The Executive Summary: Why do state officials leave office early?

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June 27, 2013

Edited by Greg Janetka

This edition of The Executive Summary highlights a new feature on Ballotpedia tracking state executives who leave office prior to the end of their term. We also look at controversies involving officials in Utah and Pennsylvania, new appointments in Iowa and Tennessee, keep you up to date on 2013/2014 election news, and throw a trivia question your way.

Irregular office changes

Unique among the areas covered by Ballotpedia, the world of state executive officials includes a fair amount of turnover which often flies under the radar. If a high-profile officeholder, such as a governor or secretary of state, leaves office before the expiration of their term the story makes all the headlines. Down ballot offices, however, which are often stepping-stones for ambitious politicians or homes for lifelong bureaucrats, see changes that are all but ignored. Ballotpedia is attempting to compile complete information on these changes across all the state executive offices that we cover.

Who are these people and why do they leave office? Throughout the course of a year, state officials leave their position for a variety of reasons. Some of them resign for other jobs, some of them resign due to scandal. Still others are appointed to higher positions which then create vacancies in their prior posts. For the purpose of this project we define an irregular office change to be when an elected or appointed official does not complete the full term of office. Some appointed officials serve an indefinite term where they are either not subject to reappointment or "serve at the pleasure of the governor." These have been included in the numbers below.

As of today, June 27, 2013, Ballotpedia has identified 26 irregular office changes in 21 states. Iowa has had the most with three changes. There have been 5 irregular changes in top ballot offices and 21 in down ballot offices.

All of the 13 main positions we cover, with the exception of Governor, have included at least 1 irregular office change in 2013. The positions that saw the most irregular changes this year include Labor Commissioner (5), Public Services Commissioner (4), Lieutenant Governor (3), Superintendent of Schools (3), and Natural Resources Commissioner (3).

For complete information see State executive official irregular office changes and State executive official irregular office changes, 2013

The reasons for state executive official changes in 2013 are as follows:

  • 7 due to appointment to new position/government post
  • 5 due to accepting new private sector job
  • 4 due to scandal/asked to resign
  • 4 due to reasons unclear
  • 4 due to retirement/family reasons
  • 1 due to denied reappointment
  • 1 resigned after new law changed the office

The partisan breakdown for vacancies created in 2013 is as follows:

Notable changes

In this first six months of 2013, three lieutenant governors resigned:

  • Nebraska's Rick Sheehy (R) left his post on the heels of an investigative report from the Omaha World-Herald revealing that Sheehy had abused his state-issued mobile phone privileges by making thousands of personal phone calls to women other than his wife over the previous four years.[1]
  • Jennifer Carroll (R) resigned her position in Florida on March 13, 2013 after being asked to do so by Gov. Rick Scott. Carroll had been named as a subject of interest in her affiliation with Allied Veterans of the Worlds, who were found to be operating illegal gambling companies.[2]
  • Tim Murray (D) of Massachusetts resigned his seat effective June 2, in order to lead the Worcester Regional Chamber of Commerce.[3]


[edit]

Utah Attorney General John Swallow

Troubles continue for Utah Attorney General

With numerous investigations and controversies surrounding Utah Attorney General John Swallow (R), and with his adamant refusal to resign, talk of possible impeachment has gained ground from all sides, including Republican lawmakers. Indeed, even Gov. Gary Herbert (R) chimed in, saying on June 11 that he would fire Swallow if he worked for him.[4]

After a Republican House Caucus meeting to discuss impeachment on June 19, lawmakers instead chose to create an investigative committee outside of the impeachment process to determine if the situation is hurting the public trust. In response, Swallow, who stated once again that he wouldn't resign, said, “I think they got it right today where they decided it wasn’t time yet to start any serious discussion about impeachment. They simply need answers.”[5]

The creation of the committee does not rule out the possibility of future impeachment proceedings. Under the Utah Constitution, the House is responsible for impeaching officials, while the Senate decides if they remain in office. The special session is expected to convene before the scheduled interim meetings on July 17.[5]

Soon after his election in 2012, Swallow was beset with a series of controversies that led him to become the subject of federal, state and local investigations involving allegations of election law violations and questionable dealings with a businessman who was also under investigation.[6]

Last week prosecutors announced Marc Sessions Jenson, a convicted businessman in the case, was offered immunity for information he may provide on Swallow, his predecessor in the office Mark Shurtleff, and four others.[7]

