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Revision as of 14:47, 28 August 2014

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2012 State Legislative Elections

Table of Contents
RedistrictingPartisan ControlPrimariesImpact of Term LimitsCompetitiveness Analysis
States
AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyoming

Other 2012 Election coverage
Primary electionsStatewide elections, 2012State legislative special elections, 2012State Senate electionsState House electionsState executive official elections, 20122012 ballot measures

In the 50 states, there are 99 state legislative chambers altogether, and 86 of the 99 chambers held state legislative elections on November 6, 2012.

1,301 (65.97%) of the country's 1,972 state senate seats were up for re-election in November 2012, and 4,714 (87.12%) of the country's 5,411 state house seats were up for re-election. Altogether, 6,015 (81.47%) of the country's 7,383 state legislative seats were up for re-election during the presidential election year.

The 6,015 seats up for election was 110 fewer than the 6,125 that were contested in 2010.

Redistricting

Because of the decennial redistricting process, the total number of seats can vary from a typical election year. For example, in Alaska, there are usually 10 seats up for election every two years. However, because of the newly drawn map, a total of 19 seats were on the ballot in November 2012.[1] Elections immediately following redistricting historically demonstrate a higher number of open seats and a higher rate of new legislators than in typical election years.[2]

According to Louis Jacobson of Governing Magazine, the percent of state legislative turnover from an election was between 14.4 percent and 21.5 percent from 1998 to 2008. However, during the year of redistricting in 2002, that figure jumped to 24 percent. In 2010, the turnover rate was just below 24 percent, as the GOP boom created a higher than normal exodus of legislators. Because 2012 is another redistricting year, the rate of turnover was expected to once again be higher than usual.[3]

Partisan control

Lou Cannon, of State Net's Capitol Journal, highlighted several chambers that could see a change in partisan control after the 2012 elections. Chambers under Republican control prior to the 2012 election that Cannon found to be vulnerable to switch included the Colorado House, the Maine House and Senate, the New Hampshire House, the New York Senate, and the Wisconsin Senate. Cannon described Colorado as a state where Democrats had the best chances of flipping the legislature -- where President Obama did well in 2008, Democrats held the Senate by five votes, and Republicans held the House by just a one-vote margin.[4]

Chambers that were expected to switch to Republican control include the Arkansas House and Senate, the New Mexico House, the Iowa Senate, and the Nevada Senate. Arkansas, which voted in favor of the Republicans in the 2008 presidential election was expected to do so again in the fall. The state was the last of the 13 Confederate states in which the Democrats control any legislative chamber. Prior to the election, the democrats held the Senate by five votes and the House by an eight-vote margin.[4][5]

Additionally, two chambers were tied in terms of partisan control: the Alaska Senate and the Oregon House.

Chamber breakdowns

Heading into the 2012 elections, the Republican Party held a commanding advantage in total number of state legislative chambers in which it is the majority party. Republicans controlled 51 chambers with 2012 elections while Democrats controlled 32.

Partisan Balance of Chambers with 2012 Elections
Pre-election Post-election
Legislative chamber Democratic Party Republican Party Purple.png Grey.png Democratic Party Republican Party Purple.png Grey.png
State senates 17 24 1 1 18 24 0 1
State houses 15 27 1 0 19 24 0 0
Totals: 32 51 2 1 37 48 0 1
Partisan Balance of All 99 Chambers Before and After 2012 Elections
Pre-election Post-election
Legislative chamber Democratic Party Republican Party Purple.png Independent Democratic Party Republican Party Purple.png Independent
State senates 19 28 2 1 20 28 1 1
State houses 17 31 1 0 21 28 0 0
Totals: 36 59 3 1 41 56 1 1

Partisan dominance

See also: Party dominance in state legislatures

To calculate a measure for the seats in state legislatures controlled by one party, the proportion of each chamber controlled by the Republican Party provides a metric for Republican dominance (a high proportion), Democratic dominance (a low proportion), or no dominance by either party in the legislature (near 0.50). These two percentages (one for each chamber) are then added together to provide a measure of the degree to which Republicans control the state legislature (with 2 being complete control and 0 indicating control of no GOP seats). By subtracting 1 and taking the absolute value of the resulting number, the state is assigned a rating between 0 and 1 where a higher number indicates greater dominance by the majority party in the state legislature.

