Difference between revisions of "Steve Stockman"

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Text replace - "The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013" to "The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013")
(Campaign donors)
Line 277: Line 277:
  
 
===2012===
 
===2012===
[[File:Steve Stockman 2012 Donor Breakdown.png|right|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Stockman's campaign funds before the 2012 election.]]
 
 
Stockman won election to the [[U.S. House]] in 2012. During that election cycle, Stockman's campaign committee raised a total of $365,285 and spent $361,604.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cid=N00005918&newmem=Y ''Open Secrets'', "Steve Stockman 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 5, 2013]</ref> This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2013/06/2012-overview.html ''Open Secrets'', "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013]</ref>
 
Stockman won election to the [[U.S. House]] in 2012. During that election cycle, Stockman's campaign committee raised a total of $365,285 and spent $361,604.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cid=N00005918&newmem=Y ''Open Secrets'', "Steve Stockman 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 5, 2013]</ref> This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.<ref>[http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2013/06/2012-overview.html ''Open Secrets'', "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013]</ref>
  
Line 312: Line 311:
 
|inddonor5 = $10,000
 
|inddonor5 = $10,000
 
|}}
 
|}}
 +
{{Collapsible donor graphic|Content=[[File:Steve Stockman 2012 Donor Breakdown.png|left|375px|thumb|Breakdown of the source of Stockman's campaign funds before the 2012 election.]]}}
  
 
==Personal Gain Index==
 
==Personal Gain Index==

Revision as of 16:35, 20 August 2014

Steve Stockman
Steve Stockman.jpg
U.S. House, Texas, District 36
Incumbent
Assumes office
January 3, 2013
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 1
PartyRepublican
PredecessorN/A
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Cost per vote$2.19 in 2012
First electedNovember 6, 2012
Campaign $$365,285
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
U.S. House
1994-1996
Education
Bachelor'sUniversity of Houston
Personal
BirthdayNovember 14, 1956
Place of birthBloomfield Hills, Michigan
ProfessionAccountant
Net worth$8,000
ReligionBaptist
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Steve Stockman (b. November 14, 1956, in Bloomfield Hills, MI) is a Republican member of the U.S. House representing the 36th Congressional District of Texas. He was first elected on November 6, 2012. He defeated Max Martin (D) and Michael Cole (L) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[1]

Stockman was one of nine individuals, seven Democrats and two Republicans, elected to the U.S. House in 2012 who had prior congressional experience.[2][3] Stockman previously served from 1994 to 1996.

Stockman sought election to the U.S. Senate in 2014.[4] He was defeated by incumbent John Cornyn in the primary election on March 4, 2014.[5]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Stockman is a more moderate right of center Republican Party vote. As a result, he may break with the Republican Party line more than his fellow members.

Biography

Stockman grew up in the suburbs of Detroit, MI. He moved down to Texas during the 1980s when the job market was picking up in Texas. He got his bachelor's degree at the age of 34.[6]

Career

  • 1990-1994: Accountant[6]
  • 1994-1996: U.S. House of Representatives[6]
  • 2005-2007: Director, campus leadership program, Leadership Institute[6]
  • 2013-present: U.S. House of Representatives from Texas

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Stockman serves on the following committees:[7]

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[8] For more information pertaining to Stockman's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security

NDAA

Nay3.png Stockman voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[10]

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Stockman voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[11]

CISPA (2013)

Nay3.png Stockman voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[12]

Economy

Farm bill

Nay3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[13] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[14][15] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[15] Stockman voted with 62 other Republican representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Neutral/Abstain On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[16][17] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and 3 Democrats voting against the bill.[17] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[18] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts. Stockman did not vote on the bill.[16][17]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Neutral/Abstain On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[19] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[20] Stockman did not vote on the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[21]

Nay3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[22] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Stockman voted against HR 2775.[23]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Yea3.png Stockman voted for HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[24]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Yea3.png Stockman voted for House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[25] The vote largely followed party lines.[26]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Yea3.png Stockman voted for House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[27]

Social issues

Abortion

Yea3.png Stockman voted for HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[28]

