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Difference between revisions of "Voter identification laws by state"

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Some states do require photo IDs in particular situations but not in general (first time voters, for example). On the tab called "Details by state" you'll find more information about upcoming changes in state laws, pending legislation and links to state documents that outline details about what is considered a valid form of identification.
Some states do require photo IDs in particular situations but not in general (first time voters, for example). On the tab called "Details by state" you'll find more information about upcoming changes in state laws, pending legislation and links to state documents that outline details about what is considered a valid form of identification.
Related news: '''[ SCOTUS ruling on Voting Rights Act], June 25, 2013'''
=Details by state=
=Details by state=

Revision as of 16:47, 25 June 2013

Voter ID Laws kare laws in each state that may require a voter to show government issued photo identification at the polling places. All states must meet the minimum requirement set by the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA) which requires photo ID for those who register by mail and did not provide identification. However, some states have stricter requirements set by state law.[1]

Voter ID by the numbers
18 states require photo ID
33 states have non-photo requirements
Read about pending voter ID laws and lawsuits here.
Click on a tab below for more details

In general, valid forms of photo ID often include:

  • a valid driver's license
  • military ID
  • a state identification card
  • United States passport
  • student identification

If valid ID is not provided, most states issue a provisional ballot. Provisional ballots are usually counted once a voter's eligibility is confirmed. Some states require that confirmation be provided within a particular time frame following the election. Make sure to check your state for specific details.

(last updated June 18, 2013)

For the purposes of this page, we assessed each state's laws by categorizing them into two broad groups: whether the state does or does not require photo IDs on election day at polling locations.

Some states do require photo IDs in particular situations but not in general (first time voters, for example). On the tab called "Details by state" you'll find more information about upcoming changes in state laws, pending legislation and links to state documents that outline details about what is considered a valid form of identification.

Related news: SCOTUS ruling on Voting Rights Act, June 25, 2013

State Brief summary Link for specific details
Alabama Each elector is required to provide identification. This includes photo and non-photo identification. In 2014, however, each elector will be required to provide a valid photo ID. Specifically, the law, approved in 2011, goes into effect with the June 2014 primaries. As of June 2013 the state has not yet submitted the law for preclearance to the U.S. Department of Justice. Attorney General Luther Strange said the secretary of state’s office is in the process of developing rules for a new free voter ID.[2] Link
Alaska Non-photo
Arizona Every elector is required to show proof of identity at the polling place before receiving a ballot. The elector must announce his/her name, place of residence and present a photo ID.

Note: Proposition 200, approved by voters in 2004, required that voters present evidence of U.S. Citizenship prior to voting. The state's law is scheduled to be heard by the United States Supreme Court the week of March 18, 2013. (Case name: Arizona vs. The Inter Tribal Council of Arizona Inc.)[3][4] On June 17, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that states cannot require proof of citizenship in cases of voter registration for federal elections unless the state receives federal or court approval to do so. The court ruled 7-2. Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas dissented. The current federal form asks if registering voters are citizens but does not require proof.[5][6]

Arkansas Electors must announce his/her name, address and confirm date of birth. Valid identification includes photo and non-photo identification.

Note: On March 19, 2013 the Arkansas Senate sent a voter-ID bill (SB 2) to Gov. Mike Beebe for final approval. The Senate voted 22-12 in agreement with a House amendment to the measure. According to reports, the governor planned to wait for Arkansas Attorney General Dustin McDaniel to respond to a lawmaker's question about the constitutionality of the bill. Prior to the Senate's vote the Senate Rules Committee issued a non-binding advisory opinion that the Senate had previously not properly passed the bill. The committee said that because SB 2 would alter the Arkansas Constitution it would require a 2/3 vote approval. The advisory opinion was rejected by the full Senate.[7] On March 25, 2013, Gov. Beebe rejected the bill. He wrote, the bill "unnecessarily restricts and impairs our citizens' right to vote." Beebe also noted that the implementation costs would have risen to $300,000.[8] On March 27, 2013 the Arkansas Senate voted 21-12, along party lines, to override the governor's veto.[9] On April 1, 2013 the state house voted 52-45 in agreement with the senate to override Gov. Beebe's veto.[10][11]