Former Secretary Richard Allan

Pennsylvania natural resources secretary asked to resign

Governor of Pennsylvania Tom Corbett (R) asked Richard Allan to resign his post as Pennsylvania Secretary of Conservation and Natural Resources on June 13, which he promptly did. Corbett, who originally named Allan to the position on March 23, 2011, called for the resignation due to Allan’s use of a racial epithet in an email.[8]

The email exchange, which took place May 3, 2013, was between Allan and his wife Patricia, who was then working at the Department of Environmental Protection. His wife wrote in an email that her co-worker, who is black, was showing her "true colors." Allan answered with a single word, "COLORS," in all caps with exclamation points. After finding out about the exchange, the co-worker filed a complaint.[9]

Ellen Ferretti, who had served as a deputy for parks and forestry since June 2011, was appointed acting secretary.



Iowa Director of Education

On June 18, Governor Terry Branstad appointed Duane "D.T." Magee interim Director of Education for the state of Iowa.[10] Magee, who assumed the role on June 24, is filling in for resigned director Jason Glass while the governor searches for a permanent replacement.[11] Glass' term was not set to expire until 2015, but he left office early in order to become superintendent of the Eagle County School District.[12][13] Magee has served as the executive director of the Iowa Board of Educational Examiners since July 2012. He will continue to perform the duties of that office during his time as interim director.

His education experience prior to entering state employment includes working as an assistant superintendent of human resources and director of human resources for the Waukee Community School District, and as a principal in the Harlan Community School District.[14]

Whoever Branstad nominates to formally succeed Glass as state Director of Education will be subject to confirmation by the Iowa State Senate.

Tennessee Regulatory Authority

Robin Bennett was appointed as a director of the Tennessee Regulatory Authority by House Speaker Beth Harwell on June 14.[15] Her appointment filled the vacancy created by Sara Kyle's resignation from the board.[3] Bennett will serve alongside chairman Jim Allison, vice chairman Herbert Hilliard, executive director Earl R. Taylor, and directors Kenneth Hill, David Jones.[16][17] She currently serves as a Vice President and financial center manager for First Tennessee bank.[15]

The regulatory authority recently underwent a major structural transition following the passage of a measure changing the membership of the agency from four full-time directors to five part-time directors and established the executive director position.[18][19] The bill, HB 2385/SB 2247, was signed into law by Gov. Bill Haslam during the 2012 legislative session.

Previously, the four directors were each appointed from a different source: one by the governor, one by the president of the state senate, one by the speaker of the state house, and one by joint appointment.[20] The directors were appointed to staggered, six-year terms. All appointments were confirmed by joint resolution by both the state senate and state house, except the director who is appointed by joint appointment of the three appointing authorities.[21]

Kyle was first nominated to the position by then-State House Speaker James Naifeh 1996. She was re-appointed to six-year terms in 2002 and 2008, with her term expiring in 2014.[22] However, she chose to resign on March 13, 2013, citing the changes made to the body by legislation in 2012.

“There’s never a good time to leave public service but things have changed at the TRA and it’s become part time but consumers are full time — they need full-time service. I believe I can use my skills and talents for consumers elsewhere. I don’t know where that will be right now but I will be looking for opportunities,” she stated.[3]

See also: State executive official elections, 2013
State Executive Official Elections Results in 2013
Office Incumbent Incumbent Party Incumbent Running? 2013 Winner Partisan switch?
Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie Ends.png Republican Yes Pending
Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey Kim Guadagno Ends.png Republican Yes Pending
Governor of Virginia Bob McDonnell Ends.png Republican No Pending
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Bill Bolling Ends.png Republican No Pending
Attorney General of Virginia Ken Cuccinelli Ends.png Republican No (running for governor) Pending
Superintendent of Wisconsin Tony Evers Grey.png Nonpartisan Yes Tony Evers No

There are three states holding state executive official elections in 2013 -- New Jersey, Virginia and Wisconsin. A total of six officials will be elected. The attention-grabbing positions up for election are Governor of New Jersey and Governor of Virginia. Both made The Washington Post’s list of the top 5 races to watch in 2013.

Wisconsin

The first state executive election in 2013 took place in Wisconsin on April 2, 2013. Incumbent Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction Tony Evers won re-election to a second term against challenger Don Pridemore.[23] Evers, a career educator, handily defeated Don Pridemore, a Wisconsin State Assemblyman since 2005. Although the Superintendent of Public Instruction is a nonpartisan position, Evers is a Democrat and Pridemore is a Republican.

