Difference between revisions of "U.S. Department of Education"

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The number of employees and budget have grown from 2,100 employees and a budget of $1.5 billion in 1965 to 4,400 employees and $68 billion budget in 2013. Although the federal government provides only about 12 percent of the overall education spending of $1.15 trillion, the role of the federal government in setting education policy has grown considerably over the last several decades. The department  implements laws passed by Congress and administers grants to states for certain programs, such as the ''No Child Left Behind,'' ''Race to the Top'' and ''Title One School Improvement Grants''.<ref name="DOEabout"/><ref>[http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html U.S. Department of Education website, "The Federal Role in Government," accessed on January 20, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://www2.ed.gov/policy/policy-by-program.html ''U.S. Department of Education'', "Policy Overview," accessed January 20, 2014]</ref>  
 
The number of employees and budget have grown from 2,100 employees and a budget of $1.5 billion in 1965 to 4,400 employees and $68 billion budget in 2013. Although the federal government provides only about 12 percent of the overall education spending of $1.15 trillion, the role of the federal government in setting education policy has grown considerably over the last several decades. The department  implements laws passed by Congress and administers grants to states for certain programs, such as the ''No Child Left Behind,'' ''Race to the Top'' and ''Title One School Improvement Grants''.<ref name="DOEabout"/><ref>[http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html U.S. Department of Education website, "The Federal Role in Government," accessed on January 20, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://www2.ed.gov/policy/policy-by-program.html ''U.S. Department of Education'', "Policy Overview," accessed January 20, 2014]</ref>  
  
Following is a list of important dates in the history of education in the United States:<ref name="hist"/><ref>[http://www.today.com/id/39154333/ns/today-back_to_school/t/timeline-moments-changed-public-education/#.Uk2aS4aUTxw ''Today'', "Timeline: Moments that changed public education," accessed October 3, 2013]</ref>
+
Following is a list of important dates in the history of federal role in education in the United States:<ref name="hist"/><ref>[http://www.today.com/id/39154333/ns/today-back_to_school/t/timeline-moments-changed-public-education/#.Uk2aS4aUTxw ''Today'', "Timeline: Moments that changed public education," accessed October 3, 2013]</ref>
 
*1862: First Morrill Act, provided the first federal aid for higher education by donating land for setting up colleges<ref>[ http://www.ourdocuments.gov/print_friendly.php?flash=true&page=&doc=33&title=Morrill+Act+%281862%29 ''www.ourdocuments.gov'', Morrill Act (1862), accessed April 18, 2014.]</ref>
 
*1862: First Morrill Act, provided the first federal aid for higher education by donating land for setting up colleges<ref>[ http://www.ourdocuments.gov/print_friendly.php?flash=true&page=&doc=33&title=Morrill+Act+%281862%29 ''www.ourdocuments.gov'', Morrill Act (1862), accessed April 18, 2014.]</ref>
 
*1890: Second Morrill Act gave the Office authority to establish a support system for land-grant colleges and universities
 
*1890: Second Morrill Act gave the Office authority to establish a support system for land-grant colleges and universities

Revision as of 16:02, 18 April 2014

Department of Education
US-DeptOfEducation-Seal.svg
Secretary:Arne Duncan
Deputy Secretary:Tony Miller
Annual budget:$65.7 billion (2013)
Total employed:4,400 (2013)
Year created:1980
Official website:http://www.ed.gov/

FederalAffairsLogo-01.png

Executive Departments of the United States

Executive Departments
Department of DefenseDepartment of StateDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of JusticeDepartment of CommerceDepartment of EducationDepartment of the TreasuryDepartment of AgricultureDepartment of EnergyDepartment of LaborDepartment of TransportationDepartment of the InteriorDepartment of Health and Human ServicesDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Housing and Urban Development

Department Secretaries
Chuck HagelJohn KerryJeh JohnsonEric HolderPenny PritzkerArne DuncanJack LewTom VilsackErnest MonizTom PerezAnthony FoxxSally JewellSylvia Mathews BurwellJulian Castro
The Department of Education is a United States executive department established in 1980. The department was formed to promote educational excellence and ensure equal opportunity for public schooling.[1] The department is led by the current Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan.

