Difference between revisions of "United States Senate elections in Colorado, 2014"

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==Issues==
 
==Issues==
 
===Water===
 
===Water===
Both incumbent [[Mark Udall]] and challenger [[Cory Gardner]] spoke at a conference on water issues in August 2014. Udall issued a news release attacking Gardner for supporting a 2008 ballot initiative, Amendment 52, which would have cut funding on water projects to increase funding on transportation issues. In the release, former senator [[Ken Salazar]] said, "Senators have a duty to represent and protect the well-being of all Coloradans. It is deeply disturbing that Congressman Gardner sided with out-of-state interests over the water needs of Colorado communities. Almost two-thirds of Colorado’s voters from every part of the state rejected Gardner’s scheme. Coloradans deserve better than Congressman Gardner."<ref name=water>[http://www.durangoherald.com/article/20140820/NEWS01/140829986/0/FRONTPAGE/Headwaters-make-political-waves- ''The Durango Herald'', "Candidates talk water," August 20, 2014]</ref>
+
Both incumbent [[Mark Udall]] and challenger [[Cory Gardner]] spoke at a conference on water issues in August 2014. Udall issued a news release attacking Gardner for supporting a 2008 ballot initiative, Amendment 52, which would have cut funding on water projects to increase funding on transportation issues. In the release, former senator Ken Salazar said, "Senators have a duty to represent and protect the well-being of all Coloradans. It is deeply disturbing that Congressman Gardner sided with out-of-state interests over the water needs of Colorado communities. Almost two-thirds of Colorado’s voters from every part of the state rejected Gardner’s scheme. Coloradans deserve better than Congressman Gardner."<ref name=water>[http://www.durangoherald.com/article/20140820/NEWS01/140829986/0/FRONTPAGE/Headwaters-make-political-waves- ''The Durango Herald'', "Candidates talk water," August 20, 2014]</ref>
  
 
Gardner responded to the attack with, "It’s a shame that Sen. Udall can’t even talk about how we need additional dollars for transportation and the water infrastructure in the state, he would rather resort to partisan attacks. I am passionate about water issues in Colorado I have been a leader at the state Legislature and U.S. Congress to protect Colorado water and Colorado water rights from intrusion. I’m going to talk about how Sen. Udall has simply been a rubber stamp for Barack Obama and his administration as they have tried to take Colorado water."<ref name=water/>
 
Gardner responded to the attack with, "It’s a shame that Sen. Udall can’t even talk about how we need additional dollars for transportation and the water infrastructure in the state, he would rather resort to partisan attacks. I am passionate about water issues in Colorado I have been a leader at the state Legislature and U.S. Congress to protect Colorado water and Colorado water rights from intrusion. I’m going to talk about how Sen. Udall has simply been a rubber stamp for Barack Obama and his administration as they have tried to take Colorado water."<ref name=water/>

Revision as of 10:30, 25 August 2014



CongressLogo.png

2014 U.S. Senate Elections in Colorado

General Election Date
November 4, 2014

Primary Date
June 24, 2014

November 4 Election Winner:
Cory Gardner Republican Party
Incumbent prior to election:
Mark Udall Democratic Party
Mark Udall.jpg

Race Ratings
Cook Political Report: Toss Up[1]

Sabato's Crystal Ball: Toss Up[2]


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2014 U.S. House Elections

Flag of Colorado.png
Voters in Colorado will elect one member to the U.S. Senate in the election on November 4, 2014.

Incumbent Mark Udall is seen as being somewhat vulnerable in 2014. This is partially due to the unpopularity of the Affordable Care Act. Additionally, he faces a legitimate Republican challenger in U.S. Rep. Cory Gardner. Polling as of December 2014 shows Udall with a very slight lead over Gardner.[3] Udall does hold a significant edge over Gardner in fundraising. As of the FEC's July Quarterly reports, Udall has raised $10.4 million and has $5.7 million cash on hand.[4] Gardner has raised less than half of Udall's total at just under $5 million and has $3.4 million on hand.[5]

Candidate Filing Deadline Primary Election General Election
March 31, 2014
June 24, 2014
November 4, 2014

Primary: Colorado is one of 21 states with a mixed primary system. The primary is considered closed, but unaffiliated voters may choose to affiliate with a party on election day in order to vote.[6]

Voter registration: Voters were able to register to vote in the primary by either June 2 (by mail, at a voter registration agency, voter registration drive or DMV), June 16 (online) or on election day (in-person at a voter service polling center). For the general election, voters could register through election day, November 4, 2014.[7]

See also: Colorado elections, 2014

Incumbent: The election will fill the Senate seat currently held by Mark Udall (D). Udall was first elected in 2008.