The race attracted considerable buzz in the lead-up to the election, owing in large part to the controversial education proposals put forth by Gov. Scott Walker (R) in his 2013-2015 budget plan, as well as Pridemore's penchant for provoking the media - with dramatic pronouncements about his campaign agenda or else by creating a blacklist of a number of "liberal"[24] political reporters.[25][26]

Evers received over 61% of the vote, equalling 487,030 votes. This figure points to Evers' growth in popularity since his initial election to the post back in 2009, when he won 439,248 votes and a roughly 15 percentage point victory over a different single challenger, Rose Fernandez.

Below are the official results of the superintendent race, certified by the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board on April 23.[27]

Wisconsin Superintendent of Public Instruction General Election, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Non-partisan Green check mark transparent.pngTony Evers Incumbent 61.1% 487,030
     Non-partisan Don Pridemore 38.7% 308,050
     Scattering Various 0.2% 1,431
Total Votes 796,511
Election Results via Wisconsin Government Accountability Board.

Virginia

Former Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell (R) was ineligible to run for re-election in 2013 because of term limits. The term limits Virginia imposes on its governors are more strict than any other state in the country. Under the commonwealth's constitution, no governor may serve back-to-back terms. This means that McDonnell, unlike other governors in their first term, was ineligible to run for re-election.

There are no such term limits on the attorney general, and many were surprised at fomer AG Ken Cuccinelli's (R) decision to run for governor, rather than seek another term. If not for Cuccinelli, outgoing Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling would have been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination to succeed McDonnell.[28] Due to the decision by the Republican Party of Virginia to change their candidate nomination method from open primary election to closed nominating convention starting in 2013, and "tea party darling" Cuccinelli's presence in the race, Bolling withdrew his bid for the GOP nod in November 2012.[29][30] About the alternative of seeking re-election to his current post, Bolling stated that “Under normal circumstances, I would be open to the possibility of running for another term as lieutenant governor, but I would not be interested in running on a statewide ticket with Mr. Cuccinelli.”[31] He later said he regretted dropping out of the race as early as he did.[32]

McDonnell had previously pledged his support for Bolling's candidacy, in part because Bolling refrained from challenging McDonnell for governor in 2009. After Bolling bowed out, McDonnell chose to endorse fellow Republican Cuccinelli for his successor, despite Cuccinelli's outspoken opposition to McDonnell's Transportation Initiative, which was considered to be the centerpiece of his gubernatorial legacy. Ironically, Cuccinelli's future general election opponent, former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe, had been equally outspoken on the issue, but as an advocate and defender of the outgoing governor's approach to amending the state's transportation funding policy.[33][34][35]

In response to the major party picks, the Libertarian Party held a special convention and nominated Robert Sarvis as the party's official gubernatorial candidate.[36]

Like Cuccinelli and Sarvis, McAuliffe faced no primary opponent. Days from the election, McAuliffe held a comfortable polling and fundraising lead over Cuccinelli and Sarvis. Aggregated polling data had the Democratic nominee with an average edge of seven percentage points over Cuccinelli--an advantage that could have been attributed in large part to female voters' 58-34 preference of McAuliffe, since he and Cuccinelli were almost neck-and-neck among men.[37][38] During the last campaign finance reporting period, ending October 28, McAuliffe reported raising $8.1 million to Cuccinelli's $2.9 million, and holding $1.6 million in cash on hand, which was twice the size of Cuccinelli's warchest. Sarvis was trailing both with a reported $81,595 raised and $58,584 on hand.[39][40][41] Hillary Clinton's decision to come out in support of McAuliffe on October 19 - marking her first campaign event appearance since stepping down as U.S. Secretary of State - further enhanced the Democrat's frontrunner status.[42] Former President Bill Clinton threw in his support soon thereafter, followed by President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama, who joined the McAuliffe campaign effort in the final week of the election season.[43]

The three contenders squared off in the general election on November 5, 2013, which McAuliffe won by a margin of 2.6% percentage points.[44]

Impact of US government shutdown on governor's race

The high profile federal government shutdown coincided with the home stretch of the expensive and high-profile 2013 Virginia governor race, which created a fresh backdrop for the battle between major party nominees Terry McAuliffe (D) and Ken Cuccinelli (R), and provided a brand new context in which to undermine each candidate's character and leadership potential.[45] Each campaign released an ad during the aftermath of the shutdown, which arrived on the heels of the candidates' second debate.[46]

