Difference between revisions of "United States House of Representatives"
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Revision as of 10:28, 16 May 2014
- 1 Representatives
- 2 Leaders
- 3 Committees
- 4 Elections
- 5 Analysis
- 6 Current members
- 6.1 The current House of Representatives
- 6.2 Alabama
- 6.3 Alaska
- 6.4 Arizona
- 6.5 Arkansas
- 6.6 California
- 6.7 Colorado
- 6.8 Connecticut
- 6.9 Delaware
- 6.10 Florida
- 6.11 Georgia
- 6.12 Hawaii
- 6.13 Idaho
- 6.14 Illinois
- 6.15 Indiana
- 6.16 Iowa
- 6.17 Kansas
- 6.18 Kentucky
- 6.19 Louisiana
- 6.20 Maine
- 6.21 Maryland
- 6.22 Massachusetts
- 6.23 Michigan
- 6.24 Minnesota
- 6.25 Mississippi
- 6.26 Missouri
- 6.27 Montana
- 6.28 Nebraska
- 6.29 Nevada
- 6.30 New Hampshire
- 6.31 New Jersey
- 6.32 New Mexico
- 6.33 New York
- 6.34 North Carolina
- 6.35 North Dakota
- 6.36 Ohio
- 6.37 Oklahoma
- 6.38 Oregon
- 6.39 Pennsylvania
- 6.40 Rhode Island
- 6.41 South Carolina
- 6.42 South Dakota
- 6.43 Tennessee
- 6.44 Texas
- 6.45 Utah
- 6.46 Vermont
- 6.47 Virginia
- 6.48 Washington
- 6.49 West Virginia
- 6.50 Wisconsin
- 6.51 Wyoming
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 References
Members in the House are called representatives. Each state receives representation in the House in proportion to the size of its population, but is entitled to at least one Representative. There are currently 435 representatives, a number fixed by law since 1911. The most populous state, California, currently has 53 representatives. There are seven states with only one representative: Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.
Each representative serves for a two-year term. There are no term limits.
According to the U.S. Constitution, Representatives must meet the following requirements:
- At least 25 years old
- A U.S. citizen for at least seven years
- A resident of the state he or she represents
Additionally, all 50 states maintain requirements related to running for election. These filing requirements vary, and can include:
- A filing fee
- A petition with a minimum number of valid signatures
Clause 1 : The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
Clause 2 : No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Clause 3 : Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
Clause 4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
Clause 5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
Besides the representative from each state, there are a small number of Delegates and a Resident Commission.
- Delegates are representatives from Washington D.C., as well as American Samoa, Guam, The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the Virgin Islands. Delegates are able to perform many of the functions of a full representative, such as serve on committees. However, they are not able to vote during business as the Committee as the Whole or on final passage of legislation. Delegates serve two year terms.
- The Resident Commissioner functions are similar to the delegates, but the title is specifically for a representative from Puerto Rico. The Resident Commissioner serves a four year term. The Philippines also had a Resident Commissioner before its independence from the U.S. in 1946.
There are several important leadership position in the House of Representatives:
- Speaker of the House: The Speaker is the presiding officer elected by the members of the house. The Speaker performs a number of functions, including: Administering the Oath of Office to House members, chairing and nominating chairs or certain committees, and appointing select members of various committees and house staff.
- Majority and Minority Leaders: The party with more the most members elects the Majority Leader and other party elects a Minority Leader. The Majority Leader customarily schedules legislative business on the House Floor, while the Minority Leader Minority Leader serves as a spokesperson for the minority party. The two leaders are selected at their respective the party conference or caucus.
- Majority and Minority Whips: Each party also elects a Whip, who act as middlemen for communication between party leaders and normal members. There parties will also often create other similar positions to help with various communication duties.
There are five main house officer positions:
- The Clerk of the House: The clerk is essentially the House record keeper.
- The Sergeant at Arms: The Sergeant is the chief law enforcement officer for the House, and is responsible for maintaining security and order in the House Chamber, the House wing of the U.S. Capitol, and House office buildings.
- The Chief Administrative Officer: The Chief Administrative Officer is responsible for the administrative functions of the House, such as operating budget, procurement, payroll, and information technology
- The Chaplain: The Chaplin customarily opens each meeting of Congress with a formal prayer. They also provide spiritual services and counseling to house members, family, and staff.
There are 20 regular standing committees, and one permanent select committee the U.S. House has created. There are also several joint committees with the U.S. Senate. The committees are permanent panels governed by House chamber rules, with responsibility to consider bills and issues and to have general oversight relating to their area of jurisdiction.
Congressional committees (Joint)
Elections to the U.S. house will be held on November 4, 2014. All 435 seats will be up for election.
Elections to the U.S. House were held on November 6, 2012. All 435 seats were up for election. In a year where Barack Obama won re-election by 126 electoral votes, the Republican party maintained their control of the U.S. House winning 234 seats. The Democrats did make some gains, winning 201 seats. This is up from the 193 seats they held prior to the election. This election marks only the fourth time in 100 years that the party that pulled the most total popular votes nationwide did not win control of the House. Democratic candidates held on to nine seats that had a political lean favoring Republicans by 54% or more. This is down from prior to 2010 where Democrats held 32 seats in that same environment. With regards to ticket-splitting, there were 24 districts in which one party's nominee carried the presidential vote and the other party's nominee won the congressional race. All but four of which were won by an incumbent. Of the 435 districts, 241 had a Republican lean and this has parity to the partisan distribution in the 1990s when Democratic candidates were winning in many Republican leaning districts.
Apportionment is the process by which seats in the House of Representatives are divided up among the states.
As of 2014, most representatives are paid $174,000 per year. Majority and minority leaders receive $193,400, while the Speaker of the House receives $223,500.
Some historical facts about the salary of U.S. House members:
Voting with the party
According to OpenCongress, a website that tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of their party caucus. In June of 2012 there were 190 Democrats and 242 Republicans tracked.
The average net worth of members of the Senate, based on data from OpenSecrets.org, is as follows:
Note: Report numbers may reflect incoming and outgoing members of congress.
113th Congress: Demographics
The 113th Congress is the most diverse Congress in the nation's history, owing to a record number of newly elected women and minorities. Six years after House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D) was elected the first female Speaker, the chamber's Democrats broke ground once again when they swore in 58 women and 72 minorities, making it the first ever congressional caucus from either party or chamber where Caucasian men do not make up the majority.
There are currently 42 African Americans, 29 Latinos, and 81 women serving in the U.S. House.
The following data lists the professions of the members of the U.S. House and the change in their numbers from the 112th congress.
The current House of Representatives
The following is a simple list of the current members of the U.S. Representatives broken down by state.