Difference between revisions of "State legislative recalls"

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{{SLPRecallsTOC}}<div style="float:right;">[[File:RecallBanner.jpg|thumb|The recall process offers another way for people to have a voice in how their government is run.]]</div>
 
{{SLPRecallsTOC}}<div style="float:right;">[[File:RecallBanner.jpg|thumb|The recall process offers another way for people to have a voice in how their government is run.]]</div>
  
State legislators [[States where state legislators can be recalled|can be recalled in 18 states]]. As of {{#time:F Y}}, '''{{#expr: {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2013}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2012}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2011}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2009}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2008}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2003}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1996}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1995}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1994}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1990}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1988}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1985}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1983}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1971}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1935}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1932}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1914}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1913}} }} ''' recalls have been attempted, with '''37''' making it to the ballot. Of those, '''21''' have been successful. The first successful recall occurred in [[Marshall Black recall, California (1913)|California in 1913]]. The state with the most attempted recalls in Michigan with 24, although only three of them were successful. Wisconsin attempted the next most with 18 total campaigns, though six of them were successful. Since 2011, 46 recall campaigns have occurred. Eight recalls were successful, eight were defeated at the ballot and another 30 did not go to a vote.
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State legislators [[States where state legislators can be recalled|can be recalled in 18 states]]. As of {{#time:F Y}}, '''{{#expr: {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2013}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2012}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2011}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2009}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2008}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 2003}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1996}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1995}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1994}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1990}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1988}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1985}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1983}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1971}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1935}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1932}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1914}} + {{category counter|type=state legislative recalls, 1913}} }} ''' recalls have been attempted, with '''37''' making it to the ballot. Of those, '''21''' have been successful.  
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The first successful recall occurred in [[Marshall Black recall, California (1913)|California in 1913]]. The state with the most attempted recalls is Michigan with 24, although only three of them were successful. Wisconsin is second highest with 18 total campaigns, though six of them were successful.  
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Since 2011, 46 recall campaigns have occurred. Eight recalls were successful, eight were defeated at the ballot and another 30 did not go to a vote.
  
 
==About state legislative recalls==
 
==About state legislative recalls==

Revision as of 14:05, 19 June 2014

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State Legislative Recalls

Recall Information
About Recalls
Recall Rules
Recall Campaigns
Recall Results

Political Recalls Portal
List of Recall Efforts
States with RecallsPolitical recall laws
The recall process offers another way for people to have a voice in how their government is run.

State legislators can be recalled in 18 states. As of September 2014, 73 recalls have been attempted, with 37 making it to the ballot. Of those, 21 have been successful.

The first successful recall occurred in California in 1913. The state with the most attempted recalls is Michigan with 24, although only three of them were successful. Wisconsin is second highest with 18 total campaigns, though six of them were successful.

Since 2011, 46 recall campaigns have occurred. Eight recalls were successful, eight were defeated at the ballot and another 30 did not go to a vote.

About state legislative recalls

Recall is a process available in most jurisdictions whereby an elected official can be removed from office either for malfeasance or in some jurisdictions for any action the recall language specifies. For recalls, most state laws have set the highest signature threshold for any type of petition—most often requiring 25% of all registered voters or 25% of voters in the last election for the recalled office to sign a recall petition.

History

The first provision allowing for recall was adopted by Los Angeles in 1903. The first two states to adopt the recall process were Michigan and Oregon in 1908. Wisconsin added a constitutional amendment governing recalls in 1926. New Jersey and Minnesota are the most recent states to add a recall provision to their constitution, doing so in 1993 and 1996, respectively.[1]

1913-2008

Between 1913 and 2008, there were 21 state legislative recall elections and all of them took place in just five states: California, Idaho, Michigan, Oregon and Wisconsin. Thirteen of the recall campaigns targeted state senators and 8 were successfully recall. The other eight targeted state representatives and five of them were successful.

