State-by-state redistricting procedures

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State-by-state redistricting procedures involve the redrawing of boundary lines for state legislative and U.S. Congressional districts. Each state lets the Legislature or an independent commission draw the new boundaries after a decennial Census. Some states may use a combination of both methods depending on how the law is set.
Redistricting Types by State
Legislative Commission Hybrid
28 9 13

Commission-based redistricting

The following states give an independent commission the primary responsibility of drawing legislative and congressional boundaries. Members are usually selected by a state's Governor or by another elected official. Other officials that usually appoint individuals to redistricting commissions are not limited to Secretaries of State, leaders of the Legislature, and State Supreme Court justices. Most deadlines are provided by the National Conference of State Legislatures.


State Commission Name Size of Commission Who Selects Members Initial Deadline Final Deadline
Alaska Alaska Redistricting Board 5 2 Selected by Governor, 1 Appointed by Senate President, 1 Selected by the House Speaker, 1 Appointed by Chief Justice of Alaska Supreme Court. 30 Days after first Census figures are reported. 90 Days after first Census figures are reported.
Arizona Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission 5 A pool of 25 nominees is considered which consists of 10 Republicans, 10 Democrats, and 5 Independents. The highest ranking majority and minority officers of both houses of the Arizona Legislature each appoint 1 member of their choosing. One member that is not affliated with either political party is selected by all the highest rated majority and minority officers in the Legislature. None None
California California Citizens Redistricting Commission 14 Commission consists of 5 Republicans, 5 Democrats, and 4 Independents. Government Auditors select 8 members from a pool of 60 voters, then the first 8 commission members selected can make picks on the remaining selections. Commission must be first formed by December 31, 2010. September 15, 2011
Hawaii Hawaii Reapportionment Commission 9 The Speaker of the House, President of the Senate, and minority leaders of both houses of the legislature select two members. The eight members selected vote on appointing an ninth member. 80 days after the commission forms. 150 days after the commission forms.
Idaho Idaho Redistricting Commission 6 Highest rated Republican and Democratic leaders in the Idaho Legislature each select a member. State Chairpersons of the Idaho Republican Party and the Idaho Democratic Party select a member. Commission must be formed within 15 days after the Secretary of State orders a commission. 90 days after commission was first formed or when census data was received. (Whichever comes later).
Missouri Missouri House Apportionment Commission and the Missouri Senate Apportionment Commission. 28 (18 House Members, 10 Senate Members) For the House committee, both major parties must select a person in each of the state's congressional districts. The Governor nominates each representative to the commission. For the Senate Commission, each party must submit a list of ten potential nominees to the Governor. The Governor nominates 5 Republican and 5 Democrat members. Five Months after commission forms. Six months after commission forms.
Montana Montana Districting and Apportionment Commission 5 The Majority and Minority Leaders in both houses of the Legislature select a member. The four members selected by legislative leaders select a fifth member who serves as the Commission's Chairperson. Commission must present its plan the first regular session after apportionment. 30 Days after the redistricting plan is returned by the Legislature.
New Jersey New Jersey Redistricting Commission 10 The Chairpersons of both major parties each select five persons to serve on the commission. If a plan is not in place, the New Jersey Supreme Court selects an eleventh member. February 1, 2011 or one month after Census data is available. Same date as initial deadline or one month after 11th member is picked by the State Supreme Court.
Washington Washington State Redistricting Commission 5 Majority and Minority leaders of both houses of the Washington Legislature select a member. The four members selected by the Legislative leaders make their selection for a 5th non-voting member. If a 5th member cannot be selected, then the Washington Supreme Court selects a member. None January 1, 2012.

Legislative-based redistricting

The following states give the State Legislature primary authority in drawing Legislative and Congressional boundaries. Most states require the Governor to approve the redistricting plans. Most states give the Governor the power to veto any redistricting plan introduced by the Legislature for any reason. The final deadlines listed on the chart are for both Congressional and Legislative redistricting unless otherwise noted. Most deadlines are provided by the National Conference of State Legislatures.


