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United States House of Representatives

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General overview

The United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as "the House", is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.


Members in the House are called representatives. Each state receives representation in the House in proportion to the size of its population, but is entitled to at least one Representative. There are currently 435 representatives, a number fixed by law since 1911. The most populous state, California, currently has 53 representatives. There are seven states with only one representative: Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.[1]

Each representative serves for a two-year term. There are no term limits.


According to the U.S. Constitution, Representatives must meet the following requirements: [2]

  • At least 25 years old
  • A U.S. citizen for at least seven years
  • A resident of the state he or she represents

Additionally, all 50 states maintain requirements related to running for election. These filing requirements vary, and can include:

  • A filing fee
  • A petition with a minimum number of valid signatures

Section 2:
Clause 1 : The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
Clause 2 : No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Clause 3 : Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. (See Note 2) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
Clause 4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
Clause 5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.[3]

The U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 2

Delegates and the Resident Commissioner

Besides the representative from each state, there are a small number of Delegates and a Resident Commission.

  • Delegates are representatives from Washington D.C., as well as American Samoa, Guam, The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. and the Virgin Islands. Delegates are able to perform many of the functions of a full representative, such as serve on committees. However, they are not able to vote during business as the Committee as the Whole or on final passage of legislation. Delegates serve two year terms.
  • The Resident Commissioner functions are similar to the delegates, but the title is specifically for a representative from Puerto Rico. The Resident Commissioner serves a four year term. The Philippines also had a Resident Commissioner before its independence from the U.S. in 1946.[4]


There are several important leadership position in the House of Representatives:

  • Speaker of the House: The Speaker is the presiding officer elected by the members of the house. The Speaker performs a number of functions, including: Administering the Oath of Office to House members, chairing and nominating chairs or certain committees, and appointing select members of various committees and house staff.
  • Majority and Minority Leaders: The party with more the most members elects the Majority Leader and other party elects a Minority Leader. The Majority Leader customarily schedules legislative business on the House Floor, while the Minority Leader Minority Leader serves as a spokesperson for the minority party. The two leaders are selected at their respective the party conference or caucus.
  • Majority and Minority Whips: Each party also elects a Whip, who act as middlemen for communication between party leaders and normal members. There parties will also often create other similar positions to help with various communication duties.[4]

House officers

There are five main house officer positions:

  • The Clerk of the House: The clerk is essentially the House record keeper.
  • The Sergeant at Arms: The Sergeant is the the chief law enforcement officer for the House, and is responsible for maintaining security and order in the House Chamber, the House wing of the U.S. Capitol, and House office buildings.
  • The Chief Administrative Officer: The Chief Administrative Officer is responsible for the administrative functions of the House, such as operating budget, procurement, payroll, and information technology
  • The Chaplain: The Chaplin customarily opens each meeting of Congress with a formal prayer. They also provide pastoral services to house members, family, and staff.[4]


There are 20 regular standing committees, and one permanent select committee the U.S. House has created. There are also several joint committees with the U.S. Senate. The committees are permanent panels governed by House chamber rules, with responsibility to consider bills and issues and to have general oversight relating to their area of jurisdiction.[5][6][1]

They regular standing and select committees and are:



See also: U.S. Congress elections, 2012

A total of 468 seats in the U.S. Congress will be up for election on November 6, 2012.

See also

External links


(See the bottom of the next tab)


As of 2009, most representatives are paid $174,000 per year. Majority and minority leaders receive $193,400, while the Speaker of the House receives $223,500.[7]

Some historical facts about the salary of U.S. House members:

  • In 1789, members of Congress received $6 per diem[7]
  • In 1874, members of Congress earned $5,000 per year[7]
  • In 1990, members of Congress earned $96,600 per year[7]
  • From 2000-2006, the salary of a member of the U.S. House increased every year, going from $141,300 to $165,200.[7]

Voting with the party

According to Open Congress, a website that tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus. In June of 2012 there were 190 Democrats and 242 republicans tracked.


  • The average (mean) Democrat voted with the party approximately 90.4% of the team.
  • The average (medium) Democrat voted with the party approximately 93.4% of the time.
  • The top Democrat voted with the party approximately 97.3% of the time.
  • The bottom Democrat voted with the party approximately 97.3% of the time.


  • The average (mean) Republican voted with the party approximately 92.6% of the team.
  • The average (medium) Republican voted with the party approximately 93.5% of the time.
  • The top Republican voted with the party approximately 98.2% of the time.
  • The bottom Republican voted with the party approximately 70.9%% of the time.