Supermajorities

Beyond basic partisan control, parties looked to gain or end supermajorities in a number of chambers. In these chambers it was not a question of which party will hold power, but simply by how much. Supermajority generally means a party controls two-thirds of all seats. While it varies from state to state, being in this position gives a party much greater power. Josh Goodman of Stateline highlighted the following states:[6]

  • California: Democrats have been the majority party in California for over 40 years. Going into the election, they were two seats shy of a supermajority.
  • Texas, Arizona, New Hampshire, Florida: In these states Republicans had a supermajority prior to the election, which Democrats were looking to cut into.
  • Georgia, Indiana, North Carolina, Tennessee: In these states, Republicans already had a majority and looked to gain a supermajority.

Primaries

This map displays the month of each
State legislative primary in 2012
Nevada State LegislatureMassachusetts General CourtColorado General AssemblyNew Mexico State LegislatureWyoming State LegislatureArizona State LegislatureMontana State LegislatureCalifornia State LegislatureOregon State LegislatureWashington State LegislatureIdaho State LegislatureTexas State LegislatureOklahoma State LegislatureKansas State LegislatureNebraska State Senate (Unicameral)South Dakota State LegislatureNorth Dakota State LegislatureMinnesota State LegislatureIowa State LegislatureMissouri State LegislatureArkansas State LegislatureLouisiana State LegislatureMississippi State LegislatureAlabama State LegislatureGeorgia State LegislatureFlorida State LegislatureSouth Carolina State LegislatureIllinois State LegislatureWisconsin State LegislatureTennessee State LegislatureNorth Carolina State LegislatureIndiana State LegislatureOhio State LegislatureKentucky State LegislaturePennsylvania State LegislatureNew Jersey State LegislatureNew York State LegislatureVermont State LegislatureVermont State LegislatureNew Hampshire State LegislatureMaine State LegislatureWest Virginia State LegislatureVirginia State LegislatureMaryland State LegislatureMaryland State LegislatureConnecticut State LegislatureConnecticut State LegislatureDelaware State LegislatureDelaware State LegislatureRhode Island State LegislatureRhode Island State LegislatureMassachusetts State LegislatureNew Hampshire State LegislatureMichigan State LegislatureMichigan State LegislatureAlaska State LegislatureState leg. primaries colored by month12.png
See also: Signature requirements and deadlines for 2012 state legislative elections

The first state legislative primary in 2012 was in Ohio on March 6. The dates of the primaries were as follows:

March

  • Ohio, March 6
  • Illinois, March 20

April

  • Pennsylvania, April 24

May

  • Indiana, May 8
  • North Carolina, May 8
  • West Virginia, May 8
  • Idaho, May 15
  • Nebraska, May 15
  • Oregon, May 15
  • Arkansas, May 22
  • Kentucky, May 22
  • Texas, May 29[7]

June

  • California, June 5
  • Iowa, June 5
  • Montana, June 5
  • New Mexico, June 5
  • South Dakota, June 5
  • Maine, June 12
  • Nevada, June 12
  • North Dakota, June 12
  • South Carolina, June 12
  • Oklahoma, June 26
  • Utah, June 26
  • Colorado, June 26

July

  • Georgia, July 31

August

  • Tennessee, August 2
  • Kansas, August 7
  • Michigan, August 7
  • Missouri, August 7
  • Washington, August 7
  • Hawaii, August 11
  • Connecticut, August 14
  • Florida, August 14
  • Minnesota, August 14
  • Wisconsin, August 14
  • Wyoming, August 21
  • Alaska, August 28
  • Arizona, August 28
  • Vermont, August 28

September

  • Massachusetts, September 6
  • Delaware, September 11
  • New Hampshire, September 11
  • Rhode Island, September 11
  • New York, September 13

Days to campaign

See also: 2012 Elections preview: Comparing state legislative filing deadlines
The number of days between the candidate filing deadline and primary election vary widely from state to state

This year 44 states held state legislative elections. While each state holds a primary, the amount of time between the signature filing deadline and the primary differed widely from 60 days in North Dakota all the way to 158 days in Connecticut. What this essentially means is that candidates in Connecticut had 98 days more days to campaign than those in North Dakota.

