district.[32]

Two maps fail in House

During the week of March 19, the Kansas House of Representatives rejected two competing congressional redistricting plans, sending lawmakers back to the drawing board. The committee map, approved on March 14, floundered in the House until it was replaced by Rep. Tom Arpke (R). The replacement map passed 70-51 in a preliminary vote on Tuesday. However, House Speaker Mike O'Neal (R), an advocate of the original map, sharply criticized the map, and the House promptly voted it down on Wednesday, 48-76. It now appeared that neither map was destined for passage. Another Senate-drawn congressional map appeared doomed as well.

As House lawmakers began drafting a consensus map, it seemed likely that parts of Shawnee County would be used to bolster the 1st Congressional District. The now-dead committee bill moved a portion of Wyandotte County -- home to Democratic-leaning Kansas City -- into the conservative 1st Congressional District of Kansas. The Senate chose a bipartisan map that kept Wyandotte in the 3rd Congressional District of Kansas, drawing population for District 1 from Riley County.[33]

Meanwhile, a Kansas State Senate panel approved a chamber map on Monday, protecting three incumbent Republicans from conservative challengers. The changes would have protected Carolyn McGinn, Tim Owens, and Jean Schodorf.[34]

House approves map as fight spills over

After two earlier options were rejected, the Kansas House of Representatives approved a congressional redistricting plan. Passed 81-43 on March 27, the plan would have moved half of Topeka from District 2 to District 1, bolstering rural District 1's flagging population growth. However, the Senate's reapportionment chair, Tim Owens (R), called the plan "absurd" and predicted that the plan would flounder in the Senate. House Speaker Mike O'Neal (R) responded by threatening to reject and redraw the Senate's chamber map if their congressional plan was not approved. The conflict was part of an ongoing struggle between moderate Republicans in the Senate and conservatives in the House. In addition, regional conflicts over the location Kansas City, Manhattan/Kansas State University, and a new federal biosecurity facility further complicated matters. Ordinarily, each chamber defers to the other on its chamber maps, and together they draw a consensus congressional plan.[35][36][37][38]

Chambers approve unlikely plans

On May 18, 2012, the Kansas State Senate approved a chamber map and the Kansas House of Representatives approved a congressional map. Neither map in its present form seemed likely to win approval by the opposite chamber.[39][40]

Legislature fails, duty falls to court

On May 20, 2012, the Kansas State Legislature adjourned, leaving the state's political districts undrawn. The task would fall to a three-judge panel of the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. This was the first time that the state's redistricting maps were sent to be drawn by a court. In the past, court interventions always worked from legislature-approved plans. A trial in the redistricting case was scheduled for May 29.[41][42]

Court draws new maps

On June 7, 2012, the district court issued new congressional and legislative maps. In its opinion, the court noted that it "recognizes that because it has tried to restore compact contiguous districts where possible, it is pushing a re-set button." It also took the Legislature to task for ideological gridlock. The court opted not to split Topeka or Lawrence, unlike earlier Legislature plans, leaving both within the 2nd congressional district.[43][44]

After the panel redrew the district lines when the Kansas State Legislature failed to do so, about 20 individuals who sued the state for damages from the lack of new district lines demanded the state pay $700,000 in legal fees. As the judges drew the lines, no clear ruling was given, and the plaintiffs believe they won the case. Kansas Attorney General Derek Schmidt has asked the judges to clarify their ruling.[45]

Legislative redistricting

Growth in Eastern Kansas caused speculation of up to five house seats moving East. Shawnee, Jackson, Pottawatomie and the five counties in the Kansas City metro area were seen to likely pick up these representatives.[23] Johnson County, a Kansas City suburb, was now the largest county in the state.[46]

The state's southeast could take the loss, and one of the region's representatives was remarkably candid about it. Robert Grant remarked, "I hope we don’t, but we should have lost one 10 years ago when we did the last one".[47]

House plans emerge in committee

A new state House plan surfaced in the House redistricting committee in late January 2012. The plan shifted three districts into the Kansas City metro area.[48]

House approves chamber map

On Thursday, February 9, 2012, the Kansas House of Representatives gave bipartisan approval to its new chamber map. The plan was approved by a 109-14 margin and garnered the support of the speaker and minority leader. Republicans controlled the House by a 92-33 margin. The plan paired eight lawmakers in four districts -- seven of the eight lawmakers were Republicans. Overall, the maps shifted powers from rural areas into Kansas City.[49]