California SB1016 (effective January 1, 2006) requires voters to provide their driver's license number or state identification number. If they do not have either, they may use the last four digits of their social security card. If they also do not have a social security card number, the state will assign a unique number which may be used for voting purposes. Link
Colorado The state requires voters to provide their driver's license number. If they do not have a driver's license number, they may use the last four digits of their social security card. If they also do not have a social security card number, the state will assign a unique number which may be used for voting purposes. Link
Connecticut First-time voters are required to present identification. Valid ID includes photo identification that features your name and address or a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck or other government document that shows your name and address. Link
Delaware Valid voter ID includes a photo ID, utility bill, paycheck or any other government document with your name and address on it. Link
Florida At the polls, valid picture identification with a signature is required. If photo identification does not contain a signature, voters will be asked for additional identification that does include a signature. Link
Georgia Each elector must present a valid ID that contains a photo of the elector. Valid IDs include a driver's license, state identification card, tribal identification card, United States passport, employee identification or military identification card. Link
Hawaii In order to vote, electors must present valid photo ID with a signature. Additionally, voters will be asked to sign a poll book to record that they voted at the polling place. Voter Registration Notice is NOT an acceptable form of identification. Link
Idaho Electors must present valid photo ID. The name on the ID must match the name on the voter registration list (abbreviations and nicknames are acceptable). A name change requires the voter to re-register. If a voter is unable to show an acceptable ID, the voter is given the option to sign the Personal Identification Affidavit. On the Affidavit, the voter swears to his/her identity under penalty of perjury, a felony under 34-1114, Idaho Code. Link
Illinois "Any time a voter uses Early Voting, the voter must present a government-issued photo ID." An ID with your name and address is required. The IDs are not required to feature a photograph of the elector.[12] "If you register by mail, you must vote in person the first time, either at the polling place, in-person absentee or early voting, unless you submit with your mail-in registration form your driver license number or state ID number, the last four digits of your social security number, or one of the forms of ID listed below."[13] Link
Indiana Public Law 109-2005 requires Indiana residents to present a government-issued photo ID before casting a ballot at the polls on Election Day. Photo IDs must meet four criteria for voting purposes: display a photo; display your name (which should match voter registration record); display an expiration date and either be current or have expired sometime after the date of the last General Election; and be issued by the State of Indiana or the U.S. government. Link
Iowa No photo ID is required to vote. However, photo IDs are required for election day registrants. Link
Kansas The Kansas Secure and Fair Elections Act (S.A.F.E.) was signed into law on April 18, 2011 by Gov. Sam Brownback. Starting January 1, 2012, Kansas voters are required to show photo ID when voting in person. When voting by mail, voters are required to have their signature verified and include a copy of a valid photo ID. Starting January 1, 2013, persons registering to vote for the first time must prove U.S. citizenship. Link
Kentucky Electors are required to produce identification, however the identification does not need to feature a photograph. Election officers can confirm identity either by personal acquaintance or via a document. Link
Louisiana Electors must present one of the following: a driver's license, a Louisiana special ID, or other generally recognized picture ID that contains your name and signature. If a photo ID is not presented, a utility bill, payroll check or other government document that includes your name and address can be presented. However, such voters would also have to sign an affidavit. Link
Maine According to Maine's "Voter Rights," registered voters in Maine are not required to show ID to get a ballot. 21-A MRSA §§111 and 671. Link
Maryland In general, most voters meet the necessary HAVA requirements during registration. Identification at the polls is usually only requested for voters that do not have a driver's license, state ID card, or social security card and who submitted their voter registration applications by mail after January 1, 2006; and those voters who registered to vote by mail between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005 and have not yet voted for the first time. Link
Massachusetts Electors must present valid identification which must include the voter's name and address. Link
Michigan Each voter must show a photo ID. Your photo ID does not need to have your address on it. Voters without photo ID may sign an affidavit attesting that he or she is not in possession of photo identification. Link
Minnesota Non-photo Link
Mississippi First time voters or unverified registrants are required to show identification. Acceptable forms of ID include a copy of a current and valid photo ID, a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or government document that shows the name and address of the voter.