Looking at it geographically, one can see a few clusters - western states with 80-89 days and midwestern states that have 90+ days - but for the most part the variation is spread throughout the country.

Filing deadlines and primary dates were in a state of flux in a number of states, primarily due to the once-a-decade redistricting process.

  • Texas had an original filing deadline of December 12, but that was pushed back to December 15 and then to December 19 due to redistricting troubles in the courts.[8] The primary was set to be the first in the nation on March 6, but that was delayed as well, to April 3. It was ruled that the filing process would re-open on February 1, but with maps still not agreed to, that was thrown out.[9] The primary was then moved from April 3 to its final date of May 29.
  • In January the New Hampshire State Senate voted to move the state primary from the second Tuesday in September to the last Tuesday in August. The filing deadline would be moved from the first Wednesday in June to the third Wednesday in May. The bill did not ultimately pass - if approved it would have been the first change to the primary date since 1944.[11]
  • Kentucky had an initial filing deadline of January 31, Franklin Circuit Judge Phillip Shepherd delayed the deadline for state legislative candidates until February 7 in order to consider a challenge to newly drawn districts.[12]
  • Lawmakers in the Missouri General Assembly attempted to push back the filing period for their August primary by one month. The move was intended to allow time for Missouri courts to settle issues with state house and senate, and congressional districts.[13] The filing period in Missouri runs from February 28th until March 27th for all state and federal races.
  • In January, federal judge Gary Sharpe moved New York's congressional primary date from September 11 to June 26 in order to keep the state in line with federal election law. The change to congressional primary dates pressured a move for state legislative primaries. However, the 2012 session of the Legislature did not end until June 21, allowing lawmakers little time to return home in order to campaign.[14] New York state legislative primaries remained on September 13, 2012.

Impact of term limits

Main article: Impact of term limits on state legislative elections in 2012

Thirteen state senate chambers and thirteen state house chambers that held general elections on November 6, 2012 included some state legislators who were unable to run for re-election in 2012 because of their state's legislative term limits. A total of 15 states have term limits for their legislators. However, Louisiana did not hold elections for its state senate or state house in 2012. Additionally, Michigan did not have a state senate election in 2012, and Nebraska does not have a lower house to hold an election for.

  • 79 state senators were termed-out in 2012. This represents 15.1% of the 523 total state senate seats up for election in November in the 13 term-limited state senates with elections in November 2012.
  • 169 state representatives were termed-out. This represents 13.38% of the 1,263 total seats up for election in the 13 term-limited states with elections in November 2012.

Altogether, 248 current state legislators had to leave office after the November elections because of term limits. This was 13.89% of the 1,786 state legislative seats up for election in the 14 term-limited states with 2012 elections, and about 4% of the 6,015 state legislative seats that were up for election altogether in 2012, including the non-term-limited states.

State Senators

Main article: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2012

43 state senates held general elections in November 2012. In 13 of these states, state senators are subject to term limits. Louisiana and Michigan are the only states with state senate term limits that did not have a general election for their state senates in 2012.

A total of 83 current state senators were ineligible to run for re-election in November because of term limit laws in their state. This includes:

  • 35 incumbent Democratic state senators
  • 40 incumbent Republican state senators
  • 8 nonpartisan state senators

In 5 states, the term limits axe fell more heavily on incumbent Republicans: Arizona, Florida, Missouri, Ohio and South Dakota. In 4 states, the term limits axe fell more heavily on incumbent Democrats: Arkansas, California, Colorado, and Montana. In 3 states, the axe fell equally on both parties (Maine, Oklahoma, and Nevada) while Nebraska's senate is officially nonpartisan.

State Representatives

Main article: Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2012

43 state houses held general elections in November 2012. In 13 of these states, state house terms are subject to term limits. 15 states have state legislative term limits, but Louisiana did not hold a state house election in 2012 and Nebraska does not have a state house.

172 current state representatives were ineligible to run for re-election in November because of term limit laws in their state. This includes:

  • 87 incumbent Democratic state representatives
  • 85 incumbent Republican state representatives

In 7 states, the term limits axe fell more heavily on incumbent Republicans: Arizona, Florida, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oklahoma and South Dakota. In all of these states, the majority party was also the Republican Party.