Tension over chamber maps

Like many state legislatures, the Kansas State Legislature typically allows each chamber to draw its respective redistricting map. This tradition, however, was on the rocks as lawmakers considered plans to redraw the state's legislative maps. House Speaker Mike O'Neal (R) suggested that the House could tweak the Senate plan to garner additional support. One Senate plan under consideration already drew criticism for combining two southern districts and pairing two incumbents. The Kansas House of Representatives already approved a chamber map, passing the plan 109-14 on February 9. Since Republicans held decisive majorities in both chambers, much controversy arose from the conflict between moderate and conservative Republicans.[50]

In addition, Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback (R) took a more active role in redistricting, suggesting that lawmakers form a single Senate district for Leavenworth County and keep Kansas State University in an eastern congressional district. At the time, the county was split between two Democratic districts. Manhattan (KSU's home) would have been moved into a western district under one congressional proposal. Opponents, however, contended that Brownback was essentially targeting former Democratic opponents with the suggestion. In addition, the KSU move threatened to force lawmakers to divide Topeka or Kansas City.[51]

Conflict continues over Senate maps

Kansas remained deadlocked as lawmakers considered both US House and State Senate plans. Both chambers approved congressional plans, but the conservative House and moderate Senate had yet to agree on a consensus plan. Meanwhile, conservatives and moderates within the Senate were deadlocked over how to draw the new chamber lines. Moderates sought to shield incumbents from conservative challengers. The House since threatened to intervene in drawing the Senate's chamber maps and the Governor was unusually vocal as the June 1 candidate filing deadline drew closer.[52]

Senate approves chamber map

On April 27, 2012, the Kansas State Senate Reapportionment Committee approved a chamber map and revisions to a House map passed the House earlier that year. The revisions strained the tradition that each chamber may draw its own maps. House Speaker Mike O'Neal (R) said that he would consider revisions to the Senate map unless it passed by a large margin.[53]

As deadline passes, House passes Senate map

On May 10, 2012, the Kansas House of Representatives approved an alternate version of the Senate redistricting map. The move was part of an ongoing feud between moderate Republicans in the Senate and conservatives in the House. Ordinarily, each chamber draws its own chamber maps. The competing House plan challenged this tradition.[54]

Kansas law requires legislators to complete redistricting during the regular session--which is limited to 90 days. The 90 day limit passed and a lawsuit was filed, casting a cloud of doubt as to whether a court would take over the redistricting process.[55]

Chambers approve unlikely plans

On May 18, 2012, the Kansas State Senate approved a chamber map and the Kansas House of Representatives approved a congressional map. Neither map in its present form seemed likely to win approval by the opposite chamber.[56][57]

Legislature fails, duty falls to court

On May 20, the Kansas State Legislature adjourned, leaving the state's political districts undrawn. The task would now fall to a three-judge panel of the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. This was the first time that the state's redistricting maps were sent to be drawn by a court. In the past, court interventions always worked from legislature-approved plans. A trial in the redistricting case was scheduled for May 29.[58][59]

Court issues new maps

On June 7, 2012, the district court issued new congressional and legislative maps. In its opinion, the court noted that it "recognizes that because it has tried to restore compact contiguous districts where possible, it is pushing a re-set button." It also took the Legislature to task: "While legislators publicly demurred that they had done the best they could, the impasse resulted from a bitter ideological feud – largely over new Senate districts. The feud primarily pitted GOP moderates against their more conservative GOP colleagues. Failing consensus, the process degenerated into blatant efforts to gerrymander various districts for ideological political advantage and to serve the political ambitions of various legislators." About a third of House members -- 46 -- were placed into multiple-incumbent races, some containing as many as three. At the time of the opinion, at least two Senate challenges had been brought to an end.[60][61][62]

Legal issues

Lawsuit filed over delays

On May 3, a Kansas resident and Republican precinct committee member filed a federal lawsuit over the state's ongoing redistricting gridlock. The lawsuit contended that operating under the old boundaries constituted a violation of the plaintiff's right to equal representation. The plaintiff, Robyn Renee Essex, suggested that the court impose maps much like those drafted by legislative conservatives. Her attorney was conservative House Speaker Mike O'Neal's (R) former chief of staff, Brent Haden. O'Neal denied any involvement in the filing.[63]