Note: Mississippi's 2011 voter ID amendment requires an implementing statute and faces USDOJ pre-clearance, before it can take effect. In October 2012, the justice department requested additional information about the law. Mississippi voters, therefore, did not have to show proof of identification to vote in the November 6, 2012 elections.[14] In late January 2013, proposed administration rules for the new voter photo identification rules were submitted to the USDOJ for approval. According to reports, the rules allow for voters who lack an acceptable photo ID to obtain a free voter photo ID card by presenting the same identification materials accepted when a person registers to vote.[15]
Missouri Pursuant to Section 115.427, RSMO Supp. 2006, before receiving a ballot, voters are required to establish their identify and eligibility to vote. Valid forms of ID include: federal or state issued IDs, a copy of a current utility bill or bank statement, or a driver's license or state identification card issued by another state. If a voter does not possess valid identification, they may still cast a ballot if two supervising election judges (one from each major political party) verify that they know the elector. (Missouri Secretary of State: Voter ID requirements) Link
Montana Electors are required to present identification prior to receiving a ballot. If you do not have a photo ID, you can provide a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, voter confirmation notice, government check or other government document that shows your name and current address. Link
Nebraska Voters do not need to present identification in order to vote. Voters are asked for their ID if they are first time Nebraska registrants who mailed in their registration application and did not provide an ID at that time. Link
Nevada NRS 293.277. If a person's name appears in the election board register the person is entitled to vote. Electors must sign their name in the election board register at the polling place. The signature must be compared with the signature on a person's original application to vote or another form of identification. Other forms of identification include: a driver's license, a state identification card, military identification or another government issued ID. Link
New Hampshire Note: On June 27, 2012 the New Hampshire State Senate and House of Representatives voted to override the governor’s veto of Senate Bill 289. Senate voted 18-5, while the House voted 231-112. The two-thirds requirement to override the governor's veto was met. Both re-introduced and approved an amended version of House Bill 1354. The governor has five days from June 27 to sign, veto or let HB 1354 become law without his signature. The bill would require people to present photo identification when voting. Those who do not have a photo ID can vote a valid ballot after executing an affidavit right there at the polls.[16] Before implementation, the new law requires DOJ clearance.[17] New Hampshire debuted the new voter identification law in the September 2012 primaries. However, voters could still cast a ballot without an ID. For the November 2012 elections, voters can cast ballots without ID but they will have to sign an affidavit. After the election, the attorney general's office will contact each person who signed an affidavit to verify the identity of the voter.[18] Link
New Jersey If identification was not provided at the time of registering to vote or if the identification information could not be verified, a voter must show identification at the polling place. Identification includes: any current and valid photo ID or bank statement, car registration, government check or document, etc. Link
New Mexico Voters are asked for their ID if they are first time New Mexico voters who mailed in their registration application and did not provide verification of their identification. Link
New York Non-photo Link
North Carolina Voters are asked for their ID if they are first time voters who mailed in their registration application and did not provide verification of their identification.
Note: On May 1, 2013 the North Carolina House of Representatives voted 81-36 on a bill that requires voters to show a state-issued ID in order to vote. According to reports, the bill would allow the use of student IDs from public colleges. However, student IDs from private institutions would not qualify as legal forms of identification. If the bill becomes law, the changes would go into effect in 2016.[19][20]
North Dakota Electors must present identification before voting. Acceptable forms of identification must include the voter's address. If a valid form of identification cannot be produced, voters can still vote if either an election poll worker can vouch for their identity and residence; or if they complete a voter's affidavit.
Note: On April 6, 2013 the North Dakota State Senate approved a voter identification bill. House Bill 1332 passed by a 30-16 vote. According to reports, the bill eliminates the voter affidavit process and requires a voter ID.[21][22] On April 12, 2013 the House voted 68-24 to pass House Bill 1332.[23]
Ohio On election day at the polling place, Ohio law requires that every voter announce his or her full name and current address. Additionally, voters must provide proof of their identity. A photo ID is not required. Link
Oklahoma Oklahoma State Question 746, approved in 2010, requires every voter to show proof of identity before receiving a ballot. Valid forms of identification are required to contain the name of the voter, a photograph and an expiration date that is after the date of the election. Link