In 6 states, the term limits axe fell more heavily on incumbent Democrats: Arkansas, California, Colorado, Maine, Michigan, and Nevada. In 3 of these states, the majority party was also the Democratic Party. These states include Arkansas, California and Nevada. In 3 of the 6 states where term limits affect incumbent Democrats more heavily, the majority party was Republican -- Colorado, Maine and Michigan.

Impact on Parties

Although the difference is marginal, the Republican Party took more of a hit from term limits in the 2012 state legislative elections than the Democratic Party, both in terms of how many individual incumbent legislators the Republican Party lost (120, versus 119 for the Democratic Party) and in terms of how many state legislative chambers lost more Republicans (12, versus 10 for the Democratic Party).

Chart indicating impact on individual legislators by party

Party # of termed senators # of termed representatives Total
Democratic 35 87 122
Republican 40 85 125
Nonpartisan 8 0 8

Chart indicating impact on legislative chambers by party

Party Senates with most losses Houses with most losses Total
Democratic 4 6 10
Republican 5 7 12
Equal D/R losses (or nonpartisan chamber) 4 0 4

Chart indicating change in party control of seats after 2010

After the 2010 election results were in, it was possible to see the effect that term limits had on party control of termed-out seats. While incumbents generally have an advantage in elections, elections for termed-out seats lack an incumbent running for re-election. In some cases, this preceded a change in party control of the termed-out seat.

Term-limited seats that changed party control in the 2010 elections
State Senators Termed Out 2010 Representatives Termed Out 2010 Democratic Seats lost to other Parties - Senate Republican Seats lost to other Parties - Senate Democratic Seats lost to other Parties - House Republican Seats lost to other Parties - House Percent of Termed-Out Senate Seats that Changed Party Percent of Termed-Out House Seats that Changed Party Total Legislative Seats that Changed Party
Arizona 10 13 0 0 0 0 0% 0% 0
Arkansas 13 34 Republican Party 7 0 Republican Party 11 Democratic Party 1 53.8% 35.3% 19
California 8 18 0 0 Independent 1 Democratic Party 1 0% 11.1% 2
Colorado 3 8 0 0 Republican Party 1 0 0% 12.5% 1
Florida 7 23 0 0 0 0 0% 0% 0
Maine 4 20 Republican Party 1 0 Republican Party 5, Independent 1 Democratic Party 2 25% 40% 9
Michigan 29 37 Republican Party 3 0 Republican Party 6 Democratic Party 1 10.3% 18.9% 10
Missouri 10 52 Republican Party 1 0 Republican Party 6 0 10% 11.5% 7
Montana 15 15 Republican Party 2 0 Republican Party 4 0 13.3% 26.7% 6
Nebraska 1 N/A[15] 0 0 - - 0% - 0
Nevada 4 10 0 0 0 0 0% 0% 0
Ohio 7 13 0 0 0 0 0% 0% 0
Oklahoma 6 4 Republican Party 4 0 0 0 66.7% 0% 4
South Dakota 4 8 Republican Party 1 0 Republican Party 1 Democratic Party 1 25% 25% 3
Total: 121 255 Republican Party 19 0 Republican Party 34, Independent 2 Democratic Party 6 15.7% 16.5% 61
Legend:
Democratic Party = Seat picked up by DemocratRepublican Party = Seat picked up by RepublicanIndependent = Seat picked up by Third Party




Competitive races

Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee

Strategists for the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee chose 50 districts for inclusion in their 2012 Essential Races list Those districts were:[16]


Alabama

Alabama did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

Alaska

The State Senate was in the unique position of being equally split between Democrats and Republicans, with each party holding 10 seats. Republicans controlled the redistricting process, increasing the likelihood that they would gain control of the Upper Chamber in 2012.[18]

Alaska's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins the 4th Monday of January following a November election.

Arizona

Arizona's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins the first day of the session after they are elected. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January. Members are limited to four terms, for a total of eight years.

Arkansas

After a strong Republican showing in the 2010 elections, Democrats controled both chambers by slim margins heading into the 2012 election. "The elections that matter to the state Republican Party are the legislative elections of 2012, which are going to determine who controls both houses of the Legislature," said Jay Barth, a political science professor at Hendrix College.[19]

The Arkansas legislature had been in Democratic control since the end of the Civil War, and was the last Southern state to have a Democratic legislature. Small government group Americans for Prosperity heavily invested in races in the state in an effort to flip the chambers.[20]

Arkansas's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins the first day of the session after they are elected. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January. Members are limited to two terms, for a total of eight years.