Candidates

General election candidates

Democratic Party Mark Udall
Republican Party Cory Gardner Green check mark transparent.png
Libertarian Party Gaylon Kent
Independent Bill Hammons (Unity Party of Colorado)
Independent Raul Acosta
Independent Steve Shogan
Independent Willoughby

June 24, 2014, primary results

Democratic Party Democratic Primary

Republican Party Republican Primary

Independent Third Party candidates

Libertarian Party Gaylon Kent
Independent Bill Hammons (Unity Party of Colorado)
Independent Raul Acosta
Independent Steve Shogan
Independent Willoughby

Out in assembly

Withdrew

Race background

Multiple Republican candidates filed to run for the seat currently held by Mark Udall. However, because Cory Gardner received the votes of 73 percent of the more than 3,900 delegates at the state assembly on April 12, 2014, he was the only Republican on the primary ballot. Thus, he will face incumbent Mark Udall in November.[8]

Incumbent Udall has maintained a small lead in the polls over Gardner as of December 2014. This combined with his large fundraising edge, makes him a slight favorite in the race. However, the race is expected to remain close up to the general election. Cook Political Report rates the race as a Toss Up, while Sabato's Crystal Ball rates it as Leans D.[9][10]

Issues

Water

Both incumbent Mark Udall and challenger Cory Gardner spoke at a conference on water issues in August 2014. Udall issued a news release attacking Gardner for supporting a 2008 ballot initiative, Amendment 52, which would have cut funding on water projects to increase funding on transportation issues. In the release, former senator Ken Salazar said, "Senators have a duty to represent and protect the well-being of all Coloradans. It is deeply disturbing that Congressman Gardner sided with out-of-state interests over the water needs of Colorado communities. Almost two-thirds of Colorado’s voters from every part of the state rejected Gardner’s scheme. Coloradans deserve better than Congressman Gardner."[11]

Gardner responded to the attack with, "It’s a shame that Sen. Udall can’t even talk about how we need additional dollars for transportation and the water infrastructure in the state, he would rather resort to partisan attacks. I am passionate about water issues in Colorado I have been a leader at the state Legislature and U.S. Congress to protect Colorado water and Colorado water rights from intrusion. I’m going to talk about how Sen. Udall has simply been a rubber stamp for Barack Obama and his administration as they have tried to take Colorado water."[11]

Mark Udall

Udall's campaign website lists the following issues. For full issue statements, click here.

  • Economic Opportunity & Building a Better Life: "Colorado has added more than 214,000 jobs since the recession, yet there are too many Colorado families that are still struggling to make ends meet. Mark knows that our economy is more than just statistics and numbers — it’s about creating the opportunity for families to work hard and build a better life."
  • Creating Good-Paying Colorado Jobs: "A recognized expert on energy issues, Mark’s leadership has helped make Colorado a model for the nation on smart energy policy. From efficiency and conservation, to wind, solar and other renewables, to the responsible development of clean burning natural gas, Colorado’s bountiful supply of energy doesn’t just power our homes and businesses, it drives our economy, creates good-paying jobs, and makes our country more secure."
  • Fighting For Our Rights & Values: "Our veterans put their lives on the line to protect us and for that we owe them the best health care this country has to offer. Mark works tirelessly to ensure all Colorado veterans are treated with the dignity and respect that they are owed. He successfully forced the VA to cut red tape so veterans don’t have to travel long distances for life-saving surgeries and has fought to reduce needless paperwork and redundant processes. To ensure our servicemen and women are cared for, Mark has also pressed the military to address post traumatic stress and fatigue stemming from multiple deployments."
  • Protecting Colorado’s Way of Life: "Mark works tirelessly to do right by Colorado, come hell or high water. And Colorado has seen both over the past year. He fought to get Colorado $770 million in emergency assistance to rebuild our communities, and repair our roads and bridges after last year’s historic flooding. And after forcing the Obama administration to give the Forest Service the modern tankers they needed to better fight Colorado wildfires, Mark is now leading the charge to simplify wildfire recovery by ensuring the government approaches them as they do hurricanes and tornados."

[12]

—Mark Udall's campaign website, http://markudall.com/on-the-issues/

Cory Gardner

Gardner's office website lists the following issues among others. For a full list of issue statements, click here.