Secretary Kobach files brief

On May 16, 2012, Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach (R) responded to a federal lawsuit over redistricting. The plaintiff argued that redistricting delays had left outdated and unequal districts in place and constituted a violation of her right to equal representation. Kobach's filing asked the court to create a three-judge panel to redraw Kansas' congressional, legislative, and Board of Education districts.[64]

Kobach also suggested that the court could select one of the maps under consideration in the legislature or that he himself could redraw the lines.[65] Kobach maintained that redistricting was a task for the legislature, but contended that the long delays forced his hand. Kobach called the delays a "constitutional crisis."[66] Several legislative leaders requested to intervene in the case.[67]

  • Documents in the court case can be found here.
  • Kobach's press conference on the filing can be found here.

Trial ends, but court may not finish in time

On May 30, the trial concluded in Kansas' federal redistricting lawsuit. A panel of three federal judges then deliberated on how to draw the state's legislative, congressional, and Board of Education maps. Secretary of State Kris Kobach advised the court to complete their work by June 20 in order to avoid delaying the August 7 primary election. Nathan Persily, a redistricting expert and consultant in four judicial redistricting efforts, suggested that the court's timeline might be overly ambitious. He also noted that acceptable deviations for court-drawn maps are often stricter than those for legislatively-drawn maps.[68][69]

Court finalizes new lines

On Thursday, June 7, a three-judge federal panel completed redistricting maps for Kansas' congressional, legislative, and Board of Education districts. The task of redistricting fell to the court after the Kansas State Legislature failed to complete redistricting by the end of the legislative session. This was the first time a court drew the state's maps without an approved legislative plan from which to work.[70]

Legislators and state officials reacted strongly to the new boundaries. Described by the judges as "pushing a reset button," Secretary of State Kris Kobach (R) called the plan the "most disruptive change in legislative districts that the state has ever seen." House Speaker Mike O'Neal argued that, "You couldn't be more disruptive if you tried."[71]

Although the effects of the new maps were still being evaluated, it appeared that 48 representatives and six senators resided in a district with at least one other incumbent. In the state House, at least 26 Republican and four Democratic incumbents would face a member of their own party in November (unless they moved or retired). While the Senate changes were less dramatic, three GOP candidates who intended to challenge moderate Republican senators no longer resided in the same district.[72]

Notably, the congressional map moved Manhattan (and, thus, KSU) into the 1st District and reunited Lawrence in District 2. Districts 1 and 4 were expected to see little partisan change. However, District 2 would likely become more Democratic and District 3 more Republican.[72]

Following the ruling, candidates had until noon on Monday, June 10 to file for candidacy.[73]

  • The approved redistricting plans can be found here.

Payment of legal fees

Of the 27 individuals who were in the original lawsuit against the state, 20 have asked the state to pay legal fees amounting to about $700,000. These former plaintiffs argue that they won the case, and the state should pay their legal fees. Kansas Attorney General Derek Schmidt argues that no clear ruling was given and has asked the judges to clarify their ruling.[74]

Citizen activism

Redistricting competition

Insight Kansas, a political science blog, sponsored a redistricting competition. The winning maps were submitted to the legislative redistricting committees. Details can be found here.

Reform Legislation

Non-Partisan Commission

Kansas Democrats proposed a non-partisan redistricting commission to redraw the state's legislative boundaries. However, with Republican majorities firmly in control of redistricting, it was unlikely the proposal would pass. Past Republican supporters of the proposal suggested that it was simply too late to pass the bill.[75]

Government downsizing

County Consolidation

On February 14, the Senate Ways and Means Committee introduced legislation, SB204, that would reduce the number of Kansas counties from 105 to 23. The bill, championed by Sen. Chris Steineger (R), was designed to strengthen counties and improve efficiency. A Wichita State University study found that such a consolidation could result in hundreds of millions in yearly savings.[76]

Eliminating representatives

Sen. Chris Steineger (R) introduced a bill, SB203, to reduce the number of state senators from 40 to 30 and the number of state representatives from 125 to 90. The bill was part of a larger movement to consolidate state government by reducing the number of state representatives.[77]