State Who Draws Boundaries Gov. Overide? Initial Deadline Final Deadline
Alabama[1] The Legislative Committee on Reapportionment draws all boundaries. Yes. None End of 2011-2012 legislative session. Subject to pre-clearance of the U.S. Justice Department.
Delaware The Legislature draws boundaries. Yes None Legislature must adopt redistricting plan by June 30, 2011
Florida Legislature redraws boundaries Yes First Tuesday after First March in 2012 to convene redistricting committees. June 18-22, 2012.
Georgia The Legislative Committee on Reapportionment draws all boundaries. Yes. None None
Indiana[2] House and Senate election committees are given the first responsibility in re-drawing boundaries. If they fail to meet deadline, a five person commission redraws the boundaries. The Governor has full authority to veto any redistricting plan for any reason. April 29, 2011 Redistricting Commission must be formed within 30 days if the General Assembly adjourns without a plan.
Kansas[3] Both House and Senate appoint members to an reapportionment commission. Yes None Plan must be in place before sine die deadline of the State Legislature in 2012.
Kentucky Each Chamber of the General Assembly draws up own redistricting plan as its own bill. Yes None May 2013
Louisiana[4] Legislature has full authority over all legislative, judicial, and congressional redistricting. The Governor has authority to veto any redistricting plan for any reason. Febrauary 2, 2011 to deliver Census data to the Legislature. April 29, 2011 for Congressional redistricting, December 31, 2011 for all others.
Maryland[5] The Maryland General Assembly has full authority over congressional redistricting. For Legislative re-districting, the Governor must submit a plan to redraw districts to the General Assembly. The Governor only has the authority to veto Congressional redistricting plans. The legislative redistricting plan is done by a joint resolution of the General Assembly or a gubernatorial executive order. Legislative re-districting plan must be presented to House Speaker and Senate President after census data is released. All legislative redistricting must have plans finalized before the first day the General Assembly convenes in 2012. No deadlines for Congressional redistricting.
Massachusetts Legislature has authority in redrawing boundaries. Governor can veto any redistricting plan for any reason. None Before 2012 Elections
Michigan Legislature has authority in redrawing boundaries. Governor can veto any redistricting plan for any reason. None None
Minnesota[6] Legislature forms a subcommittee on redistricting. This consists of 2 Democrats and 2 Republicans from each house of the Legislature. Governor can veto any redistricting plan for any reason. First plans drawn by the committee in 2011. February 21, 2012-(25 weeks before 2012 Statewide Primary).
Nebraska[7] The Legislature creates a subcommittee that oversees the entire redistricting process. Yes None None
New Hampshire The Legislature draws all boundaries. Yes None None
New Mexico The Legislature draws all boundaries. Yes. None None
Nevada Legislature redraws boundaries. Yes None June 6, 2011
North Carolina Legislature redraws boundaries. No None First Monday of January of 2012 to begin federal pre-clearance process
North Dakota Legislature redraws boundaries Yes None January 2013
Oregon Legislature redraws boundaries. Yes None July 1, 2011
Rhode Island Legislature redraws boundaries Yes None None
South Carolina The Legislature draws boundaries Yes None None
South Dakota The Legislature draws all boundaries. Yes. None December 1, 2011
Tennessee Legislature draws boundaries Yes None None
Utah Separate Redistricting Committee of the Utah Legislature handles redrawing boundaries. Yes
Virginia[8] General Assembly introduces plan as a bill. Elections committee can make revisions to the introduced plan. Governor has authority to veto any redistricting plan. None Second quarter of 2011 for General Assembly redistricting, Third Quarter of 2011 for Congressional Redistricting. All plans must have approval of the US Justice Department for Voting Rights Act of 1965 clearance.
West Virginia[9] Legislature gets called into special session to form new legislative districts after Census data is received. Governor has authority to veto any plan for any reason. None None
Wisconsin[10] Members of State Assembly and Senate establish a committee. Governor can veto any redistricting plan for any reason. No First Legislative Session after the decennial Census.
Wyoming Legislature draws boundaries. Yes None March of 2012

Hybrid method redistricting

A hybrid method of redistricting involves more than one government branch or agency working together to draw Congressional and Legislative boundaries. For example, the Legislature and a Advisory Commission can be charged to draw the boundaries. Some states consider the commissions an advisory board in which they only advise the Legislature. Most deadlines are provided by the National Conference of State Legislatures.