California

As a result of the new redistricting process, it had been estimated that up to 40 percent of the 120 legislative seats could be won by new candidates in 2012.[21]

California's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins at midnight following the day of the election. Senators are limited to serving no more than two four-year terms. California's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins one month after their election. Representatives are limited to serving no more than four two-year terms.

Colorado

Colorado's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on first day of the legislative session after their election. Senators are limited to to no more than two consecutive terms. Colorado's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on first day of the legislative session after their election. Representatives are limited to no more than four consecutive terms.

Connecticut

Connecticut's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the Wednesday following the first Monday of January after their election. Connecticut's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the Wednesday following the first Monday of January after their election.

Delaware

Delaware's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins the day after their election. Delaware's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins the day after their election.

Florida

Florida's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins two weeks following their election. Senators are limited to no more than two consecutive four-year terms. Florida's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins two weeks following their election. Representatives are limited to no more than four consecutive terms.

Georgia

Georgia's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the second Monday in January. Georgia's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the second Monday in January.

Hawaii

Hawaii's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of Legislative session after the election (usually the third Wednesday of January). Hawaii's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of Legislative session after the election (usually the third Wednesday of January).

Idaho

Idaho's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of December following the general election. Idaho's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of December following the general election.

Illinois

All 59 state Senate and 118 state house seats were up for election.

Illinois' state senators are elected to a two or four-year term that begins on the second Wednesday in January. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms Illinois' state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the second Wednesday in January.

Indiana

Indiana's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the day after their general election. Indiana's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the day after their general election.

Iowa

Iowa's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of January after their election. Iowa's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of January after their election.

Kansas

Seven moderate Republican incumbents were defeated by more conservative rivals in an effort to oust members of the Senate who were hostile to parts of Gov. Sam Brownback's agenda. This fits in with a larger 2012 narrative nationwide in which moderates from both parties are struggling to keep their seats.[22]

Kansas's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the second Monday of January after their election.

Kentucky

Kentucky's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of January after their election. Kentucky's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of January after their election.

Louisiana

Louisiana did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

Maine

Maine's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday in December after their election. Senators are limited to no more than four consecutive terms. Maine's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday in December after their election. Representatives are limited to no more than four consecutive terms.

Maryland

Maryland did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts' state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday in January after the election. Massachusetts' state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday in January after the election.

Michigan

Michigan did not hold any state senate elections in 2012.

Michigan's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of January. Michigan's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of January.

Minnesota

Republicans won control of the Senate after the 2010 election. The new redistricting maps could have given the advantage to the DFL (Democrats), according to a report in the Minnesota Post. A total of 16 incumbent senators were paired together and there will be eight open seats with no incumbent.[23] DFL State Chair Ken Martin said that a party analysis of the new Senate districts indicates that the partisan lean of the 67 districts is 34-33 in favor of the DFL.[23] However, an analysis by The Pioneer Press indicated a partisan lean of 36-31 for Republicans.[24]

Minnesota's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of the legislative session. Minnesota's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of the legislative session.

Mississippi

Mississippi did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

Missouri

Missouri's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of the legislative session. Senators are limited to no more than two four-year terms. Missouri's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of the legislative session. Representatives are limited to no more than four two-year terms.

Montana

Montana's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first Monday of January following the election. Montana term limits state that officials may not seek re-election if they have held office for eight years in a 16-year period. Montana's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Monday of January following the election. Montana term limits state that officials may not seek re-election if they have held office for eight years in a 16-year period.

Nebraska

Nebraska's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January. Senators are limited to no more than two four-year terms.

Nevada

Nevada's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the day after the election. Nevada's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the day after the election.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the month after elections (December). New Hampshire's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the month after elections (December).

New Jersey

New Jersey did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

New Mexico

New Mexico's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on January 1st.

New York

New York's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on January 1st. New York's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on January 1st.

North Carolina

North Carolina's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of the new General Assembly in January. North Carolina's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of the new General Assembly in January.

North Dakota

North Dakota's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on December 1st. North Dakota's state representatives are elected to a four-year term that begins on December 1st.