  • Jobs and the Economy: "We’ve got to get this country moving again, and the best way to accomplish that is to get government out of the way. Private businesses generate wealth, not the government. By cutting government and cutting spending, we will allow the marketplace to do its job."
  • Fiscal Responsibility: "Our nation is facing historic debt and high unemployment. Washington’s spending spree has to stop. An important step towards regaining the trust of the American people starts by placing this nation on a path to a balanced federal budget. Immediately after being sworn-in, I formally added my name as a co-sponsor of the Balanced Budget Amendment. This is the first step towards reducing the deficit, paying down the national debt and learning to live within our means."
  • Energy: "Energy development at home is the key to powering our nation’s future. Not only is energy independence essential to our national security, but it will help create jobs for American workers. I have always advocated for an “all of the above” approach to energy. That includes development of traditional energy resources, renewable resources and even nuclear power."
  • Healthcare: "Despite being ruled constitutional, the President’s health care bill still makes it difficult for our economy to grow and takes away the ability of patients to pursue their own health care decisions. The real issue, however, is not whether the law is constitutional or unconstitutional. It is whether it is good or bad for the country. While our health care system needs reform, imposing unpopular and unaffordable mandates is not the solution."
  • Education: "The federal government has focused too much on throwing money at education without really evaluating whether that money has helped achieve results. The reality is that while federal spending on education has steadily increased over the years, student achievement has flat-lined. It is time to take a more innovative approach."

[12]

—Cory Gardner's office website, http://gardner.house.gov/issue/jobs-and-economy

Key votes

Below are important votes the current incumbent cast.

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Yea3.png During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[13] The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Mark Udall voted with the Democratic Party for the bill.[14]

Obamacare

Yea3.png Udall voted in favor of H.R. 3590 (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). The bill passed the Senate 60-39 on December 24, 2009.[15]

Media

Mark Udall

Supporting


Ad attacking Cory Gardner for past votes

Udall for Colorado - Ad attacking Gardner for his stance on birth control and abortion

Opposing


Americans For Prosperity ad targeting Udall for supporting Obamacare

American Energy Alliance ad attacking Udall for special interests

Crossroads GPS ad attacking Udall for supporting Obamacare

Cory Gardner

Supporting


Americans for Prosperity ad supporting Cory Gardner

Cory Gardner's first campaign ad

Cory Gardner for Senate - Gardner Hits Back

Cory Gardner for Senate ad attacking Udall for insurance plan cancellations because of Obamacare

Opposing


League of Conservation Voters ad attacking Cory Gardner

Senate Majority PAC ad attacking Cory Gardner for trying to "redefine rape"

AFSCME ad attacking Cory Gardner for looking out for the "super wealthy"

DSCC ad attacking Cory Gardner for being too extreme on abortion

NextGen Climate ad attacking Gardner on climate change, gay marriage, birth control and abortion

SEIU launched an ad campaign on July 15, 2014, targeting four Republican incumbents in the U.S. House over their chamber’s inaction on immigration reform in 2014.

The ad campaign targeted Gardner and Mike Coffman of Colorado, David Valadao of California and Joe Heck of Nevada with a round of Spanish-language television ads for about two weeks. The ad buy was in the mid-six figures.[16]

Senate Majority PAC released an ad on July 15, 2014, attacking Gardner for supporting a congressional bill to effectively ban abortion even in cases of rape and incest. It also accuses him of trying to "redefine rape" by excluding statutory rape and victims who were drugged and then raped.[17]

AFSCME released an ad on August 15, 2014, attacking Cory Gardner for receiving money from the Koch brothers. The ad states that he looks out for the super wealthy.[18]

Polls

Mark Udall vs. Cory Gardner
Poll Mark Udall Cory GardnerNot sureMargin of ErrorSample Size
Public Policy Polling (July 17-20, 2014)
44%43%13%+/-3.8653
Marist Poll (July 2014)
48%41%12%+/-3.2914
Rasmussen Reports (June 25-26, 2014)
43%42%15%+/-4750
Public Policy Polling (May 7-8, 2014)
47%43%10%+/-4.3526
Harper Polling (April 17, 2014)
45%43%12%+/-4.4
Harper Polling (March 8-9, 2014)
45%44%11%+/-4.3689
Public Policy Polling (March 13-16, 2014)
42%40%17%+/-4.1568
AVERAGES 44.86% 42.29% 12.86% +/-4.01 585.71
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org






Campaign contributions

Candidate ballot accecss
Ballot Access Requirements Final.jpg

Find detailed information on ballot access requirements in all 50 states and Washington D.C.