The department employs 4,400 employees.[1] The operating budget for fiscal year 2013 was $65.7 billion.[2] The United States education industry was estimated at about $1.15 trillion in 2011-2012. Federal contributions to elementary and secondary education come to about 10.8%, including the Department of Education, the Department of Health and Human Services' Head Start and the Department of Agriculture's School Lunch program. The rest of the funding comes from state, local and private sources.[3]

Mission

The Department of Education website states the mission:

to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access.[4]

—Department of Education, [3]

According to the Department of Education website, the department is committed to:

  • Establishing policies on federal financial aid for education, and distributing as well as monitoring those funds.
  • Collecting data on America's schools and disseminating research.
  • Focusing national attention on key educational issues.
  • Prohibiting discrimination and ensuring equal access to education.[4]

—Department of Education, [1]

History

Education in the U.S. is primarily the responsibility of states and local districts. This is according to the Tenth Amendment of the Bill of Rights, United States Constitution because the United States Constitution does not mention any role for the federal government in education. The federal department is intended to assist the states and was originally was created in 1867 to help the states set up school systems by gathering information about teaching, schools and teachers. The current Department of Education was established by Congress in 1980. It united several existing offices across different agencies into a Cabinet level agency located in the executive branch. Over the years the location of the department in the government and its name has changed several times, and its scope, number of personnel and budget have greatly increased.

The department's mission of fostering educational excellence and equal access arose out of the cultural and political events in the post World War II era. The National Defense Education Act (NDEA), the first comprehensive federal education law, was passed by Congress in 1958 in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik during the Cold War. The department added its "public access" mission in response to anti-poverty and civil rights legislation of the 1960s and 1970s.

The number of employees and budget have grown from 2,100 employees and a budget of $1.5 billion in 1965 to 4,400 employees and $68 billion budget in 2013. Although the federal government provides only about 12 percent of the overall education spending of $1.15 trillion, the role of the federal government in setting education policy has grown considerably over the last several decades. The department implements laws passed by Congress and administers grants to states for certain programs, such as the No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top and Title One School Improvement Grants.[1][5][6]

Following is a list of important dates in the history of federal role in education in the United States:[3][7]

  • 1862: First Morrill Act, provided the first federal aid for higher education by donating land for setting up colleges[8]
  • 1890: Second Morrill Act gave the Office authority to establish a support system for land-grant colleges and universities
  • 1896: U.S. Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized segregation in "separate but equal" schools
  • 1917: Smith-Hughes Act extended federal aid to vocational education programs
  • 1944: GI Bill authorized assistance to veterans for postsecondary schools
  • 1946: Georgia-Barden Act established agricultural, industrial and home economics classes
  • 1954: U.S. Supreme Court case, ''Brown v. Board of Education'', outlaws segregation precedent set in Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1958: National Defense Education Act (NDEA) supported loans for college students, improved science, technology and foreign language support in elementary and secondary schools and provided fellowships in response to the Cold War
  • 1964: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination based on race, color or national origin in public schools
  • 1965: Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act gave federal aid to schools in poor rural and urban areas
  • 1965: Higher Education Act authorized federal aid for poor postsecondary students
  • 1970: Standardized tests were given to public schools and the results are reported to the government and public in an effort to hold educators accountable
  • 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments prohibited discrimination based on sex in public schools
  • 1973: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act prohibited discrimination based on disability in public schools
  • 1980: Congress passed the "Department of Education Organization Act," (Public Law 96-88 of October 1979)
  • 2001: No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased education funding and established standards-based testing reforms
  • 2010: Race to the Top program encouraged states to compete for federal grants in education

Structure

Leadership

The current secretary of education is Arne Duncan.

Note: Votes marked "N/A" represent voice votes or unrecorded votes.