Oregon Vote by mail. If you do not provide valid identification during registration, you will not be eligible to vote for Federal races. You will, however, still be eligible to vote for state and local contests. Link
Pennsylvania All voters are required to show a photo ID before voting at a polling place. Valid photo IDs must include a current expiration date. If you do not have a valid photo ID and are unable to obtain a free photo ID from the state driver's license center, then you may cast a provisional ballot. In order for a provisional ballot to count, you must provide a photo ID or affirmation to your county elections office within 6 days.
Note: On July 25th the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania heard a challenge from the ACLU and other voting rights groups.[24] Closing arguments were heard on August 2nd.[25] On August 16, 2012 Judge Robert Simpson didn't rule on the state constitutional merits, but he did throw out the ACLU challenge. According to reports, the ACLU plans to appeal the decision. For now, the voter ID law stands.[26] Supporters and opponents were scheduled to argue the validity of the state’s new voter ID law before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court on September 13, 2012.[27] On September 18, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court issued a 4-2 per curiam (unsigned) decision which sent the case back to the trial court for more fact finding.[28][29] The state's high court asked the trial court "to ensure there is 'liberal access' to new voting-only IDs and there will be 'no disenfranchisement' of voters on Nov. 6." An opinion was due to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court by October 2.[30] On October 2, 2012 a judge ruled that for the most part the Pennsylvania voter ID law can remain intact for November 6, 2012 elections.[31] However, a narrow injunction allowed those without IDs to cast a ballot. According to reports, the full trial would be scheduled after the November 2012 elections.[32] According to December 2012 reports, a trial date to determine the constitutionality of the state's new voter-ID law would possibly be scheduled for Summer 2013. For the May 2013 primary, Commonwealth Court Judge Robert E. Simpson Jr. said he would likely hold a hearing in the Spring to determine how to handle voter IDs for the primaries.[33] The state's voter ID rule won't be enforced during the May 2013 primary.[34]
Rhode Island Identification is required at the polls. If a voter is unable to present photo ID they can use certain non-photo IDs. The ID must include your name and address. Additionally, the identification must be dated since November 2, 2010, unless the document is of permanent nature (such as a birth certificate or social security card). In such cases, only a name is required to appear on the identification. Link
South Carolina Voters are required to show any one of three forms of identification in order to vote: voter registration card, driver’s license or picture identification card issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles. The South Carolina Election Commission lists several reasons a person may be exempted from the photo identification requirement: religious objection to being photographed, disability or illness, work schedule, lack of transportation, lack of birth certificate and more.[35]
Note: Pre-clearance for South Carolina's new photo ID law was denied on December 23, 2011. The state applied for reconsideration. However, on June 29, 2012, the U.S. Department of Justice again denied the new photo law.[36][37] South Carolina's Voter ID law is scheduled to go on trial August 27 until August 31.[38] In late September, reports indicated that the panel of federal judges was expected to issue its decision in October 2012.[39] In October 2012, a panel of federal judges ruled that given the time left before the November 2012 election, the photo ID law puts a burden on minority voters that violates the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Therefore, the law was blocked for the purposes of the November 6, 2012 election.[40] However, the three-judge federal panel ruled that the law does not discriminate against minorities. According to reports, the South Carolina voter identification law takes effect in 2013. Voters in the state are required to show one of five types of photo ID to cast a ballot.[41] The lawsuit cost a reported $3.5 million. According to a January 4, 2013 order filed in U.S. District Court in Washington by the three-judge panel,"South Carolina is accordingly entitled to costs from both defendants and defendant-intervenors" because it did win the case.[42] The government was order to pay $54,000 of the $3.5 million.[43]
South Dakota All first time voters must show proof of identification. Approved forms of photo identification include: South Dakota driver’s license or nondriver ID card, U.S. government photo ID, U.S. Armed Forces ID, student photo ID from a South Dakota high school or South Dakota accredited institution of higher education or Tribal photo ID. If you do not have a photo ID, you can sign a personal identification affidavit. Link
Tennessee At polling places, voters must show government-issued photo identification. Valid forms of ID do not include student ID cards from state universities.