With the nation paying close attention to its government in light of the perceived failure of Congress to work together in the best interests of their constituents, McAuliffe and Cuccinelli's ads each highlighted features of his opponent which most closely mirrored the type of stubbornness displayed by the House and Senate leading up to the shutdown, and to which the general public was, at that moment, so sensitively attuned. That moment, to be more specific, was one month before the general election. As the competition stood, McAuliffe had an overall average lead in the polls of 5.3 points over his Republican foe.[47]

Hoping to use the shutdown to further advance his edge by painting Cuccinelli in with the GOP ideologues in Congress, McAuliffe's ad emphasized Cuccinelli's strong ties to tea party leader U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX), since Cruz was an outspoken supporter both of Cuccinelli and the far-right congressional insurgency which, in seeking to defund Obamacare, was regarded as causing the shutdown. The ad cited Cuccinelli's past effort to defund Planned Parenthood, apparently bringing the Virginia legislature "to a standstill," and also claimed Cuccinelli had been sufficiently opposed to Mark Warner's 2004 budget to call for a shutdown of the state government.[48]

Cuccinelli's ad aimed to discredit McAuliffe by referencing articles from The Washington Post and the Richmond-Times Dispatch criticizing McAuliffe's prospective budget plan, which he had allegedly threatened he would shut down the government over in order to get the plan passed. The radio spot also accused McAuliffe of being "against compromise, against working together to find solutions,” and noted how the Democrat sided with his fellow party members in Congress who had vocally dismissed opportunities to collaborate with the Republicans to avert shutdown.[49][50]

A unique opportunity was identified for the solo third party candidate in the race, Libertarian Robert Sarvis, in the shutdown atmosphere, where disillusionment with the standard of government operation ran rampant. Had Sarvis not been barred from participating in the third debate with McAuliffe and Cuccinelli, it was thought that he could have used the reflected spotlight to lure substantial number of voters who, already frustrated by Congress' showcase of two-party gridlock, would be more sympathetic than usual to a non-major party nominee.

"People are looking for other options they don't like what they have to see from those two parties and we're trying to fill that void with principled advocacy for more freedom in our economic sphere and personal lives," stated Sarvis. His passive warning about "obvious dysfunction of our [federal] government" also existing on the state and local level could have had an especially profound impact on swing voters and the average 9% of voters who were still polling as undecided at the beginning of November.[51][52]


Incumbent Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling (R) did not seek re-election in 2013. Nine candidates filed to fill the imminently-open executive seat, including two Democrats and seven Republicans. State Sen. Ralph Northam defeated Aneesh Chopra for the Democratic Party's nomination for lieutenant governor in the June 11 primary election.[53] Northam's general election opponent was Republican E.W. Jackson. Jackson was nominated by delegates of the Virginia Republican Party at the party-funded statewide primary convention on May 17-18.[54] Northam and Jackson faced off in the Nov. 5, 2013 general election, and Northam won by a margin of over 10 percentage points.[55]

When Virginia voters elected Democrat L. Douglas Wilder, the grandson of slaves, as its 66th Governor in 1989, it was the first time an African-American was elected to the office in the nation's history.[56] Given the state's heritage of trailblazing, it is notable that until Jackson's convention victory, Virginia Republicans had not nominated an African-American for any statewide office since backing Maurice Dawkins' a quarter of a century ago.[57]

A minister at a non-denominational church and relatively new member of the Republican Party, Jackson edged out six primary opponents by emphasizing his commitment to hallmark conservative issues such as smaller government, gun rights and traditional family values. He appealed to the delegation with the promise, "We will not only win an election in November, we will open the hearts and minds of our people and save this commonwealth and save this country."[58]

Regardless of his post-convention promise, Jackson was an unwelcome choice for the state's Republican establishment from the start, thanks to his refusal to divert from, or soften the rhetoric of, his "liberty agenda." The agenda contained the issues mentioned above, none of which were earth-shattering stances for a conservative; Jackson was anti-Obamacare, pro-Second Amendment and anti-federal overreach. His approach to delivering these messages, however, rose more concerns - as well as eyebrows - from the party than was originally anticipated. In August, Jackson referred to the Democratic Party as the "anti-God party" because of its supportive position on same-sex marriage and abortion, cementing his reputation for being impermeable to warnings about how his often inflammatory rhetoric might alienate swing voters or more moderate Republican voters heading into the general election. Then on Sept. 4, The Washington Post reported that his independent streak also extended to his behind the scenes campaign style. After securing the nomination in May, Jackson had not taken advantage of the Virginia Republican Party's massive pool of campaign resources. He declined offers to utilize the party's voter databases and related logistical tools in addition to field office venues across the state- a "virtually unheard-of forfeiture of resources for a statewide candidate."[59]