Departments

Office of the Secretary of Education

According to the department's official website, the Office of the Secretary:

  • Provides advice on a wide range of policy matters and issues.
  • Maintains White House liaison on personnel and scheduling matters and on sensitive political issues.
  • Supervises Federal advisory committee establishment and operating procedures and coordinates the provision of administrative services.
  • Coordinates the processing and placement for all appointments for non–career and advisory council positions.
  • Responds to appropriate inquiries concerning the Secretary's views and positions.
  • Reviews communications going to the Secretary for signature or information to assure that the Secretary's specific interests, viewpoints, and policy are properly reflected.
  • Prepares and coordinates the preparation of all speeches and comments for the Secretary's use, and arranges for all substitutes when the Secretary is unable to be present at a function external to the Department.
  • Carries out priority assignments and special projects for the Secretary.
  • Coordinates and conducts, in cooperation with the Office of Inspector General, the development of advance security planning and surveys involving risk analysis for the Secretary's speaking engagements and travel, and provides a security presence at all official social functions attended by the Secretary.[4]

—Department of Education, [9]

Organizational chart

Doe org chart.gif

Legislation

Race to the Top

Race to the Top was the seminal policy of Secretary Arne Duncan's Department of Education term. It was a reform designed to induce competition among states and school districts for federally allocated grants. Duncan argued that the incentive to attain Federal grant money and the resulting competition would spur innovation and improve student achievement. The program was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and had an initial budget of $4.35 billion. To become eligible, states needed to satisfy a "Common Core" of achievement standards. States proposed sweeping reform objectives and then submit grant proposals for programs they believe would achieve the objectives outlined. Proposals were measured against a scoring criteria, and grants were awarded. The Department of Education then measured states' progress towards their target objectives as the grant renewal process proceeded. Several states were unable to meet proposed targets in Race to the Top funded programs. As a result, grant allocation slowed significantly after three initial rounds. In 2012, the Department of Education began a new grant allocation round -- Race to the Top-District -- in which school districts, rather than state school systems, may apply for Race to the Top program grants.[10]

Common Core

The Race to the Top Common Core Standards were developed by the National Association of Governors and the Council of Chief State School Officers. They were "informed by the highest, most effective models from states across the country and countries around the world and provide teachers and parents with a common understanding of what students are expected to learn" in order to "provide a clear and consistent framework to prepare our children for college and the workforce." Forty-five states and the District of Columbia, along with four territories, adopted Common Core Standards. Developed specifically for English Language Arts and Mathematics instruction, "the Standards are (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4) internationally benchmarked."[11]

Grant criteria

Grants are rewarded based on these scores and subsequent rankings:[12]

  • A. State Success Factors (125 points)
    • (A)(1) Articulating State’s education reform agenda and LEAs’ participation in it (65 points)
    • (A)(2) Building strong statewide capacity to implement, scale up, and sustain proposed plans (30 points)
    • (A)(3) Demonstrating significant progress in raising achievement and closing gaps (30 points)
  • B. Standards and Assessments (70 points)
    • (B)(1) Developing and adopting common standards (40 points)
    • (B)(2) Developing and implementing common, high-quality assessments (10 points)
    • (B)(3) Supporting the transition to enhanced standards and high-quality assessments (20 points)
  • C. Data Systems to Support Instruction (47 points)
    • (C)(1) Fully implementing a statewide longitudinal data system (24 points)
    • (C)(2) Accessing and using State data (5 points)
    • (C)(3) Using data to improve instruction (18 points)
  • D. Great Teachers and Leaders (138 points)
    • (D)(1) Providing high-quality pathways for aspiring teachers and principals (21 points)
    • (D)(2) Improving teacher and principal effectiveness based on performance (58 points)
    • (D)(3) Ensuring equitable distribution of effective teachers and principals (25 points)
    • (D)(4) Improving the effectiveness of teacher and principal preparation programs (14 points)
    • (D)(5) Providing effective support to teachers and principals (20 points)
  • E. Turning Around the Lowest-Achieving Schools (50 points)
    • (E)(1) Intervening in the lowest-achieving schools and LEAs (10 points)
    • (E)(2) Turning around the lowest-achieving schools (40 points)
  • F. General Selection Criteria (55 points)
    • (F)(1) Making education funding a priority (10 points)
    • (F)(2) Ensuring successful conditions for high-performing charters and other innovative schools (40 points)
    • (F)(3) Demonstrating other significant reform conditions (5 points)