July 2014

Incumbent Mark Udall maintains a significant fundraising advantage over Cory Gardner as of the FEC's July Quarterly reports. Udall has raised a grand total of $10.4 million and has $5.7 million cash on hand.[4] Gardner has raised less than half of Udall's total at just under $5 million and has $3.4 million remaining.[5]

Outside spending

Since 2010, the amount of outside spending going into Colorado's U.S. Senate race more than quadrupled. Additionally, eight large outside groups are involved in Colorado's U.S. Senate race, up from three in 2010.[19]

In May 2014, American Crossroads reserved $2.3 million in airtime to oppose incumbent Mark Udall.[20]

As of August 2014, Colorado's U.S. Senate race has attracted roughly $6.5 million in outside spending. Of this money, the vast majority, $5,115,196, has been spent opposing challenger Cory Gardner. Of the remaining money, $1,110,899 has been spent supporting Gardner, $205,832 went to Owen Hill prior to the primary, $41,790 has been spent supporting incumbent Mark Udall and the remaining $72,981 has been spent opposing Udall.[21]

Mark Udall

The following groups have spent over $10,000 either in support of Mark Udall or opposition to Cory Gardner:

Cory Gardner

The following groups have spent over $10,000 either in support of Cory Gardner or opposition to Mark Udall:

  • U.S. Chamber of Commerce - $1,100,000
  • Conservative Majority Fund - $30,813
  • Women Speak Out PAC - $29,464
  • Vote to Reduce Debt - $10,000

Mark Udall

Mark Udall (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[22]April 18, 2013$1,358,707.07$1,595,645.64$(405,728.39)$2,548,624.32
July Quarterly[23]July 15, 2013$2,548,624.32$1,345,544.51$(460,351.33)$3,433,817.50
October Quarterly[24]October 15, 2013$3,433,817.50$1,143,765.56$(436,501.20)$4,141,081.86
Year-End[25]January 28, 2014$4,141,081$1,161,151$(578,188)$4,724,044
April Quarterly[26]April 15, 2014$4,724,044$2,063,112$(882,623)$5,904,534
Pre-Primary[27]June 12, 2014$59,004,534$1,742,747$(2,021,323)$5,625,957
July Quarterly[28]July 14, 2014$5,625,957$1,368,607$(1,261,557)$5,733,007
October Quarterly[29]October 15, 2014$5,733,007$4,022,797$(7,791,280)$1,964,524
Pre-General[30]October 20, 2014$1,964,524$735,078$(2,163,271)$536,332
Running totals
$15,178,447.71$(16,000,822.92)

Cory Gardner

Cory Gardner (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[31]April 13, 2013$465,202.03$92,674.24$(93,201.88)$464,674.39
July Quarterly[32]July 12, 2013$464,674.39$300,037.12$(103,279.23)$661,432.28
October Quarterly[33]October 14, 2013$661,432.28$262,611.41$(159,780.62)$764,263.07
Year-End[34]January 29, 2014$764,263$185,939$(73,522)$876,679
April Quarterly[35]April 15, 2014$876,679$1,411,750$(168,312)$2,120,118
Pre-Primary[36]June 12, 2014$2,120,118$1,520,801$(603,648)$3,037,270
July Quarterly[37]July 15, 2014$3,037,270$1,191,886$(787,582)$3,441,574
October Quarterly[38]October 15, 2014$3,441,574$4,366,398$(4,496,976)$3,310,996
Pre-General[39]October 20, 2014$3,310,996$1,290,490$(2,726,457)$1,875,029
Running totals
$10,622,586.77$(9,212,758.73)

Randy Baumgardner

Randy Baumgardner (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
Year-End[40]January 30, 2014$4,460$3,314$(2,129)$5,644
Running totals
$3,314$(2,129)

Owen Hill

Owen Hill (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
October Quarterly[41]October 15, 2013$0.00$250,411.30$(61,151.79)$189,259.51
Year-End[42]January 31, 2014$189,259$109,195$(92,039)$206,415
Running totals
$359,606.3$(153,190.79)

Jaime McMillan

Jaime McMillan (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[43]April 17, 2013$5,000.00$0.00$(250.00)$4,750.00
July Quarterly[44]July 26, 2013$4,750.00$10,750.00$(12,191.64)$3,308.36
October Quarterly[45]October 18, 2013$3,308.36$0.00$(1,417.00)$1,891.36
Year-End[46]February 3, 2014$1,891$3,260$(3,950)$1,201
Running totals
$14,010$(17,808.64)