Timeline

Kansas redistricting plans are officially approved in the legislative session beginning two years after the Census year. Thus, Kansas redistricting had to be completed in 2012 legislative session. Kansas redistricting maps are based on adjusted figures calculated by the Secretary of State. These figures had to be prepared by the end of July 2011, since new maps would be developed between the 2011 and 2012 sessions. If the plans had been approved during the 2012 session, they would be published in the Kansas Register and the Attorney General would have 15 days to petition the Kansas Supreme Court for a constitutionally mandated review. The court would then have 30 days to render its judgement. If the court rejected the plan, the legislature would have 15 days to enact another based on court's judgement and apply for review. The court would have an additional 10 days to render a second judgement. If the plan was again rejected, the legislature would an additional 15 days to pass a plan "in compliance with the direction of and conforming to the mandate" of the court.[3]

Partisan Registration by District

Congressional Districts in November 2010

Partisan Registration and Representation by Congressional District, 2010
Congressional District Republicans Democrats Other District Total Party Advantage* 111th Congress 112th Congress
1 (Western and Central Kansas)
2 (Topeka & Eastern Kansas)
3 (Kansas City Metropolitan Area, Lawrence)
4 (South-Central Kansas, including Wichita)
State Totals 744,975 460,318 501,504 1,706,798 61.84% Republican 1 D, 3 R 0 D, 4 R
*The partisan registration advantage was computed as the gap between the two major parties in registered voters.

History

The 1859 Kansas Constitution set up a legislature which could have up to 33 senators and 100 representatives, with each chamber determining its own size and reapportioning itself every 5 years. Each county was entitled to at least one representative. Growth soon lead to an amendment in 1873 to raise the limits to the current 40 senators and 125 representatives. However, the legislature often exceeded these limits while also failing to reapportion every 5 years. State courts kept a hands off approach and did not enforce reapportionment or provide a check of unequal representation.

By the 1960s, both state chambers had great disparities from district to district, with urban areas being the most underrepresented. The Senate made attempts toward the one man-one vote ideal, but saw their plans in 1964 challenged in federal court and found to be in violation of Equal Protection Clause. Further attempts by the legislature in 1968 were struck down due to variances in district populations. Following the case the court would end up putting its own plan into place and would do so again in 1972. The change to districts based on equal population saw a rise in the election of urban and suburban legislators and more or less ended the rural bias.

Kansas is unique in that, up until 1989, they used the state Agricultural Census as the basis for redistricting rather than the federal census. The Agricultural Census, conducted annually, differed in from the national census in how military personnel and students were counted. In 1974 voters approved a constitutional article to hold the legislature responsible for redistricting every 10 years beginning in 1979. This end of decade redistricting was intended to make Agricultural Census figures more defensible since newer federal data would not be available. However, in 1978, the Agricultural Census was abolished and used for the final time in 1979.

In the 1980s, the constitution was again modified to account for elimination of the Agricultural Census and make the switch to the U.S. Census. The changes provided for a special state census to guide 1989 redistricting and mandated that redistricting be conducted every ten years based on U.S. Census data, starting in 1992. However, much like the Agricultural Census, the Kansas constitution mandates that federal data be adjusted to account for students, military personnel, and inmates.[78][79]

2001 redistricting

Deviation from "Ideal Districts"

2000 Population Deviation[80]
Office Percentage
Congressional Districts 0.00%
State House Districts 9.95%
State Senate Districts 9.27%
Under federal law, districts may vary from an 'Ideal District' by up to 10%, though the lowest number achievable is preferred. 'Ideal Districts' are computed through simple division of the number of seats for any office into the population at the time of the Census.

Lawsuits related to the 2000 Census

There was one lawsuit related to the Georgia 2000 census redistricting process.[81]

  • Graham v. Thornburgh, No. 02-4087-JAR (D. Kan. July 3, 2002) : The Kansas Attorney General filed a complaint in federal district court, State ex rel. Stovall v. Thornburgh, alleging that the newly enacted Kansas congressional districts were unconstitutional. The court found that the Attorney General did not have standing to bring the case, so the case proceded with one of the intervenors substituted as plaintiff. The Attorney General offered an alternative plan, but a three-judge panel upheld the Legislature's plan.