The Current House of Representatives

The following is a simple list of the current members of the U.S. Representatives


  1. Bradley Byrne
  2. Gary Palmer
  3. Martha Roby
  4. Mike Rogers (Alabama)
  5. Mo Brooks
  6. Robert Aderholt
  7. Terri Sewell


  1. Don Young


  1. Ann Kirkpatrick
  2. David Schweikert
  3. Kyrsten Sinema
  4. Martha McSally
  5. Matt Salmon
  6. Paul Gosar
  7. Raul Grijalva
  8. Ruben Gallego
  9. Trent Franks


  1. Bruce Westerman
  2. French Hill
  3. Rick Crawford (Arkansas)
  4. Steve Womack


  1. Adam Schiff
  2. Alan Lowenthal
  3. Ami Bera
  4. Anna Eshoo
  5. Barbara Lee
  6. Brad Sherman
  7. Dana Rohrabacher
  8. Darrell Issa
  9. David Valadao
  10. Devin Nunes
  11. Doris Matsui
  12. Doug LaMalfa
  13. Duncan Hunter
  14. Edward Royce
  15. Eric Swalwell
  16. Grace Napolitano
  17. Jackie Speier
  18. Janice Hahn
  19. Jared Huffman
  20. Jeff Denham
  21. Jerry McNerney
  22. Jim Costa
  23. John Garamendi
  24. Juan Vargas
  25. Judy Chu
  26. Julia Brownley
  27. Karen Bass
  28. Ken Calvert
  29. Kevin McCarthy (California)
  30. Linda Sanchez
  31. Lois Capps
  32. Loretta Sanchez
  33. Lucille Roybal-Allard
  34. Mark DeSaulnier
  35. Mark Takano
  36. Maxine Waters
  37. Mike Honda
  38. Mike Thompson (California)
  39. Mimi Walters
  40. Nancy Pelosi
  41. Norma Torres
  42. Paul Cook (California)
  43. Pete Aguilar
  44. Raul Ruiz
  45. Sam Farr
  46. Scott Peters
  47. Stephen Knight
  48. Susan Davis
  49. Ted Lieu
  50. Tom McClintock
  51. Tony Cardenas
  52. Xavier Becerra
  53. Zoe Lofgren


  1. Diana DeGette
  2. Doug Lamborn
  3. Ed Perlmutter
  4. Jared Polis
  5. Ken Buck
  6. Mike Coffman
  7. Scott Tipton


  1. Elizabeth Esty
  2. Jim Himes
  3. Joe Courtney
  4. John Larson
  5. Rosa DeLauro


  1. John C. Carney Jr.


  1. Alan Grayson
  2. Alcee Hastings
  3. Ander Crenshaw
  4. Bill Posey
  5. Carlos Curbelo
  6. Corrine Brown
  7. Curt Clawson
  8. Daniel Webster (Florida)
  9. David Jolly
  10. Debbie Wasserman Schultz
  11. Dennis Ross
  12. Frederica Wilson
  13. Gus Bilirakis
  14. Gwen Graham
  15. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
  16. Jeff Miller (Florida)
  17. John Mica
  18. Kathy Castor
  19. Lois Frankel
  20. Mario Diaz-Balart
  21. Patrick Murphy (Florida)
  22. Richard Nugent
  23. Ron DeSantis
  24. Ted Deutch
  25. Ted Yoho
  26. Thomas Rooney
  27. Vern Buchanan


  1. Austin Scott
  2. Barry Loudermilk
  3. David Scott (Georgia)
  4. Doug Collins
  5. Earl "Buddy" Carter
  6. Hank Johnson
  7. Jody Hice
  8. John Lewis (Georgia)
  9. Lynn Westmoreland
  10. Rick Allen
  11. Rob Woodall
  12. Sanford D. Bishop, Jr.
  13. Tom Graves
  14. Tom Price


  1. Mark Takai
  2. Tulsi Gabbard


  1. Michael K. Simpson
  2. Raul Labrador


  1. Aaron Schock
  2. Adam Kinzinger
  3. Bill Foster
  4. Bobby Rush
  5. Cheri Bustos
  6. Daniel Lipinski
  7. Danny K. Davis
  8. Jan Schakowsky
  9. John Shimkus
  10. Luis Gutierrez
  11. Mike Bost
  12. Mike Quigley
  13. Peter Roskam
  14. Randy Hultgren
  15. Robert Dold
  16. Robin Kelly
  17. Rodney Davis (Illinois)
  18. Tammy Duckworth