Note: A judge ruled on September 26, 2012 that Tennessee's voter ID law does not violate the state constitution. The lawsuit was filed by civil rights attorney George Barrett.[44][45] On October 25, 2012, the Court of Appeals upheld Tennessee's voter ID law. Additionally, the court issued an order requiring state officials to accept Memphis library cards as government-issued photo identification. State officials have announced plans to appeal the ruling over the library card. The state argues that library IDs are not valid because they were not issued by state government.[46] On February 6, 2013 the Tennessee Supreme Court was asked to decide whether the state’s voter ID law deprives people of the right to vote, if safeguards should be implemented to prevent election fraud and if a city-issued photo library card can be used as identification to vote.[47] On April 24, 2013 Gov. Bill Haslam signed into law a bill that requires photo identification issued by the state of Tennessee or United States to vote. Voter IDs issued by other states are not valid, according to the approved bill. In regard to the lawsuit about the use of library cards as voter IDs, the Tennessee Supreme Court ordered that the Memphis Photo Library IDs be accepted until the court issues a final ruling.[48][49]
Texas Following registration to vote, voters will receive a voter registration certificate. The certificate should be presented to an election officer at the polling place. Additionally, all voters who registered to vote in Texas must provide a Texas driver's license number, personal identification number issued by the Texas Department of Public Safety or the last four digits of your social security number.
Note: Texas' new photo ID law, SB14, requires pre-clearance by the USDOJ before going into effect. Pre-clearance was denied on March 13, 2012. A lawsuit was filed by the State of Texas. Hearings started July 9, 2012. Texas v. Holder, 12-00128, U.S. District Court, District of Columbia (Washington).[50][51] On August 30, 2012, a three-judge panel in United States District Court for the District of Columbia unanimously struck down the Texas photo voter identification law. The court ruled that the law would hurt minority voter turnout and impose strict burdens on the poor.[52] On December 17, 2012 a federal court deferred proceedings in a lawsuit filed by the state of Texas about the state's voter ID law. The federal court said that it would wait until the U.S. Supreme Court rules on whether part of the Voting Rights Act is constitutional. The court will hear arguments in the case on February 27, 2013.[53]
Texas, Appellant v. Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General
Utah At the polling place, voters can either present a form of identification that bears the name and photograph of the voter or two forms of identification that bear the name of the voter and provide evidence of the voter’s residence. Link
Vermont Only first time voters who registered by mail are required to show identification in order to vote. Link
Virginia For persons who registered to vote in Virginia by mail, federal law requires them to show identification when voting for the first time in a federal election if they did not send a copy of one of these IDs with their voter registration applications. Virginia law requires all other voters to provide identification at the polls, or sign an Affirmation of Identity under felony penalty, in order to vote at the polls.
Note: On May 20, 2012 Gov. Bob McDonnell signed legislation that requires someone without identification to vote provisionally. This would eliminate the Affirmation of Identity. According to reports, the U.S. Justice Department must determine whether Virginia's new law is constitutional. On August 20, 2012 the Justice Department approved the voter ID changes.[54] On February 20, 2013 the Virginia House approved a strict photo identification bill with a vote of 65-30. The bill would require all voters to present photo identification to cast a ballot. Voters without photo identification would be required to cast a provisional ballot that would only be counted if proper identification was displayed by noon on the Friday following the election.[55] On March 26, 2013 Gov. McDonnell signed the bill into law. The new law goes into effect for 2014 elections.[56]
Washington Vote by mail. Link
West Virginia
Wisconsin Photo ID is not currently required in Wisconsin.
Note: On March 6 and March 12, 2012, two separate judges issued injunctions preventing the Government Accountability Board from enforcing photo ID requirements in 2011 Act 23. The Wisconsin Department of Justice appealed those injunctions and the appeals have been certified to the Wisconsin Supreme Court, which on April 16 sent them back to the respective Courts of Appeals. In mid-July 2012, Dane County Circuit Judge David Flanagan ruled that "the state's requirement that all voters show photo ID at the polls creates a 'substantial impairment of the right to vote' guaranteed by the state constitution." An appeal was filed, however, the court is not expected to rule until after November 2012. This means that photo IDs will not be required at the polls in the August 14 primary and November 6 election.[57] On September 27, 2012, the Wisconsin Supreme Court declined to take the case, for the time being. The high court said that if it were to review the law, it would hear arguments from both cases at the same time. Following the court's decision, an initial appeal brief was filed in one of the cases.[58] On January 14, 2013, the Wisconsin Supreme Court again refused to take the case.[59] On May 30, 2013 a state appeals court overturned the Dane County Circuit Court Judge Flanagan's ruling. However, the voter ID requirement remains blocked because it remains pending in another case.[60]
Wyoming Photo and non-photo identification is acceptable in Wyoming. Identification should include the voter's name and address. Valid ID includes: photo IDs, United States passport, identification card from a state university, social security card, current utility bill, current bank statement, etc. Link