Goals

The goals of the Race to the Top reforms were:[12]

  • to use data to inform instruction
  • to raise achievement standards and graduation rates
  • to turn around historically low-performing schools
  • to improve teacher and principal quality.

Opposing viewpoints

  • Critics argued that the Race to the Top funding model would take resources from already struggling school systems and create vast disparities in achievement. Supporters maintained that only a "small but significant" portion of Race to the Top funds would go to states with the "best, homegrown plans for education reform," and that absent these incentives, the status-quo Federal funding model would continue to fail students by ignoring innovation.[13]
  • Other opponents questioned whether these reforms could adequately induce innovation. They saw Race to the Top as evidence of "cartel federalism" in line with the Bush administration's No Child Left Behind policy. They did not believe reform would be achieved by further centralization of standards because “the ends of the educational system are still set by the same small group of officials, who are protected from competition.”[14]

Supporting viewpoints

  • American Federation of Teachers president Randi Weingarten supported Race to the Top, but in May of 2013, she called for a moratorium on full implementation:
Done right, Common Core standards will 'lead to a revolution in teaching and learning' that puts critical thinking, problem solving and teamwork ahead of rote memorization and endless test-taking, Weingarten said. Done wrong, 'they will end up in the overflowing dustbin of abandoned reforms, with people throwing up their hands, believing that public schools are too broken to save.[4]

—American Federation of Teachers, [15]

  • Supporters also pointed out that Race to the Top incentivized states to design and pursue serious reforms before any money was handed out. The competition for potential grants induced reforms to improve instruction in both quality and kind across the board, not just among states who ultimately receive grants.[16]

Results

Race to the Top grants recipients were announced in three initial rounds.[17][18] [19]

Race to the Top grant allocations slowed significantly after the first three rounds as many states faced delayed implementation of promised reforms.[20]

In 2012, the Department of Education announced a new round of grant allocation -- Race to the Top-District -- in which individual school districts and charter school programs would be eligible for grants. Sixteen grant winners were selected in 2012. A second round of Race to the Top-District grants will be allocated, and in October 2013, 16 finalists for were announced.[21][22]

Controversy

Despite 45 states and four territories formally adopting Race to the Top's Common Core, public backlash against the new standards became a frequent occurance. On September 19, 2013, a group of parents in California protested the state's adoption of Common Core when Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited their city.[23] Duncan later drew criticism in November 2013 when he described the opposition to Common Core as "white suburban moms who — all of a sudden — their child isn’t as brilliant as they thought they were, and their school isn’t quite as good as they thought they were," to a group of state school superintendents.[24] On November 18, 2013, parents in South Carolina and New York chose to keep their children home from school as part of a "National Common Core Protest Day" to demonstrate opposition to Common Core's "one-size-fits all curriculum" and standardized testing methods.[25][26] On December 8, 2013, the Buffalo Teachers Federation protested outside the residence of a state education regent in response to Common Core implementation and its emphasis on continually testing students.[27]


In response to the public outcry, several states delayed implementation or rescinded adoption of the standards entirely. The Alabama state school board voted to revoke their agreement to adhere to the Common Core standards on November 14, 2013. However, their existing state standards were still in line with Common Core.[28] Alabama is the only state to pull away entirely from its commitment to the Common Core standards. However, others such as Pennsylvania and Indiana have chosen to halt implementation.[29][30] Louisiana chose to delay Common Core's accountability measures for two years, while Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Georgia and Michigan chose to delay or abandon Common Core testing.[31][32][33][34][35]