  1. Andre Carson
  2. Jackie Walorski
  3. Larry Bucshon
  4. Luke Messer
  5. Marlin Stutzman
  6. Peter Visclosky
  7. Susan Brooks
  8. Todd Rokita
  9. Todd Young


  1. Dave Loebsack
  2. David Young
  3. Rod Blum
  4. Steve King (Iowa)


  1. Kevin Yoder
  2. Lynn Jenkins
  3. Mike Pompeo
  4. Tim Huelskamp


  1. Andy Barr
  2. Brett Guthrie
  3. Ed Whitfield
  4. Hal Rogers
  5. John Yarmuth
  6. Thomas Massie


  1. Cedric Richmond
  2. Charles Boustany Jr.
  3. Garret Graves
  4. John Fleming (Louisiana)
  5. Ralph Abraham
  6. Steve Scalise


  1. Bruce Poliquin
  2. Chellie Pingree


  1. Andrew Harris
  2. Chris Van Hollen
  3. Donna Edwards
  4. Dutch Ruppersberger
  5. Elijah Cummings
  6. John Delaney
  7. John Sarbanes
  8. Steny Hoyer


  1. Bill Keating
  2. Jim McGovern (Massachusetts)
  3. Joseph Kennedy III
  4. Katherine Clark
  5. Michael Capuano
  6. Niki Tsongas
  7. Richard Neal
  8. Stephen Lynch


  1. Bill Huizenga
  2. Brenda Lawrence
  3. Candice Miller
  4. Dan Benishek
  5. Dan Kildee
  6. David Trott
  7. Debbie Dingell
  8. Fred Upton
  9. John Conyers, Jr.
  10. John Moolenaar
  11. Justin Amash
  12. Michael Bishop
  13. Sandy Levin
  14. Tim Walberg


  1. Betty McCollum
  2. Collin Peterson
  3. Erik Paulsen
  4. John Kline
  5. Keith Ellison
  6. Rick Nolan
  7. Tim Walz
  8. Tom Emmer


  1. Alan Nunnelee
  2. Bennie Thompson
  3. Gregg Harper
  4. Steven Palazzo


  1. Ann Wagner
  2. Billy Long
  3. Blaine Luetkemeyer
  4. Emanuel Cleaver
  5. Jason Smith (Missouri representative)
  6. Sam Graves
  7. Vicky Hartzler
  8. William Lacy Clay


  1. Ryan Zinke


  1. Adrian Smith
  2. Brad Ashford
  3. Jeff Fortenberry


  1. Cresent Hardy
  2. Dina Titus
  3. Joe Heck
  4. Mark Amodei

New Hampshire

  1. Annie Kuster
  2. Frank Guinta

New Jersey

  1. Albio Sires
  2. Bill Pascrell
  3. Bonnie Watson Coleman
  4. Chris Smith (New Jersey)
  5. Donald Norcross
  6. Donald Payne, Jr.
  7. Frank LoBiondo
  8. Frank Pallone
  9. Leonard Lance
  10. Rodney Frelinghuysen
  11. Scott Garrett
  12. Tom MacArthur

New Mexico

  1. Ben Ray Lujan
  2. Michelle Lujan Grisham
  3. Steve Pearce

New York

  1. Brian Higgins
  2. Carolyn Maloney
  3. Charles Rangel
  4. Chris Collins
  5. Chris Gibson
  6. Eliot Engel
  7. Elise Stefanik
  8. Grace Meng
  9. Gregory Meeks
  10. Hakeem Jeffries
  11. Jerrold Nadler
  12. John Katko
  13. Jose Serrano
  14. Joseph Crowley
  15. Kathleen M. Rice
  16. Lee Zeldin
  17. Louise Slaughter
  18. Nita Lowey
  19. Nydia Velazquez
  20. Paul Tonko
  21. Peter King
  22. Richard Hanna
  23. Sean Maloney
  24. Steve Israel
  25. Tom Reed
  26. Yvette Clarke

North Carolina

  1. Alma Adams
  2. David Price
  3. David Rouzer
  4. G.K. Butterfield
  5. George Holding
  6. Mark Meadows (North Carolina)
  7. Mark Walker (North Carolina)
  8. Patrick McHenry
  9. Renee Ellmers
  10. Richard Hudson
  11. Robert Pittenger
  12. Virginia Foxx
  13. Walter Jones