Government affairs

HR 676

See also: Boehner's lawsuit against the Obama administration

Nay3.png On July 30, 2014, the U.S. House approved a resolution 225 to 201 to sue President Barack Obama for exceeding his constitutional authority. Five Republicans voted with Democrats against the lawsuit. Stockman joined with four other Republicans voting against the lawsuit.[29] All Democrats voted against the resolution.[30][31]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Steve Stockman's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Stockman is a Libertarian-Leaning Conservative. Stockman received a score of 28 percent on social issues and 84 percent on economic issues.[32]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[33]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Opposes Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Opposes
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Favors Keep God in the public sphere Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Favors Human needs over animal rights Strongly Favors
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Favors
Support & expand free trade Strongly Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Opposes Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Favors
Prioritize green energy Strongly Opposes Expand the military Favors
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Opposes Stay out of Iran Strongly Opposes
Privatize Social Security Favors Never legalize marijuana Favors
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[32]

Campaign themes

2012

Stockman's campaign website listed the following issues:[34]

  • Securing Our Borders
Excerpt: "Congressman Steve Stockman sponsored a constitutional amendment to prevent citizenship and benefits to anchor babies of illegal aliens"
  • Protecting Our Gun Rights
Excerpt: "Congressman Steve Stockman sponsored a bill eliminating background checks, waiting periods, and registration for firearms"
  • Protecting The Inalienable Right To Life
Excerpt: "Congressman Steve Stockman sponsored the ban on Partial Birth Abortions"
  • Protecting Our Families
Excerpt: "Congressman Steve Stockman sponsored “Megan’s Law,” requiring parents to be notified if a sex offender moves into your community"
  • Protecting Our Faith
Excerpt: "Congressman Steve Stockman sponsored the Defense of Marriage Act to stop federal recognition of homosexual marriage"

Elections

2014

See also: United States Senate elections in Texas, 2014

Stockman ran in the 2014 election for the U.S. Senate, representing Texas. Stockman was defeated by incumbent John Cornyn in the Republican primary on March 4, 2014.

U.S. Senate, Texas Republican Primary, 2014
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngJohn Cornyn Incumbent 59.4% 781,259
Steve Stockman 19.1% 251,577
Dwayne Stovall 10.7% 140,794
Linda Vega 3.8% 50,057
Ken Cope 2.6% 34,409
Chris Mapp 1.8% 23,535
Reid Reasor 1.6% 20,600
Curt Cleaver 0.9% 12,325
Total Votes 1,314,556
Source: Texas Secretary of State

Campaign halted

Stockman's Senate campaign was supposedly halted starting in late 2013. The representative missed 17 votes in January and had not been seen campaigning or even attending to his work in the U.S. House.[35]

Upon his return, Stockman blasted reporters for claiming he was "missing," when he was on a trip with four other members of Congress to Egypt, Israel, England and Russia. He told reporters, "I missed votes because I don’t have a zillion dollars like Cornyn and have [to] campaign. But I wasn’t missing. The Dallas Morning News covered my talk and Cornyn’s tracker was there. Both the press and Cornyn knew where I was."[36]

2012

See also: Texas' 36th Congressional District elections, 2012

Stockman won election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Texas' 36th District. He and Stephen Takach defeated Jerry Doyle, Jim Engstrand, Ky D. Griffin, Mike Jackson, Chuck Meyer, Kim Morrell, Lois Dickson Myers, Keith Casey, Daniel Whitton and Tim Wintill in the Republican primary on May 29, 2012. Stockman went on to defeat Takach in the July 31 runoff. He then defeated Max Martin (D) and Michael Cole (L) in the general election on November 6.[37][38][39][40]

U.S. House, Texas District 36 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Stockman 70.7% 165,405
     Democratic Max Martin 26.6% 62,143
     Libertarian Michael K. Cole 2.7% 6,284
Total Votes 233,832
Source: Texas Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, Texas District 36 Runoff Republican Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Stockman 55.3% 21,472
Stephen Takach 44.7% 17,378
Total Votes 38,850
U.S. House, Texas District 36 Republican Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngStephen Takach Incumbent 22.4% 12,208
Green check mark transparent.pngSteve Stockman 21.8% 11,858
Mike Jackson 19.8% 10,786
Jim Engstrand 9.4% 5,114
Ky D. Griffin 7.4% 4,025
Charles Meyer 4% 2,156
Kim Morrell 3.5% 1,930
Lois Dickson Myers 2.9% 1,558
Jerry Doyle 2.7% 1,479
Keith Casey 2.3% 1,225
Daniel Whitton 2% 1,110
Tim Wintill 1.8% 984
Total Votes 54,433

Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Stockman is available dating back to 2012. Based on available campaign finance records, Stockman raised a total of $365,285 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 25, 2013.[41]

Steve Stockman's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Texas, District 36) Won $365,285
Grand Total Raised $365,285

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Stockman's reports.[42]