Ohio

Ohio's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on January 1st. Senators are limited to no more than two consecutive terms. Ohio's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on January 1st. Representatives are limited to no more than four consecutive terms.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on November 17th. Senators are limited to no more than a combined total of twelve years in the senate and house of representatives. Oklahoma's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on November 17th. Representatives are limited to no more than a combined total of twelve years in the senate and house of representatives.

Oregon

Oregon's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the second Monday in January. Oregon's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the second Monday in January.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins in January. Pennsylvania's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins in January.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Tuesday in January. Rhode Island's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Tuesday in January.

South Carolina

South Carolina's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the Monday after the election.

South Dakota

South Dakota's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of session after election (Jan. 11). Senators are limited to no more than four consecutive terms. South Dakota's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of session after election (Jan. 11). Representatives are limited to no more than four consecutive terms.

Tennessee

Tennessee's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the 15th of January after the election. Tennessee's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the 15th of January after the election.

Texas

Texas's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the beginning of the legislative session (January). Texas's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the beginning of the legislative session (January).

Utah

Utah's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of January following a November election. Utah's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of January following a November election.

Vermont

Vermont's state senators are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday after the first Tuesday in January. Vermont's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Wednesday after the first Tuesday in January.

Virginia

Virginia did not hold any state legislative elections in 2012.

Washington

Washington's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of session. Washington's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of session.

West Virginia

West Virginia's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first day of December following the election. West Virginia's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first day of December following the election.

Wisconsin

Going into the elections Democrats controlled the Senate by a margin of 17-16. They took power in the chamber following the successful recall of Van Wanggaard in early June.

Wisconsin's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first Monday in January following the election. Wisconsin's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Monday in January following the election.

Wyoming

Wyoming's state senators are elected to a four-year term that begins on the first Monday in January following the election. Wyoming's state representatives are elected to a two-year term that begins on the first Monday in January following the election.

References

  1. Anchorage Daily News, "New legislative map forces early elections for senators," June 13, 2011
  2. The Marketplace of Democracy, "Electoral Competition and American Politics," Page 64 of 296
  3. Governing Magazine, "State Legislatures May Experience a Mass Exodus," May 25, 2012
  4. 4.0 4.1 statenet.com, "Dems seek comeback in legislative races but GOP holds edge, May 2012"
  5. ncsl.typepad.com, "2012 State Legislative Election Preview and Other Tidbits from State Net," May 21, 2012
  6. Stateline, "In Legislative Elections, Majorities and Supermajorities at Stake," November 2, 2012
  7. Texas: moved from original date of March 6 and April 3
  8. Reporter News, "Court orders primary filing period pushed back," November 7, 2011
  9. Ballot Access, "U.S. District Court Suspends Some Texas Election Deadlines," January 27, 2012
  10. The Republic, "Idaho lawmakers introduce bill to move state's primary election from May to August," January 19, 2012
  11. Boston.com, "NH Senate votes to change state primary date," January 25, 2012
  12. Kentucky Herald Leader, "Judge delays filing deadline for state legislative candidates," February 1, 2012
  13. missourinet.com, "Primary election filing date change advances in House Committee," February 20, 2012
  14. cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com, "Judge Moves Congressional Primary Date to June," January 27, 2012
  15. Nebraska has no lower house
  16. Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee, "2012 Essential Races: Chosen by the DLCC," accessed October 22, 2012
  17. Kentreporter.com Hargrove has slight lead over Sizemore for Legislature," accessed November 9, 2012
  18. "Redistricting could lead to shift in Legislature control," adn.com, November 14, 2011
  19. Arkansas News, "State GOP shows renewed vigor in attacks on Beebe," July 3, 2011
  20. The Washington Post, "Americans for Prosperity puts big money on legislative races in Arkansas," accessed October 2, 2012
  21. Bakersfield Californian, "Our view: Likely turnover is opportunity for state voters," August 31, 2011
  22. The Olathe News, "Can Kansas moderates recover?," accessed August 10, 2012
  23. 23.0 23.1 Minnesota Post, "Redistricting maps give DFL advantage in legislative races, but..." March 14, 2012
  24. Pioner Press, "Redistricting promises to shake up Minnesota Legislature," February 22, 2012