Constitutional explanation

The Kansas Constitution provides authority for redistricting to the Legislature in Article 10.

Originally, the Constitution required the use of a state-conducted census for determining population statistics. This was amended in 1988 to require the use of U.S. Census figures.[82]

See also

External links

References

  1. The Republic "Release of Kan. census figures heralds coming legislative fights over redistricting," March 6, 2011
  2. LJ World, "Drawing the lines," June 2, 2011
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kansas Legislative Research Dept. "Kansas Legislator Briefing Book 2010"
  4. Stateline.org, "Where to count prisoners poses redistricting dilemma," March 21, 2011
  5. Fort Scott Tribune "Tyson tapped for redistricting panel," June 2, 2011
  6. Hutchinson News "Lawmakers launch work on redistricting," June 2, 2011
  7. Marion County Record, "Cuts to arts commission, reapportionment in 2012," June 9, 2011
  8. The Kansas City Star, "Meetings set to discuss Kansas redistricting proposals," July 11, 2011
  9. Houston Chronicle, "Kan. panel sets 8 more redistricting hearings," August 22, 2011
  10. KSAL, "Kansas Senate Panel Taking Up Redistricting Rules," January 13, 2012
  11. FOX 4 KC, "Kansas keeps all 4 House seats after census," December 21, 2010
  12. US Census Bureau, "Census Bureau Ships Local 2010 Census Data to Kansas," March 2, 2010
  13. The Hays Daily News, "Population losses could hit state representation," April 10, 2011
  14. Morning Sun, "OUR VIEW: Redistricting key for SEK," July 17, 2011
  15. Topeka Capital-Journal, "Analysis: Kan. census figures herald remap battle," March 6, 2011
  16. National Journal, "Census Quick Cuts: Kansas, Wyoming," March 3, 2011
  17. CJonline, "Republicans, urban areas will gain from redistricting," July 27, 2011
  18. The Wichita Eagle, "Kansas is changing," March 6, 2011
  19. WIBW, "Secretary of State Kobach Releases Adjusted Census Figures," July 26, 2011
  20. LJWorld.com, "Statehouse Live: Readjusted population counts will impact legislative redistricting in Lawrence," July 27, 2011]
  21. FOX 4 KC, "Johnson County Growth Could Lead to Kansas Redistricting Fight," December 27, 2010
  22. LJ World "Kansas census results could lead to another redistricting batle," March 3, 2011
  23. 23.0 23.1 The Hays Daily News Online, "Census sure to shuffle House, Senate," February 27, 2011
  24. Lawrence Journal-World, "Redistricting game," December 29, 2010
  25. McPherson Sentinel, "County moves to 2nd in controversial proposal," July 29, 2011
  26. The Wichita Eagle, "Michael Smith: Redistricting politics, districts are contorted," August 07, 2011
  27. Lawrence Journal, "Legislators criticize emerging Kansas congressional maps," January 23, 2012
  28. LJWorld, "Senate committee approves map putting Lawrence in 2nd U.S. House District," February 1, 2012
  29. El Dorado Times, "Senate passes Congress map derided by state GOP," February 9, 2012
  30. Topeka Capital-Journal, "Ks. House gets flood of redistricting maps," March 2, 2012
  31. McPherson Sentinel, "Legislature battles it out over redistricting maps," March 7, 2012
  32. The Northwestern, "Kansas House panel settles on Congress remap plan," March 14, 2012
  33. Capital-Journal, "Redistricting reversal; Shawnee split could be next," March 21, 2012
  34. Kansas City Star, "Kansas Senate panel OKs redistricting map that moves challengers out of incumbents' districts," March 20, 2012
  35. HTR News, "Key Kan. senators oppose House redistricting plan," March 30, 2012
  36. Morning Sun, "Redistricting set for House vote," March 29, 2012
  37. The Wichita Eagle, "Kansas House speaker threatens Senate over redistricting," March 29, 2012
  38. Hutchinson Kansas, "Kansas House advances congressional remap bill," April 4, 2012
  39. KAKE, "Kansas Senate Approves Remap Favored By Moderates," May 18, 2012
  40. CNBC, "Kansas House approves new congressional map," May 18, 2012
  41. Kansas City Star, "Kan. lawmakers adjourn still debating tax cuts," May 20, 2012
  42. Kansas City Star, "Kansas into 'uncharted waters' with redistricting lawsuit," May 27, 2012