On the Democratic end, Northam, a pediatric neurologist who was first elected to the state legislature's upper chamber in 2008, wanted to win the lt. governor's office in order to restore Democratic control over the state senate. His campaign focused on improving education and creating jobs in energy efficiency, in addition to reversing the direction the Republican leadership had taken the state on women's health issues. "Their crusades to shut down reproductive health centers and to mandate costly and invasive medical procedures for women seeking abortions have embarrassed the Commonwealth, and have inserted government between doctors and their patients."[60][61]

The final campaign finance reporting cycle prior to the general election showed Northam maintaining an ample fundraising lead over Jackson, adding to the consistent edge he had shown in the polls. Jackson's remarkable refusal to accept assistance from the Republican Party had no doubt hindered him from overtaking Northam in money and/or voter support. His proven difficulties adhering to the state board of elections' filing protocols, having twice needed to amend his documentation of loans or donations, likewise boded unfavorably for the GOP nominee heading into the home stretch of what was an ultimately unsuccessful campaign.[62][63]


In March 2013, Governing magazine rated Virginia's open attorney general seat as "vulnerable" heading into the 2013-2014 elections because incumbent Republican Ken Cuccinelli was not running for re-election.[64]

The race to replace Cuccinelli began at the primary nomination stage; both Republican convention and Democratic election candidates drew primary contests. On May 18, two "strong fiscal and social conservatives"[64] -- state Sen. Mark Obenshain and state Rep. Rob Bell -- competed for delegate votes at the Republican Party of Virginia's closed nominating convention, which Obenshain won.[65] The nominee's late father, GOP politician Richard Obenshain, died in a plane crash during his 1978 campaign for U.S. Senate. Obenshain faced state Sen. Mark Herring in the general election. Herring defeated former assistant U.S. Attorney for Virginia Justin Fairfax in the Democratic primary election, which took place on June 11, 2013.[66][64]

Although Obenshain was considered the early front-runner, polls showed Herring leading by a very slim margin in late October 2013, a likely effect, or occupational hazard, for Obenshain, of sharing what had become a contaminated GOP ticket. One week before election day, at least two influential backers - Planned Parenthood and Independence USA PAC - hoped to widen the gap with roughly one million dollars worth of media spots lampooning Obenshain for his past support of a "personhood" amendment, which would have banned birth control and abortions regardless of the circumstances," in addition to his stance against increased background checks on prospective gun owners. Independence USA PAC was heavily driven by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. The PAC had already invested millions into ads hammering "far-right" Republican gubernatorial candidate Ken Cuccinelli for his affiliation with the National Rifle Assocation (NRA), and the buys against Obenshain sought to lump the lesser-known AG contender together with Cuccinelli, who was the most recognizable, and possiblly most troubled, candidate appearing on the party's statewide ticket in 2013. Meanwhile, the NRA went on the counterattack; the organization unleashed a $500,000 anti-Herring ad into targeted Virginia markets.[67][68] The NRA's assistance paled in comparison, however, to the $2.6 million infusion from the Republican State Leadership Committee into the the effort to elect Obenshain, whom the committee viewed as the only hope for preventing Democrats from scoring a clean sweep of the state-row races in 2013.[69]


With both the Republican convention and Democratic primary election now over, the ballots for the Nov. 5 general election are set for major party candidates seeking the open seats of governor, lieutenant governor, and attorney general. The candidates include:

Governor

Lieutenant Governor

Attorney General


New Jersey

New Jersey held primary elections on June 4 for governor. Republican incumbent Chris Christie and Democratic state Sen. Barbara Buono faced one challenger each, though ultimately neither presented much of a challenge. With 98% of precincts reporting, results show both Christie and Buono winning their respective party nominations with roughly 90% of the vote.[70]

Former Atlantic City Councilman Seth Grossman was the sole Republican to brave a run against the popular first term governor, whose star has long been on the rise but turned meteoric in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Grossman's campaign criticized Christie for being overly moderate, while Buono's opponent Troy Webster, adviser to the mayor of East Orange, believed he was uniquely suited to making New Jersey friendlier to "the working poor and middle class families who have been literally 'thrown under the bus.'"[71] Grossman and Webster were endorsed by the weekly publication NJ Today.[72]

In New Jersey, gubernatorial candidates have 30 days to select a lieutenant gubernatorial running-mate to share the ticket with in the general election. Christie has already secured his current Lt. Gov. Kim Guadagno as his running-mate, and Buono is expected to make her pick soon. Buono and Christie, along with a number of third party and independent candidates, will square off in the general election on November 5, 2013.

