Text of California Assembly Bill 32 (2006)
Under existing law, the State Air Resources Board (state board), the State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (Energy Commission), and the California Climate Action Registry all have responsibilities with respect to the control of emissions of greenhouse gases, as defined, and the Secretary for Environmental Protection is required to coordinate emission reductions of greenhouse gases and climate change activity in state government.
This bill would require the state board to adopt regulations to require the reporting and verification of statewide greenhouse gas emissions and to monitor and enforce compliance with this program, as specified. The bill would require the state board to adopt a statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit equivalent to the statewide greenhouse gas emissions levels in 1990 to be achieved by 2020, as specified. The bill would require the state board to adopt rules and regulations in an open public process to achieve the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions, as specified. The bill would authorize the state board to adopt market-based compliance mechanisms, as defined, meeting specified requirements. The bill would require the state board to monitor compliance with and enforce any rule, regulation, order, emission limitation, emissions reduction measure, or market-based compliance mechanism adopted by the state board, pursuant to specified provisions of existing law. The bill would authorize the state board to adopt a schedule of fees to be paid by regulated sources of greenhouse gas emissions, as specified.
Because the bill would require the state board to establish emissions limits and other requirements, the violation of which would be a crime, this bill would create a state-mandated local program.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by
this act for a specified reason.
PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Chapter 1. Title of Division
38500. This division shall be known, and may be cited, as the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006.
Chapter 2. Findings and Declarations
38501. The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
(a) Global warming poses a serious threat to the economic well-being, public health, natural resources, and the environment of California. The potential adverse impacts of global warming include the exacerbation of air quality problems, a reduction in the quality and supply of water to the state from the Sierra snowpack, a rise in sea levels resulting in the displacement of thousands of coastal businesses and residences, damage to marine ecosystems and the natural environment, and an increase in the incidences of infectious diseases, asthma, and other human health-related problems.
(b) Global warming will have detrimental effects on some of California’s largest industries, including agriculture, wine, tourism, skiing, recreational and commercial fishing, and forestry. It will also increase the strain on electricity supplies necessary to meet the demand for summer air-conditioning in the hottest parts of the state.
(c) California has long been a national and international leader on energy conservation and environmental stewardship efforts, including the areas of air quality protections, energy efficiency requirements, renewable energy standards, natural resource conservation, and greenhouse gas emission standards for passenger vehicles. The program established by this division will continue this tradition of environmental leadership by placing California at the forefront of national and international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
(d) National and international actions are necessary to fully address the issue of global warming. However, action taken by California to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases will have far-reaching effects by encouraging other states, the federal government, and other countries to act.
(e) By exercising a global leadership role, California will also position its economy, technology centers, financial institutions, and businesses to benefit from national and international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. More importantly, investing in the development of innovative and pioneering technologies will assist California in achieving the 2020 statewide limit on emissions of greenhouse gases established by this division and will provide an opportunity for the state to take a global economic and technological leadership role in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.
(f) It is the intent of the Legislature that the State Air Resources Board coordinate with state agencies, as well as consult with the environmental justice community, industry sectors, business groups, academic institutions, environmental organizations, and other stakeholders in implementing this division.
(g) It is the intent of the Legislature that the State Air Resources Board consult with the Public Utilities Commission in the development of emissions reduction measures, including limits on emissions of greenhouse gases applied to electricity and natural gas providers regulated by the Public Utilities Commission in order to ensure that electricity and natural gas providers are not required to meet duplicative or inconsistent regulatory requirements.
(h) It is the intent of the Legislature that the State Air Resources Board design emissions reduction measures to meet the statewide emissions limits for greenhouse gases established pursuant to this division in a manner that minimizes costs and maximizes benefits for California’s economy, improves and modernizes California’s energy infrastructure and maintains electric system reliability, maximizes additional environmental and economic co-benefits for California, and complements the state’s efforts to improve air quality.
(i) It is the intent of the Legislature that the Climate Action Team established by the Governor to coordinate the efforts set forth under Executive Order S-3-05 continue its role in coordinating overall climate policy.
Chapter 3. Definitions
38505. For the purposes of this division, the following terms have the following meanings:
(a) “Allowance” means an authorization to emit, during a specified year, up to one ton of carbon dioxide equivalent.
(b) “Alternative compliance mechanism” means an action undertaken by a greenhouse gas emission source that achieves the equivalent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions over the same time period as a direct emission reduction, and that is approved by the state board. “Alternative compliance mechanism” includes, but is not limited to, a flexible compliance schedule, alternative control technology, a process change, or a product substitution.
(c) “Carbon dioxide equivalent” means the amount of carbon dioxide by weight that would produce the same global warming impact as a given weight of another greenhouse gas, based on the best available science, including from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
(d) “Cost-effective” or “cost-effectiveness” means the cost per unit of reduced emissions of greenhouse gases adjusted for its global warming potential.