State Method Used Separate Commission Used? Who Selects Members? Initial Deadline Final Deadline
Arkansas Arkansas Board of Apportionment and Arkansas Legislature 3-member board only for State legislative districts. The Arkansas Legislature draws the Congressional districts. Governor, Lt. Governor, and Attorney General serve on the commission. Must be formed by February 28, 2011 None
Colorado The Colorado Reapportionment Commission is responsible for re-drawing state legislative districts. The General Assembly draws new Congressional districts. 11-member commission for state legislative districts. General Assembly selects 4 members, Governor selects 3 members, Colorado Supreme Court Chief Justice Selects 4 members. May 15, 2011 March 15, 2012
Connecticut Legislature draws first before back-up commission used. Only if Legislature fails to meet deadline. 9 Member commission. Majority and Minority Leaders in both the House and Senate select two members. The eight members already selected nominate a 9th member to be the tie-breaking vote. Legislature must adopt plan by September 15, 2011. If a Commission is in place, November 30, 2011.
Illinois General Assembly First Draws, Commission Acts as Back-Up. Only if the General Assembly fails to get a plan in place by the Legislative deadline. Legislative Majority and Minority leaders select one lawmaker and one non-lawmaker to the commission. If the Commission is deadlocked, both parties select a person to serve to be the 9th member on a decision of the Illinois Supreme Court. June 30, 2011-Legislative Deadline October 5, 2011-Back-Up Commission.
Iowa Legislative Service Agency draws boundaries before the General Assembly and Governor of Iowa approve the plan. No N/A September 15, 2011 for Governor to approve redistricting. December 31, 2011-Only if Supreme Court has to approve a law.
Maine Legislature Draws Boundaries Commission is only an advisory board. 15 Member board. House Majority and Minority Leaders select 3 members each, Senate Majority and Minority Members select 2 members each, Both major party chairs serve or select a member, 1 private citizen selected by each of the 6 members from each party, 1 citizen selected by the 2 citizens. Advisory Commission must present plan to Legislature no later than 90 days after the 2013 Legislative Session. Both houses of the Legislature must approve plan on a 2/3rds vote no later than 30 days after receiving the plan.
Mississippi Legislature first, before back-up commission is used. Only if Legislature fails to meet deadline. Commission consists of Chief Justice of the Mississippi Supreme Court, Attorney General, Secretary of State, along with the House and Senate Majority Leaders TBD TBD
New York Legislature Draws Boundaries Commission is only an advisory board. Commission consists of 6 members. Majority leaders select one lawmaker and one non-lawmaker to select on the commission. Minority leaders select 1 lawmaker and one non-lawmaker. None Must be drawn in time before the 2012 elections.
Ohio Ohio Redistricting Commission draws Legislative boundaries, Ohio General Assembly draws congressional boundaries. Only for Legislative redistricting. Commission consists of Governor, State Auditor, Secretary of State, and two members selected by the Legislative leaders of the two major parties. None October 5, 2011 for Legislative Redistricting.
Oklahoma Legislature draws boundaries first before back-up commission is used. Only if Legislature fails to meet the deadline. Commission consists of Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and State Treasurer. None May 25, 2011
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Legislative Reapportionment Commission (state legislative districts) and general legislative bill for Congressional 5-member commission for state legislative districts Majority and Minority Leaders in each house of the Legislature each select a member. The four members selected by the Legislature make their selection for a fifth member that serves as the Chairman. If the four members, fail to select a fifth member, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court will select a fifth member. 90 days after census data is received or when the commission is formed. (Whichever comes later). 30 days after the last public exemption is filed against the initial plan.
Texas Legislature draws first before a back-up commission is used. Only if Legislature fails to meet deadlines. Commission consists of Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Land Commissioner, and House Majority Leader. May 30, 2011 October 26, 2011
Vermont Legislature draws boundaries. Commission is only advisory. 5 Person Commission. Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court selects one member. Governor selects one person from the two major parties, along with the major party chairs selecting one person. At the beginning of the 2011-2012 Session None

See also

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References