Election history

2010

On November 2, 2010, Michael Bennet won election to the United States Senate. He defeated Ken Buck (R), Bob Kinsey (G), Maclyn Stringer (L), Jason Napolitano (Independent Reform), Charley Miller (Unaffiliated) and J. Moromisato (Unaffiliated) in the general election.[47]

U.S. Senate, Colorado General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngMichael Bennet incumbent 48.1% 851,590
     Republican Ken Buck 46.4% 822,731
     Green Bob Kinsey 2.2% 38,768
     Libertarian Maclyn Stringer 1.3% 22,589
     Independent Reform Jason Napolitano 1.1% 19,415
     Unaffiliated Charley Miller 0.6% 11,330
     Unaffiliated J. Moromisato 0.3% 5,767
Total Votes 1,772,190

2008

On November 4, 2008, Mark Udall won election to the United States Senate. He defeated Bob Schaffer (R), Douglas Campbell (American Constitution), Bob Kinsey (G) and three write-in candidates in the general election.[48]

U.S. Senate, Colorado General Election, 2008
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngMark Udall 52.8% 1,230,994
     Republican Bob Schaffer 42.5% 990,755
     American Constitution Douglas Campbell 2.6% 59,733
     Green Bob Kinsey 2.1% 50,004
     Write-in Buddy Moore 0% 116
     Write-in Gary Cooper 0% 10
     Write-in Bruce Lohmiller 0% 9
Total Votes 2,331,621

See also

External links

References

  1. Cook Political Report, "2014 SENATE RACE RATINGS FOR JULY 18, 2014," accessed July 28, 2014
  2. Sabato's Crystal Ball, "2014 Senate Races," accessed October 8, 2014
  3. Scribd, "CO-Sen LCV for PPP (May 2014)," May 12, 2014
  4. 4.0 4.1 Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2014
  6. Colorado Revised Statutes, "Title 1, Article 7, Section 201, Voting at primary election," accessed January 2, 2014
  7. Colorado Secretary of State Website, "Voter Registration FAQs," accessed January 3, 2014
  8. Journal-Advocate, "Gardner campaign turns to November race," April 14, 2014
  9. Cook Political Report, "2014 SENATE RACE RATINGS FOR JULY 18, 2014," accessed July 28, 2014
  10. Sabato's Crystal Ball, "2014 Senate Races," accessed July 28, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 The Durango Herald, "Candidates talk water," August 20, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  13. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  14. Senate.gov, "H.R. 2775 As Amended," accessed October 31, 2013
  15. United States Senate, "Roll Call - H.R. 3590," accessed August 13, 2014
  16. Politico, "Service Employees International Union targets four House Republicans," accessed July 15, 2014
  17. Roll Call, "Democrats Try to Turn Cory Gardner Into Todd Akin (Video)," July 15, 2014
  18. YouTube, "AFSCME PEOPLE CO US Senate IE TV Ad "What's the Deal"," August 15, 2014
  19. The New York Times, "Outside Money Drives a Deluge of Political Ads," July 27, 2014
  20. Politico, "Crossroads plans $10 million midterm blitz," May 19, 2014
  21. Open Secrets, "Colorado Senate Race - Outside Spending," accessed August 14, 2014
  22. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall April Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  23. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall July Quarterly," accessed July 22, 2013
  24. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  25. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  26. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
  27. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall Pre-Primary," accessed June 23, 2014
  28. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall July Quarterly," accessed July 24, 2014
  29. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall October Quarterly," accessed October 24, 2014
  30. Federal Election Commission, "Mark Udall Pre-General," accessed November 24, 2014
  31. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner April Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  32. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  33. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  34. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner Year-End," accessed February 4, 2014
  35. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner April Quarterly," accessed April 29, 2014
  36. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner Pre-Primary," accessed June 23, 2014
  37. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2014
  38. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner October Quarterly," accessed October 24, 2014
  39. Federal Election Commission, "Cory Gardner Pre-General," accessed November 24, 2014
  40. Federal Election Commission, "Randy Baumgardner Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  41. Federal Election Commission, "Owen Hill October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Owen Hill Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  43. Federal Election Commission, "Jaime McMillan April Quarterly," accessed July 28, 2013
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Jaime McMillan July Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  45. Federal Election Commission, "Jaime McMillan October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  46. Federal Election Commission, "Jaime McMillan Year-End," accessed February 14, 2014
  47. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  48. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013