Christie is heavily favored to win re-election, with his campaign raising nearly double that of Buono's so far and averaging a 30% edge over his Democratic competitor in the latest polls.[73] He also has bipartisan support, which is crucial in a state where Democrats outnumber Republicans by over 700,000, according to party registration statistics provided by the New Jersey Department of State.[74]

New Jersey Governor's Race 2013
Poll Barbara Buono (D) Chris Christie (R)UndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Quinnipiac University Poll
April 19-22, 2013
26%58%13%+/-2.91,112
NBC News/Marist Poll
(April 28-May 2, 2013)
28%60%10%+/-3.01,080
AVERAGES 27% 59% 11.5% +/-2.95 1,096
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

General election

(Governor & Lieutenant Governor running-mate listed together)

[75]



See also: State executive official elections, 2014

Ballotpedia has counted and is currently tracking a total of 215 state executive positions in 42 states that will be on the ballot next year. That is more than double the number of positions that were elected in 2012, when 94 positions were elected. The eight states that are not holding executive official elections in 2014 are Kentucky, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Utah, Virginia, Washington and West Virginia.

The offices up for election include:

Notable candidates

  • Two Democratic candidates have declared their intent to run for Colorado Treasurer: Patrick Quinn, current mayor of Broomfield, Colorado, and Betsy Markey, former U.S. House Representative. The primary will determine who will face incumbent Republican Walker Stapleton.[94]

252px-Question book-3.jpg

Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal

Q. Of the current 50 governors, who is the only Rhodes Scholar?

Answer: Louisiana’s Bobby Jindal, who studied public-health policy at Oxford.[95][96] Jindal, a Republican, was first elected governor in 2007 and was re-elected to the position on October 22, 2011. He previously served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Louisiana's 1st Congressional District from 2004-2008.[97]

Former governors who were Rhodes Scholars include:[98]