Additionally, both Utah and Florida withdrew from the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and Smarter Balanced Assessment consortium, although both states plan to continue Common Core implementation.[36][37] In Ohio, Representative Andrew Thompson introduced House Bill 237 to the Ohio House of Representatives in order to prevent the state from implementing Common Core.[38]

Issues

College loan rates

According to the Congressional Budget Office, the Department of Education will make $127 billion in profit from higher education student loans. Higher rates were expected to begin with the 2015-2016 academic year.[39] Secretary of Education Arne Duncan argued, "It’s actually neither accurate nor fair to characterize the student loan program as making a profit," in July 2013, claiming the funds are used to lower the department's cost to taxpayers.[40][39]

Racial inequality patterns

The department's Office for Civil Rights conducted research on all 97,000 public schools in the United States and discovered several racial disparities ranging from preschool through high school.[41] According to the study the following findings were made:

  • Access to preschool. About 40% of public school districts do not offer preschool, and where it is available, it is mostly part-day only. Of the school districts that operate public preschool programs, barely half are available to all students within the district.
  • Suspension of preschool children. Black students represent 18% of preschool enrollment but 42% of students suspended once, and 48% of the students suspended more than once.
  • Access to advanced courses. Eighty-one percent (81%) of Asian-American high school students and 71% of white high school students attend high schools where the full range of math and science courses are offered (Algebra I, geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry, physics). However, less than half of American Indian and Native-Alaskan high school students have access to the full range of math and science courses in their high school. Black students (57%), Latino students (67%), students with disabilities (63%), and English language learner students (65%) also have less access to the full range of courses.
  • Access to college counselors. Nationwide, one in five high schools lacks a school counselor; in Florida and Minnesota, more than two in five students lack access to a school counselor.
  • Retention of English learners in high school. English learners make up 5% of high school enrollment but 11% of high school students held back each year.[4]

—U.S. Department of Education, [42]

In President Barack Obama's 2015 budget request, a new $300 million competition was added to the Race to the Top program rewarding schools using data-driven and creative solutions to improve their failing status.[41]

Analysis

Budget

Obama administration

U.S. Department of Education[43] Annual Budget
YearBudget (in billions)% Difference from previous year
2014$44.210.22%
2013$40.1-30.14%
2012$57.431.65%
2011$43.6-29.11%
2010$61.554.14%
2009$39.9N/A
  • Note: 2014 only represents the Department's budget request, not an enacted budget.

Employment

The Best Places to work in the Federal Government is a website that tracks workforce trends in federal agencies. According to their analysis, from 2005-2011, the Department of Education has gained an average of 26 jobs per year.[44]

Sequestration

While Secretary Duncan suggested the cuts would result in furloughs, a May 10, 2013 memo stated no furloughs were necessary.[45]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term U.S. + Department + Education