North Dakota

  1. Kevin Cramer


  1. Bill Johnson (Ohio)
  2. Bob Gibbs
  3. Bob Latta
  4. Brad Wenstrup
  5. David Joyce
  6. Jim Jordan
  7. Jim Renacci
  8. John Boehner
  9. Joyce Beatty
  10. Marcia Fudge
  11. Marcy Kaptur
  12. Michael Turner (Ohio)
  13. Patrick Tiberi
  14. Steve Chabot
  15. Steve Stivers
  16. Tim Ryan (Ohio)


  1. Frank Lucas
  2. Jim Bridenstine
  3. Markwayne Mullin
  4. Steve Russell
  5. Tom Cole


  1. Earl Blumenauer
  2. Greg Walden
  3. Kurt Schrader
  4. Peter DeFazio
  5. Suzanne Bonamici


  1. Bill Shuster
  2. Brendan Boyle
  3. Chaka Fattah
  4. Charlie Dent
  5. Glenn Thompson
  6. Joseph Pitts (Pennsylvania)
  7. Keith Rothfus
  8. Lou Barletta
  9. Matt Cartwright
  10. Michael Doyle (Pennsylvania Congress)
  11. Michael G. Fitzpatrick
  12. Mike Kelly (Pennsylvania)
  13. Patrick Meehan
  14. Robert Brady
  15. Ryan Costello
  16. Scott Perry
  17. Tim Murphy (Pennsylvania)
  18. Tom Marino

Rhode Island

  1. David Cicilline
  2. Jim Langevin

South Carolina

  1. James E. Clyburn
  2. Jeff Duncan (Congress)
  3. Joe Wilson
  4. Mark Sanford
  5. Mick Mulvaney
  6. Tom Rice (South Carolina)
  7. Trey Gowdy

South Dakota

  1. Kristi Noem


  1. Charles Fleischmann
  2. Diane Black
  3. Jim Cooper (Tennessee)
  4. John Duncan, Jr.
  5. Marsha Blackburn
  6. Phil Roe
  7. Scott DesJarlais
  8. Stephen Lee Fincher
  9. Steve Cohen


  1. Al Green
  2. Beto O'Rourke
  3. Bill Flores
  4. Blake Farenthold
  5. Brian Babin
  6. Eddie Bernice Johnson
  7. Filemon Vela
  8. Gene Green
  9. Henry Cuellar
  10. Jeb Hensarling
  11. Joaquin Castro
  12. Joe Barton
  13. John Carter
  14. John Culberson
  15. John Ratcliffe
  16. Kay Granger
  17. Kenny Marchant
  18. Kevin Brady
  19. Lamar Smith
  20. Lloyd Doggett
  21. Louie Gohmert
  22. Mac Thornberry
  23. Marc Veasey
  24. Michael Burgess
  25. Michael McCaul
  26. Mike Conaway
  27. Pete Olson
  28. Pete Sessions
  29. Randy Neugebauer
  30. Randy Weber
  31. Roger Williams (Texas)
  32. Ruben Hinojosa
  33. Sam Johnson (Texas)
  34. Sheila Jackson Lee
  35. Ted Poe
  36. Will Hurd


  1. Chris Stewart (Utah)
  2. Jason Chaffetz
  3. Mia Love
  4. Rob Bishop


  1. Peter Welch


  1. Barbara Comstock
  2. Bob Goodlatte
  3. Bobby Scott
  4. David Brat
  5. Don Beyer
  6. Gerald Connolly
  7. Morgan Griffith
  8. Randy Forbes
  9. Rob Wittman
  10. Robert Hurt
  11. Scott Rigell


  1. Adam Smith
  2. Cathy McMorris Rodgers
  3. Dan Newhouse
  4. Dave Reichert
  5. Denny Heck
  6. Derek Kilmer
  7. Jaime Herrera Beutler
  8. Jim McDermott (Washington)
  9. Rick Larsen
  10. Suzan DelBene

West Virginia

  1. Alexander Mooney
  2. David McKinley
  3. Evan Jenkins


  1. Glenn Grothman
  2. Gwen Moore
  3. Jim Sensenbrenner
  4. Mark Pocan
  5. Paul Ryan
  6. Reid Ribble
  7. Ron Kind
  8. Sean Duffy
  9. Tom Petri


  1. Cynthia Lummis