2011 Wisconsin State Senate recalls

See also: Recall of Wisconsin State Senators (2011)

In 2011, residents of Wisconsin took effort to recall as many as 16 sitting state senators. The efforts were launched in the wake of events surrounding the introduction of Wisconsin Assembly Bill 11, the "Scott Walker Budget Repair Bill" in February 2011. Sufficient signatures were verified for nine senators, three Democrats and six Republicans. Two Republicans -- Dan Kapanke and Randy Hopper -- were recalled.

What made the Wisconsin recalls of 2011 so unique was the focused nature of multiple state officials targeted at once. Historically, recalls were aimed at one specific legislator. "Recall is usually an individual matter, rather than a group sport," said Gary Moncrief, a political science professor at Boise State University who studies state legislatures.[2] Ultimately, two GOP senators -- Dan Kapanke and Randy Hopper -- were recalled and defeated by Democratic opponents in 2011.

Also intriguing in this election was the Republican's use of fake candidates to force a recall primary and effectively delay the recall election by four weeks. Six individuals considered "fake" Democratic candidates were defeated in the July 12 recall primary.[3]

2012 Wisconsin State Senate recalls

In 2012, residents of Wisconsin took effort to recall four state Senators. These were seen as a continuation of the 2011 recalls caused by the Scott Walker Budget Repair Bill. The four targeted Senators, all Republicans, faced recall elections on June 5. Only one, Van Wanggaard, was successfully recalled following a recount. Wanggarrd's recall gave Democrats control of the Wisconsin State Senate for the second half of 2012.

2013 Colorado recalls

Four Colorado legislators were targeted in a total of five recalls in 2013. Senate President John Morse and fellow Senator Angela Giron were successfully recalled. Sen. Evie Hudak, who faced two recall petitions in 2013, resigned following the second. Only Rep. Michael McLachlan survived a recall attempt in 2013. All four Democratic legislators were targeted for their support of controversial gun control legislation passed as "emergency legislation," thus circumventing a possible repeal by voter referendum.

The Morse and Giron recalls drew criticism and lawsuits over the lack of available mail-in voting for the recall election. The Libertarian Party of Colorado sued Secretary of State Scott Gessler (R), charging that a recently-passed law that called for elections to be held by mail conflicted with a constitutional provision allowing for candidates to qualify for 15 days before an election. District Judge Robert McGahey agreed, granting more time for candidates to file. Gessler announced that because of this ruling, there would not be enough time to print mail-in ballots for the election.[4][5]

These recalls drew a lot of money from national sources. On the side attempting to recall the legislators, the National Rifle Assocation $108,000 while Americans for Prosperity donated an undisclosed amount. Then-Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg donated $350,000 to the incumbents' campaigns, along with $250,000 from Eli Broad and $250,000 from the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee. $100,000 was contributed to the Morse and Giron campaigns by both the Service Employees International Union and the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees.[6][7]

Rules governing recall

See also: States where state legislators can be recalled

Petition requirements

15 states base the number of signatures required to force a recall election on a percentage of the number of votes cast in the most recent for the office held by the incumbent whose recall is sought. In the other three states, Oregon, Michigan and Wisconsin, the number of signatures required is a percentage of the number of votes cast for the office of governor in the legislative district where the incumbent is targeted. Three states allow 60 days to collect the required number of signatures, eight allow 90 days for this process

Required reasons

Seven states require a valid reason for recall prior to petition circulation. Three states allow for legislators convicted of crimes to be the target of a recall, three specifically mention malfeasance and two allow for the recall of officials who are deemed physically or mentally unfit to serve. A full list of such valid reasons is available here.

Recall campaigns

[edit]

There has been 1 state legislative recall attempted in 2014.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 2003.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1996.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1994.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1990.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1988.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1985.

There were 2 state legislative recalls attempted in 1983.

There were 2 state legislative recalls attempted in 1971.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1935.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1932.