Click on the tab above called "Details by state" for an overview of voter identification requirements, recently passed and pending laws, as well as links to state documents.

For a breakdown of what is scheduled to appear on each state's ballot, click on a state on the map below.

Washington elections, 2014Oregon elections, 2014California elections, 2014Nevada elections, 2014Arizona elections, 2014Alaska elections, 2014Hawaii elections, 2014Utah elections, 2014Idaho elections, 2014Montana elections, 2014Wyoming elections, 2014Colorado elections, 2014New Mexico elections, 2014Texas elections, 2014Oklahoma elections, 2014Kansas elections, 2014Nebraska elections, 2014South Dakota elections, 2014North Dakota elections, 2014Minnesota elections, 2014Iowa elections, 2014Missouri elections, 2014Arkansas elections, 2014Louisiana elections, 2014Mississippi elections, 2014Tennessee elections, 2014Alabama elections, 2014Florida elections, 2014Georgia elections, 2014South Carolina elections, 2014North Carolina elections, 2014Kentucky elections, 2014Virginia elections, 2014West Virginia elections, 2014Wisconsin elections, 2014Illinois elections, 2014Indiana elections, 2014Michigan elections, 2014Michigan elections, 2014Ohio elections, 2014Pennsylvania elections, 2014Maryland elections, 2014Maryland elections, 2014Delaware elections, 2014Delaware elections, 2014Connecticut elections, 2014New Jersey elections, 2014New Jersey elections, 2014New York elections, 2014Connecticut elections, 2014Massachusetts elections, 2014Rhode Island elections, 2014Massachusetts elections, 2014Vermont elections, 2014New Hampshire elections, 2014Maine elections, 2014New Hampshire elections, 2014Vermont elections, 2014State by State Voter ID LawsVoter ID Laws.png