Steve Stockman (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[43]April 15, 2013$367$65,820$(50,251)$19,248
July Quarterly[44]July 14, 2013$19,248$84,285$(72,671)$30,862
October Quarterly[45]October 16, 2013$30,862$115,401$(106,762)$39,502
Year-End[46]January 31, 2014$39,502$169,297$(161,592)$47,206
Running totals
$434,803$(391,276)

Ethics investigation

Stockman is under investigation by the House Ethics Committee for possibly violating federal reporting requirements. In a statement he said, "My office is aware of and is cooperating fully with the Ethics Committee’s preliminary inquiry into an FEC reporting error." Stockman blamed the error on an accountant and said he removed the person from that position and shut down the campaign committee.[47]

2012

Stockman won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Stockman's campaign committee raised a total of $365,285 and spent $361,604.[48] This is less than the average $1.5 million spent by House winners in 2012.[49]

Cost per vote

Stockman spent $2.19 per vote received in 2012.


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Stockman's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $1,001 and $15,000. That averages to $8,000, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican representatives in 2012 of $7,614,097.96.[50]

Steve Stockman Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2012$8,000
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Stockman is a "moderate Republican follower" as of July 2014. In June 2013, Stockman was rated as a "centrist Republican follower."[51]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[52]

Stockman most often votes with:

Stockman least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Stockman missed 145 of 2,412 roll call votes from January 1995 to July 2014. This amounts to 6 percent, which is worse than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[53]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Stockman ranked 138th in the conservative rankings in 2013.[54]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Stockman voted with the Republican Party 90.2 percent of the time, which ranked 207th among the 234 House Republican members as of July 2014.[55]

2013

Stockman voted with the Republican Party 91.1 percent of the time, which ranked 220th among the 233 House Republican members as of June 2013.[56]

Personal

Stockman is married.[57]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Steve + Stockman + Texas + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Steve Stockman News Feed

  • Loading...

See also

External links

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link


References

  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Texas," November 6, 2012
  2. The New York Times, "Election brings seasoned politicians to congress," December 8, 2012
  3. The Washington Post, "Political comeback kids to take seats again in the House," November 18, 2012
  4. The Texas Tribune, "Stockman Files to Run Against Cornyn," December 9, 2013
  5. The Texas Tribune, "Primary 2014 Election Results," March 4, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 National Journal, "Texas, 36th House District: Steve Stockman (R)," November 7, 2012
  7. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  12. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  13. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, With clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  21. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  23. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  28. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  29. U.S. House, "House Resolution 676," accessed July 30, 2014
  30. Yahoo News, "Suing Obama: GOP-led House gives the go-ahead," accessed July 30, 2014
  31. Washington Post, "House clears way for lawsuit against Obama," accessed July 30, 2014
  32. 32.0 32.1 On The Issues, "Steve Stockman Vote Match," accessed June 19, 2014
  33. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  34. Campaign website, "Issues," accessed August 10, 2012
  35. Politico, "Have you seen Rep. Steve Stockman?," January 23, 2014
  36. Politico, "Steve Stockman rips press over MIA claim," January 27, 2014
  37. Texas GOP, "Republican candidate list," accessed May 10, 2012
  38. Texas Secretary of State, "Unofficial Republican primary results," May 29, 2012
  39. Associated Press, Primary runoff results," accessed August 31, 2012
  40. Texas Secretary of State, "Race Summary Report-2012 Republican Party Primary Runoff," accessed August 30, 2012
  41. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Steve Stockman," accessed March 25, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Steve Stockman Summary Report," accessed July 24, 2013
  43. Federal Election Commission, "Steve Stockman April Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Steve Stockman July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2013
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Steve Stockman October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Steve Stockman Year-End," accessed February 16, 2014
  47. CNN Politics, "Ethics Committee investigating Rep. Steve Stockman," April 25, 2014
  48. Open Secrets, "Steve Stockman 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 5, 2013
  49. Open Secrets, "Election 2012: The Big Picture Shows Record Cost of Winning a Seat in Congress," accessed June 19, 2013
  50. OpenSecrets, "Steve Stockman (R-Texas), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  51. GovTrack, "Steve Stockman," accessed June 4, 2013
  52. OpenCongress, "Steve Stockman," accessed July 18, 2014
  53. GovTrack, "Steve Stockman," accessed July 21, 2014
  54. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 18, 2014
  55. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  56. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  57. Project Vote Smart, "Biography," accessed August 1, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Newly created district
U.S. House of Representatives - Texas, District 36
2013-present
Succeeded by
'