U.S. Department of Education
|Department of Education|
|Deputy Secretary:||Tony Miller|
|Annual budget:||$65.7 billion (2013)|
|Total employed:||4,400 (2013)|
The Department employs 4,400 employees. The operating budget for fiscal year 2013 was $65.7 billion. The United States education industry was estimated at about $1.15 trillion in 2011-2012. Federal contributions to elementary and secondary education come to about 10.8%, including the Department of Education, the Department of Health and Human Services' Head Start and the Department of Agriculture's School Lunch program. The rest of the funding comes from state, local and private sources.
The Office of Education was formed in 1867 to help establish an effective education system. The Office's role was in collecting information from schools to determine high impact policies and practices. Following is a list of important dates in education policy:
- 1890: Second Morrill Act gave the Office authority to establish a support system for land-grant colleges and universities
- 1896: U.S. Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized segregation in "separate but equal" schools
- 1917: Smith-Hughes Act extended federal aid to vocational education programs
- 1946: Georgia-Barden Act established agricultural, industrial and home economics classes
- 1944: GI Bill authorized assistance to veterans for postsecondary schools
- 1954: U.S. Supreme Court case, Brown v. Board of Education, outlaws segregation precedent set in Plessy v. Ferguson
- 1958: [National Defense Education Act (NDEA)] supported loans for college students, improved science, technology and foreign language support in elementary and secondary schools and provided fellowships in response to the Cold War
- 1964: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination based on race, color or national origin in public schools
- 1965: Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act gave federal aid to schools in poor rural and urban areas
- 1965: Higher Education Act authorized federal aid for poor postsecondary students
- 1970: Standardized tests were given to public schools and the results are reported to the government and public in an effort to hold educators accountable
- 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments prohibited discrimination based on sex in public schools
- 1973: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act prohibited discrimination based on disability in public schools
- 1980: the Department of Education was officially formed by Congress
- 2001: No Child Left Behind program increased education funding and established standards-based testing reforms
- 2010: Race to the Top program encouraging states to compete for federal grants in education
The Department of Education website states the mission:
|“||The mission of the Department of Education is to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence throughout the nation.||”|
The current Secretary of Education is Arne Duncan.
|Secretaries of Education Full History|
|Secretary of Education||Years in office||Nominated by||Confirmation vote|
|Shirley Hufstedler||1980-1981||Jimmy Carter||81-2|
|Terrel Bell||1981-1985||Ronald Reagan||90-2|
|William J. Bennett||1985-1988||Ronald Reagan||93-0|
|Lauro Cavazos||1988-1990||Ronald Reagan||94-0|
|Lamar Alexander||1991-1993||George H.W. Bush||N/A|
|Richard Riley||1993-2001||Bill Clinton||N/A|
|Roderick Paige||2001-2005||George W. Bush||N/A|
|Margaret Spellings||2005-2009||George W. Bush||N/A|
|Arne Duncan||2009-Present||Barack Obama||N/A|
Note: Votes marked "N/A" represent voice votes or unrecorded votes.
Office of the Secretary of Education
According to the Department's official website, the Office of the Secretary:
- Provides advice on a wide range of policy matters and issues.
- Maintains White House liaison on personnel and scheduling matters and on sensitive political issues.
- Supervises Federal advisory committee establishment and operating procedures and coordinates the provision of administrative services.
- Coordinates the processing and placement for all appointments for non–career and advisory council positions.
- Responds to appropriate inquiries concerning the Secretary's views and positions.
- Reviews communications going to the Secretary for signature or information to assure that the Secretary's specific interests, viewpoints, and policy are properly reflected.
- Prepares and coordinates the preparation of all speeches and comments for the Secretary's use, and arranges for all substitutes when the Secretary is unable to be present at a function external to the Department.
- Carries out priority assignments and special projects for the Secretary.
- Coordinates and conducts, in cooperation with the Office of Inspector General, the development of advance security planning and surveys involving risk analysis for the Secretary's speaking engagements and travel, and provides a security presence at all official social functions attended by the Secretary.
The Best Places to work in the Federal Government is a website that tracks workforce trends in federal agencies. According to their analysis, from 2005-2011, the Department of Education has gained an average of 26 jobs per year. 
While Secretary Duncan suggested the cuts would result in furloughs, a May 10, 2013, memo states no furloughs were necessary.
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term U.S. + Department + Education
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- Official Department of Education website
- Department of Education blog
- Official Facebook page
- Official Twitter page
- Official Youtube channel
- U.S. Department of Education, "ABOUT ED: OVERVIEW AND MISSION STATEMENT," accessed October 2, 2013
- U.S. Department of Education, "DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FISCAL YEAR 2013 OPERATING PLAN," accessed October 3, 2013
- U.S. Department of Education, "The Federal Role in Education," accessed October 3, 2013
- Today, "Timeline: Moments that changed public education," accessed October 3, 2013
- U.S. Department of Education, "Offices," accessed October 2, 2013
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- U.S. Department of Education, "US Department of Education *Principal Office Functional Statements," accessed October 2, 2013
- Best Places to Work in the Federal Government, "Department of Education," accessed October 2, 2013
- Govovernment Executive, "Furlough Watch: Agency-by-Agency Impacts of Sequestration," May 30, 2013