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  1. The Wall Street Journal, "Nebraska Lieutenant Governor Resigns," February 2, 2013
  2. Tia Mitchell, Miami Herald, "Lt. Gov. Jennifer Carroll resigns from post," March 13, 2013
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Boston.com, "Lt. Gov. Timothy P. Murray to resign, says controversies had nothing to do with his decision," May 22, 2013
  4. FOX 13 Salt Lake City, "Utah House GOP votes to investigate Attorney General John Swallow," June 19, 2013
  5. 5.0 5.1 Deseret News, "Utah House to investigate Attorney General John Swallow outside of impeachment process," June 19, 2013
  6. KSL, "Alliance for a Better Utah calls for A.G.'s resignation," June 9, 2013
  7. Salt Lake Tribune, “ Immunity agreement names six in Swallow probe,” June 21, 2013
  8. Philly.com, "Corbett cabinet member fired over email containing racial epithet," June 13, 2013
  9. NBC Philadelphia, "Email at Center of Cabinet Secretary's Resignation Released," June 14, 2013
  10. Iowa Department of Education "About the Director" Accessed February 1, 2013
  11. Office of the Governor of Iowa Terry Branstad, "Branstad names D.T. Magee as interim director of the Iowa Department of Education," June 18, 2013
  12. Iowa Department of Education, "Statement from State Board of Education President Rosie Hussey on Director Glass," May 22, 2013
  13. The Gazette, "Glass leaving Iowa Department of Education post,"May 22, 2013
  14. GlobeGazette.com, "Branstad appoints interim education director," June 19, 2013
  15. 15.0 15.1 Tennessee Regulatory Authority, "New Director Joins Tennessee Regulatory Authority Board," accessed June 22, 2013
  16. Tennessee Regulatory Authority "Leadership" Accessed November 23, 2012
  17. Chattanooga Times Free Press, "Robin Bennett named to Tennessee Regulatory Authority," accessed June 22, 2013
  18. Tennessee.gov "Haslam Appoints David Jones to Tennessee Regulatory Authority" Accessed November 23, 2012
  19. Tennessee.gov "New Tennessee Regulatory Authority Takes Form" Accessed November 23, 2012
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named about
  21. Lexisnexis.com, "Tennessee Code Ann. § 65-1-101," accessed October 24, 2011
  22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bio
  23. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Wisconsin April 2 election results," accessed April 3, 2013
  24. The Republic, "GOP education superintendent candidate's campaign blacklists 5 Wisconsin reporters," March 17, 2013
  25. Walworth County Today, "Wisconsin superintendent candidates to debate," March 12, 2013
  26. WisPolitics, "Pridemore Campaign: Pridemore vows to eliminate DPI mascot policy," March 28, 2013
  27. Wisconsin Government Accountability Board, "Canvass Certification: 2013 Spring Election," accessed April 18, 2013
  28. Richmond Times Dispatch, "Bolling on Cuccinelli: 'Nothing he does surprises me'," December 6, 2011
  29. The Washington Post, "GOP Fratricide in Virginia," December 1, 2012
  30. Washington Post, "Bill Bolling decides not to seek GOP nomination for VA governor," November 28, 2012
  31. The Roanoke Times, "Could Bolling run for governor as an independent?," November 28, 2102
  32. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, "Bolling regrets dropping out of the race so soon," April 22, 2013
  33. The Collegian, "Obama victory could cost Democrats Virginia governorship," November 15, 2012
  34. NBC 12- Decision Virginia 2013, "Transportation battle creates awkward political triangle," March 26, 2013
  35. Washington Post, "Cuccinelli vs. McAuliffe: Virginia governor’s race holds the eyes of the nation," March 29, 2013
  36. Independent Political Report, "Robert Sarvis Receives Libertarian Party of Virginia Nomination for Governor in 2013," accessed April 27, 2013
  37. Washington Post, "McAuliffe opens up double digit lead over Cuccinelli in Virginia governor's race," October 28, 2013
  38. The Huffington Post, "HuffPost Pollster: 2013 Virginia Governor: Cuccinelli vs. McAuliffe," accessed September 18, 2013
  39. Politico, "Terry McAuliffe outraises Ken Cuccinelli by $3M," October 15, 2013
  40. The Washington Post, "McAuliffe tops Cuccinelli in fundraising race for Virginia governor," September 17, 2013
  41. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, "McAuliffe maintains cash edge over Cuccineli," September 17, 2013
  42. The Hill, "Hillary Clinton to campaign in Virginia with McAuliffe (Video)," October 14, 2013
  43. Washington Post, "Obama, Biden to hit the trail for McAuliffe Va. governor bid, first lady cuts radio ad," October 29, 2013
  44. Associated Press - abc7.com, "Terry McAuliffe qualifies for Virginia June Democratic primary ballot," March 27, 2013
  45. Politico, "Virginia governor race 2013: Shutdown roils contest," October 4, 2013
  46. The Washington Post, "Five things to watch in the Cuccinelli-McAuliffe debate," September 25, 2013
  47. RealClearPolitics, "Virginia Governor - Cuccinelli vs. McAuliffe," accessed October 7, 2013
  48. The Washington Post, "In Virginia governor’s race, McAuliffe calls on Cuccinelli to denounce shutdown, Cruz," October 7, 2013
  49. Terry McAuliffe for Governor YouTube Channel, "Terry McAuliffe Radio Ad: Cuccinelli and the Architect," October 5, 2013
  50. CuccinelliPress YouTube channel, "Shutdown," accessed October 7, 2013
  51. Real Clear Politics, "Virginia Governor 3-Way," accessed October 7, 2013
  52. nbc29.com, "Robert Sarvis: I'm giving voters a better option," October 5, 2013
  53. Blue Virginia, "Virginia Primary Election Results Live Blog," June 11, 2013
  54. The Washington Post, "Va. GOP settles on Cuccinelli, Obenshain and Jackson for November ballot," May 19, 2013
  55. Virginia State Board of Elections, "2013 Statewide Unofficial Results," accessed November 6, 2013
  56. Encyclopedia Virginia, “L. Douglas Wilder (1931- ), accessed August 7, 2013
  57. Afro.com, "Virginia GOP Nominates Conservative Black Minister for Lt. Gov.," May 19, 2013
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