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

U.S. Department of Education News Feed

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External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 U.S. Department of Education, "ABOUT ED: OVERVIEW AND MISSION STATEMENT," accessed October 2, 2013
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named budget
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hist
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  5. U.S. Department of Education website, "The Federal Role in Government," accessed on January 20, 2014
  6. U.S. Department of Education, "Policy Overview," accessed January 20, 2014
  7. Today, "Timeline: Moments that changed public education," accessed October 3, 2013
  8. [ http://www.ourdocuments.gov/print_friendly.php?flash=true&page=&doc=33&title=Morrill+Act+%281862%29 www.ourdocuments.gov, Morrill Act (1862), accessed April 18, 2014.]
  9. U.S. Department of Education, "US Department of Education Principal Office Functional Statements," accessed October 2, 2013
  10. Huffington Post, "Race To The Top For Districts Piques Interest Of Chicago And Los Angeles Mayors," March 3, 2012
  11. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "About the Standards," accessed December 10, 2013
  12. 12.0 12.1 ED.gov, "Race to the Top Executive Summary," accessed December 10, 2013
  13. NPR, "The New Republic: Defending Obama's Education Plan," July 29, 2010
  14. FEE, "Common Core: A Tocquevillean Education or Cartel Federalism?" May 14, 2013
  15. AFT, "AFT calls for moratorium on Common Core consequences," May 1, 2013
  16. Christian Science Monitor, "As Race to the Top competition intensifies, so do education reforms," July 27, 2010
  17. ED.gov, "Delaware and Tennessee Win First Race to The Top Grants," accessed December 10, 2013
  18. ED.gov, "Nine States and the District of Columbia Win Second Round Race to the Top Grants," August 24, 2010
  19. ED.gov, "Department of Education Awards $200 Million to Seven States to Advance K-12 Reform," December 23, 2011
  20. Huffington Post, "Race To The Top State Reports: New York, Florida, Hawaii Backtracked On Reform Commitments," Jauary 10, 2012
  21. ED.gov, "2012 Race to the Top—District Awards, Grantee Applications, Peer Reviewer Scores and Comments," accessed December 10, 2013
  22. ED.gov, "Race to the Top- District," December 23, 2011
  23. Susan Luzarro, San Diego Reader, "Chula Vista parents protest switch to Common Core State Standards," September 19, 2013
  24. Valerie Strauss, Washington Post, "Arne Duncan: ‘White suburban moms’ upset that Common Core shows their kids aren’t ‘brilliant’," November 16, 2013
  25. Allie Bidwell, U.S. News, "South Carolina Parents Remove Children From School to Protest Common Core," November 18, 2013
  26. Diane C. Lore, Staten Island Advance, "Some Staten Island parents planning to keep their children home from school Monday for National Common Core Protest Day," November 15, 2013
  27. Denise Jewell Gee, The Buffalo News, "BTF, parents picket Regent’s home in protest over state standards, tests," December 8, 2013
  28. AL.com, "Common Core: Alabama votes to distance itself from controversial standards (week in review)," November 16, 2013
  29. The Patriot-News, "Corbett orders delay in Common Core academic standards' implementation," May 21, 2013
  30. Indiana Public Media, "House Bill 1427: What 'Pausing' The Common Core Means For Indiana Schools," accessed December 10, 2013
  31. The Times Picayune, "Louisiana announces major changes to how students, schools held accountable under Common Core," November 21, 2013
  32. Education Week, "Two-Year Transition to Common-Core Tests Approved in Massachusetts," November 19, 2013
  33. Education Week, "Tech Challenges Lead Oklahoma to Opt Out of PARCC Exams," July 3, 2013
  34. Heartland, "Common Core Testing Costs Increase; Georgia Withdraws," July 22, 2013
  35. CBS Detroit, "Michigan Gives Final OK To Common Core Standards," November 2, 2013
  36. The Salt Lake Tribune, "Utah drops out of consortium developing Common Core tests," August 4, 2013
  37. Khristopher J. Brooks, The Florida-Times Union, "Common Core still moving ahead in Florida," October 16, 2013
  38. Lancaster Eagle Gazette, "Ohio Republicans target Common Core," November 29, 2013
  39. 39.0 39.1 Huffington Post, "Student Loan Borrowers' Costs To Jump As Education Department Reaps Huge Profit," April 15, 2014
  40. Huffington Post, "Federal Student Loan Profits Help Duncan Cut Education Spending To Lowest Level Since 2001," November 18, 2013
  41. 41.0 41.1 Wall Street Journal, "Suspensions More Likely for Black Students, Report Finds," March 21, 2014
  42. ED.gov, "Expansive Survey of America's Public Schools Reveals Troubling Racial Disparities," March 21, 2014
  43. U.S. Department of Education, "Department Budget History," accessed February 7, 2014
  44. Best Places to Work in the Federal Government, "Department of Education," accessed October 2, 2013
  45. Govovernment Executive, "Furlough Watch: Agency-by-Agency Impacts of Sequestration," May 30, 2013