(e) “Direct emission reduction” means a greenhouse gas emission reduction action made by a greenhouse gas emission source at that source.
(f) “Emissions reduction measure” means programs, measures, standards, and alternative compliance mechanisms authorized pursuant to this division, applicable to sources or categories of sources, that are designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
(g) “Greenhouse gas” or “greenhouse gases” includes all of the following gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexaflouride.
(h) “Greenhouse gas emissions limit” means an authorization, during a specified year, to emit up to a level of greenhouse gases specified by the state board, expressed in tons of carbon dioxide equivalents.
(i) “Greenhouse gas emission source” or “source” means any source, or category of sources, of greenhouse gas emissions whose emissions are at a level of significance, as determined by the state board, that its participation in the program established under this division will enable the state board to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions and monitor compliance with the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit.
(j) “Leakage” means a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases within the state that is offset by an increase in emissions of greenhouse gases outside the state.
(k) “Market-based compliance mechanism” means either of the following:
- (1) A system of market-based declining annual aggregate emissions limitations for sources or categories of sources that emit greenhouse gases.
- (2) Greenhouse gas emissions exchanges, banking, credits, and other transactions, governed by rules and protocols established by the state board, that result in the same greenhouse gas emission reduction, over the same time period, as direct compliance with a greenhouse gas emission limit or emission reduction measure adopted by the state board pursuant to this division.
(l) “State board” means the State Air Resources Board.
(m) “Statewide greenhouse gas emissions” means the total annual emissions of greenhouse gases in the state, including all emissions of greenhouse gases from the generation of electricity delivered to and consumed in California, accounting for transmission and distribution line losses, whether the electricity is generated in state or imported. Statewide emissions shall be expressed in tons of carbon dioxide equivalents.
(n) “Statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit” or “statewide emissions limit” means the maximum allowable level of statewide greenhouse gas emissions in 2020, as determined by the state board pursuant to Part 3 (commencing with Section 38850).
Chapter 4. Role of State Board
38510. The State Air Resources Board is the state agency charged with monitoring and regulating sources of emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
PART 2. MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REPORTING
(a) On or before January 1, 2008, the state board shall adopt regulations to require the reporting and verification of statewide greenhouse gas emissions and to monitor and enforce compliance with this program.
(b) The regulations shall do all of the following:
- (1) Require the monitoring and annual reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from greenhouse gas emission sources beginning with the sources or categories of sources that contribute the most to statewide emissions.
- (2) Account for greenhouse gas emissions from all electricity consumed in the state, including transmission and distribution line losses from electricity generated within the state or imported from outside the state. This requirement applies to all retail sellers of electricity, including load-serving entities as defined in subdivision (j) of Section 380 of the Public Utilities Code and local publicly owned electric utilities as defined in Section 9604 of the Public Utilities Code.
- (3) Where appropriate and to the maximum extent feasible, incorporate the standards and protocols developed by the California Climate Action Registry, established pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 42800) of Part 4 of Division 26. Entities that voluntarily participated in the California Climate Action Registry prior to December 31, 2006, and have developed a greenhouse gas emission reporting program, shall not be required to significantly alter their reporting or verification program except as necessary to ensure that reporting is complete and verifiable for the purposes of compliance with this division as determined by the state board.
- (4) Ensure rigorous and consistent accounting of emissions, and provide reporting tools and formats to ensure collection of necessary data.
- (5) Ensure that greenhouse gas emission sources maintain comprehensive records of all reported greenhouse gas emissions.
(c) The state board shall do both of the following:
- (1) Periodically review and update its emission reporting requirements, as necessary.
- (2) Review existing and proposed international, federal, and state greenhouse gas emission reporting programs and make reasonable efforts to promote consistency among the programs established pursuant to this part and other programs, and to streamline reporting requirements on greenhouse gas emission sources.
PART 3. STATEWIDE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS LIMIT
By January 1, 2008, the state board shall, after one or more public workshops, with public notice, and an opportunity for all interested parties to comment, determine what the statewide greenhouse gas emissions level was in 1990, and approve in a public hearing, a statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit that is equivalent to that level, to be achieved by 2020. In order to ensure the most accurate determination feasible, the state board shall evaluate the best available scientific, technological, and economic information on greenhouse gas emissions to determine the 1990 level of greenhouse gas emissions.
(a) The statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit shall remain in effect unless otherwise amended or repealed.
(b) It is the intent of the Legislature that the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit continue in existence and be used to maintain and continue reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases beyond 2020.
(c) The state board shall make recommendations to the Governor and the Legislature on how to continue reductions of greenhouse gas emissions beyond 2020.