  43. U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas, opinion in Essex v. Kobach, June 7, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  44. The Wichita Eagle, "Court releases redistricting plans; bad news for two conservative Senate hopefuls," June 8, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  45. Associated Press, "Kansas AG Responds On Legal Costs In Remap Lawsuit," June 26, 2013
  46. Kansas City Star, "Census boosts Johnson County’s clout," March 7, 2011
  47. The Morning Sun "Legislators discuss redistricting," April 30, 2011
  48. The Republic, "Kansas House redistricting committee introduces proposal, shifting 3 districts to KC metro," January 30, 2012
  49. Dodge Globe, "Kan. House approves bipartisan redistricting bill," February 10, 2012
  50. The Republic, "Senators ask Kansas House not to mess with Senate redistricting map, honor tradition," February 29, 2012
  51. Deseret News, "Kan. gov. defends involvement in redistricting," February 24, 2012
  52. The Northwestern, "Split in Kansas Senate GOP stalls redistricting," April 1, 2012
  53. Real Clear Politics, "Kansas Senate panel advances new districts," April 27, 2012
  54. Real Clear Politics, "Kansas House approves new map for state Senate," May 11, 2012
  55. Topeka Capital-Journal, "Redistricting process enters 'uncharted territory'," May 13, 2012
  56. KAKE, "Kansas Senate Approves Remap Favored By Moderates," May 18, 2012
  57. CNBC, "Kansas House approves new congressional map," May 18, 2012
  58. Kansas City Star, "Kan. lawmakers adjourn still debating tax cuts," May 20, 2012
  59. Kansas City Star, "Kansas into 'uncharted waters' with redistricting lawsuit," May 27, 2012
  60. U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas, opinion in Essex v. Kobach, June 6, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  61. The Wichita Eagle, "Court releases redistricting plans; bad news for two conservative Senate hopefuls," June 8, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  62. The Huffington Post, "Kansas Redistricting: Federal Court Redraws All Legislative Districts, Pushes 'Re-set Button'," June 8, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  63. LJ World, "Olathe woman files federal suit over redistricting," May 3, 2012
  64. Kansas City Star, "Kobach asks federal court to settle Kansas redistricting issue," May 16, 2012
  65. Kansas.com blog, "Kobach proposes courts — or he — redraw legislative districts," May 16, 2012
  66. Kansas City Business Journal, "Judge sets hearing in Kansas redistricting case," May 18, 2012
  67. Kanas City Star, "Kansas governor may seek to intervene in redistricting lawsuit," May 19, 2012
  68. Topeka Capital-Journal, "Historic redistricting trial comes to an end," May 30, 2012
  69. Topeka Capital-Journal, "Redistricting expert: Judges' timeline daunting," June 2, 2012
  70. Kansas City Star, "Federal judges impose new Kansas political lines," June 9, 2012
  71. The Hutchinson News, "New boundaries stun lawmakers," June 8, 2012
  72. 72.0 72.1 The Hutchinson News, "Summary of judges' order on Kan. Redistricting," June 8, 2012
  73. KAKE, "Candidates Scramble To File By Noon Deadline," June 11, 2012
  74. Associated Press, "Kansas AG Responds On Legal Costs In Remap Lawsuit," June 26, 2013
  75. LJWorld.com, "Capitol briefing: News from the Kansas Statehouse," March 6, 2011
  76. Hutchnews.com, "Consolidation bill aims to reduce counties to 23," February 18, 2011
  77. The Wall Street Journal, "State Lawmakers Aim to Reduce Ranks," March 4, 2011
  78. Policy Archive, "Reapportionment Politics: The History of Redistricting in the 50 States," Rose Institute of State and Local Government, January 1981 (pg.118-126)
  79. NCSL, "Kansas Population Adjustment for Legislative Redistricting," March 27, 2010
  80. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Redistricting 2000 Population Deviation Table”, accessed February 1, 2011
  81. Minnesota State Senate "2000 Redistricting Case Summaries"
  82. Kansas Legislator Briefing Book 2010, "Redistricting"