There was 1 state legislative recalls attempted in 1914.

There were 2 state legislative recalls attempted in 1913.

Recall results

As of September 2014, 73 state legislative recalls have been attempted, with 37 (50.7%) making it to the ballot. Of those, 21 (56.8%) have been successful. Forty-three (58.9%) of the campaigns targeted state senators, while 30 (41.1%) targeted state representatives.

Legend:
Approveda = Recall approved at the ballot
Defeatedd = Recall defeated at the ballot
Did not make ballot = Recall did not make ballot
In Progress = Recall still in progress

State legislative recall results
Name Year State Chamber Result
Kimberly Yee 2014 Arizona Senate Did not make ballot
Angela Giron 2013 Colorado Senate Approveda
Chad Campbell 2013 Arizona House Did not make ballot
Evie Hudak 2013 Colorado Senate Did not make ballot
John Kavanagh 2013 Arizona House Did not make ballot
John Morse 2013 Colorado Senate Approveda
Lindsey Holmes 2013 Alaska House Did not make ballot
Michael McLachlan 2013 Colorado House Did not make ballot
Bob Jauch 2012 Wisconsin Senate Did not make ballot
Bruce Caswell 2012 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Charles Kleckley 2012 Louisiana House Did not make ballot
George Cromer 2012 Louisiana House Did not make ballot
Kevin Pearson 2012 Louisiana House Did not make ballot
Pam Galloway 2012 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
Patrick Colbeck 2012 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Phil Pavlov 2012 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Randy Richardville 2012 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Ray Garofalo 2012 Louisiana House Did not make ballot
Scott Fitzgerald 2012 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Terry Moulton 2012 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Van Wanggaard 2012 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
Al Pscholka 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Alberta Darling 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Brandon Dillon 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Dan Kapanke 2011 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
Dave Hansen 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
James Bolger 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Jim Holperin 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Jim Townsend 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
John Moolenaar 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
John Pappageorge 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Judy Emmons 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Kurt Damrow 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Kyle Johansen 2011 Alaska House Did not make ballot
Lisa Brown 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Luther Olsen 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Michael Nofs 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Mike Green 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Mike Shirkey 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Nancy Jenkins 2011 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Paul Scott 2011 Michigan House Approveda
Randy Hopper 2011 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
Randy Richardville 2011 Michigan Senate Did not make ballot
Robert Cowles 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Robert Wirch 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Russell Pearce 2011 Arizona Senate Approveda
Sheila Harsdorf 2011 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Abel Maldonado 2009 California Senate Did not make ballot
Anthony Adams 2009 California House Did not make ballot
Jeff Miller 2009 California House Did not make ballot
Jim Silva 2009 California House Did not make ballot
Rashida Tlaib 2009 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Roy Ashburn 2009 California Senate Did not make ballot
Andy Dillon 2008 Michigan House Defeatedd
Jeff Denham 2008 California Senate Defeatedd
Robert Dean 2008 Michigan House Did not make ballot
Gary George 2003 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
George Petak 1996 Wisconsin Senate Approveda
Mike Machado 1995 California House Defeatedd
Paul Horcher 1995 California House Approveda
Doris Allen 1995 California House Approveda
David Roberti 1994 California Senate Defeatedd
Jim Holperin 1990 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Bill Olsen 1988 Oregon Senate Approveda
Pat Gillis 1985 Oregon House Approveda
David Serotkin 1983 Michigan Senate Approveda
Phil Mastin 1983 Michigan Senate Approveda
Fisher Ellsworth 1971 Idaho Senate Approveda
Aden Hyde 1971 Idaho House Approveda
Harry Merriam 1935 Oregon House Approveda
Otto Mueller 1932 Wisconsin Senate Defeatedd
Edwin Grant 1914 California Senate Approveda
James Owens 1913 California Senate Defeatedd
Marshall Black 1913 California Senate Approveda

See also

References