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "State+Voter+ID"

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

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See also

External links


  1. National Conference of State Legislatures, "Voter Identification Requirements," accessed December 27, 2011
  2.,"State has yet to seek preclearance of photo voter ID law approved in 2011," June 12, 2013
  3. The Republic,"Supreme Court to weigh Arizona's voter-ID law," March 17, 2013
  4. KMBZ,"Supreme Court to Hear Challenge to Arizona Voter ID Law," March 17, 2013
  5. Yahoo News,"Supreme Court strikes down Arizona voter ID citizenship law," June 17, 2013
  6. Huffington Post,"Supreme Court Strikes Down Arizona Voter Registration Citizenship Requirement," June 17, 2013
  7. Arkansas News Bureau,"UPDATE Senate sends voter ID bill to governor," March 19, 2013
  8. CNN,"Arkansas governor rejects voter ID measure," March 25, 2013
  9. Associated Press,"Arkansas Senate overrides veto of voter ID bill," March 27, 2013
  10. Associated Press,"Arkansas: Veto of Voter ID Law Is Overridden," April 1, 2013
  11. Associated Press,"Arkansas' GOP-led Legislature passes voter ID law," April 1, 2013
  12. Chicago Elections,"When You Need ID to Vote," retrieved January 24, 2013
  13. Illinois Board of Elections,"Illinois Voter Information," retrieved January 24, 2013
  14. Clarion Ledger,"No voter ID ruling before election," October 2, 2012
  15. Y'all Politics,"Voter ID Implementation Procedures sent to Dept. of Justice for Approval," January 29, 2013
  16. Union Leader,"Legislature overrides Lynch veto on voter ID," June 27, 2012
  17. Union Leader,"Attorney general asks DOJ to expedite voter ID review," July 11, 2012
  18. Pew Center on the States,"Voter ID Rolls Out in New Hampshire," October 4, 2012
  19. The Huffington Post,"North Carolina Voter ID Opponents React To Bill's Passage, Vow To Continue To Fight," April 25, 2013
  20. The Anson Record,"State House passes Voter ID bill; next stop is Senate approval," April 24, 2013
  21. The Bismark Tribune,"Senate passes voter identification measure," April 3, 2013
  22. The Forum of Frago-Moorhead,"Voter ID bill passes Senate with changes," April 4, 2013
  23. The Bismark Tribune,"North Dakota House passes voter ID bill," April 12, 2013
  24. The Nation,"Pennsylvania Voter ID Law Goes to Court," July 24, 2012
  25. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,"Closing arguments conclude in case over Pennsylvania's voter ID law," August 2, 2012
  26. Wall Street Journal,"A Voter ID Victory," August 17, 2012
  27. The Patriot-News,"Voter ID law set for review by state Supreme Court," September 9, 2012
  28. Election Law Blog,"The Pa. Supreme Court’s Curious Voter ID Punt," September 18, 2012
  29. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,"Pa. voter ID law gets new hearings for next week," September 21, 2012
  30. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,"Pennsylvania voter ID requirements change," September 25, 2012
  31. Governing,"Judge Halts Part of Pennsylvania Voter ID Law," October 2, 2012
  32. Election Law Blog,"CORRECTED Breaking News: PA Trial Court Requires State to Count Ballots from Voters Without ID This Election, Now Updated with Analysis," October 2, 2012
  33. The Philadelphia Inquirer,"Pennsylvania voter-ID law's fate not likely to be settled until November 2013," December 15, 2012
  34. Pocono Record,"Voter ID rule won't be enforced during May primary," February 19, 2013
  35. Morning News,"S.C. voters can still cast ballots without photo ID," January 14, 2013
  36. U.S. Department of Justice,"South Carolina Voter ID law," June 29, 2012
  37. Montgomery Advertiser,"States' actions on voter ID laws stoke debate," July 14, 2012
  38. TPM,"Republican-Leaning Panel To Hear S.C. Voter ID Case On Aug. 27," August 7, 2012
  39. "TPM,"South Carolina: Laziness Not An Excuse Under Voter ID Law," September 24, 2012
  40. Business Week,"South Carolina Voter ID Law Blocked Until After Election," October 11, 2012
  41. CarolinaLive,"Voter ID law takes effect in 2013," January 1, 2013
  42. The Island Packet,"SC voter ID lawsuit cost state more than $3.5M," January 9, 2013
  43. Associated Press,"Govt ordered to pay SC $54K in voter ID lawsuit," January 16, 2013
  44. The Tennessean,"Judge rejects challenge to Voter ID law," September 26, 2012
  45. Reuters,"Tennessee judge tosses challenge to state voter ID law," September 27, 2012
  46. Associated Press,"Tenn. to appeal voter ID ruling over library card," October 25, 2012
  47. The Tennessean,"TN Supreme Court hears voter ID case," February 7, 2013
  48. Associated Press,"Governor signs voter ID measure," April 24, 2013
  49. WREG,"Changes Made To Tennessee Voter ID Policy," April 25, 2013
  50. Business Week,"Texas Photo-ID Law Vetted for Voter Bias in U.S. Trial," July 9, 2012
  51. Reuters,"Texas to test 1965 voting rights law in court," June 8, 2012
  52. The New York Times,"Court Blocks Texas Voter ID Law, Citing Racial Impact," August 30, 2012
  53. Bloomberg,"Texas Voter ID Suit Put on Hold Till Supreme Court Rules," December 17, 2012
  54. TPM,"Justice Department Approves Va. Voter ID Law," August 20, 2012
  55. Associated Press,"Photo ID voting mandate passes in Virginia, heads to governor," February 20, 2013
  56. Reuters,"Virginia governor approves photo ID requirement for voters," March 26, 2013
  57. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel,"Second judge rejects state voter ID law," July 17, 2012
  58. Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel,"State Supreme Court declines to take up voter ID, for now," September 27, 2012
  59. Associated Press,"Voter ID case stays with court of appeals," January 14, 2013
  60. Milwaukee-Wisconsin Journal Sentinel,"Wisconsin appeals court rules state voter ID law constitutional," May 30, 2013