Difference between revisions of "Utah Constitution"

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{{UTConstitution}}{{tnr}}The '''Utah Constitution'''<ref>[http://le.utah.gov/~code/const/const.htm Utah Constitution, Utah Code (2007)]</ref> is a document that defines the basic form and operation of government of the U.S. state of [[Utah]]. A [[constitutional convention]] consisting of 95 delegates met from March 4, 1895  to May 7, 1895 to develop the state's original constitution, which is still largely in force.<ref>[http://le.utah.gov/documents/conconv/utconstconv.htm ''History of the Utah constitutional convention of 1895'']</ref>
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{{UTConstitution}}{{tnr}}The '''Utah Constitution''' is the basic governing document of the state of [[Utah]].  
  
== History ==
+
==Features==
 +
The Utah Constitution defines the basic form and operation of government of the state of Utah. It consists of a preamble followed by 22 articles.
  
The Utah Constitution was drafted at a convention that opened on March 4, 1895 in Salt Lake City. The constitution was later approved by the citizens of [[Utah]].<ref>[http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]</ref>
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==[[Preamble, Utah Constitution|Preamble]]==
 +
: ''See also: [[Preambles to state constitutions]]''
  
Utahns had drafted seven previous constitutions starting in 1849 as part of repeated attempts to become a state. However, Congress refused to admit Utah, or Deseret as the territory originally wanted to be called, until the Mormon settlers of Utah renounced polygamy.<ref>[http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]</ref>
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The preamble to the Utah Constitution states:
  
==Articles==
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{| style="width:40%; background:#F2F2F2; margin-top:.1em; border:.5px solid #cccccc; solid;"
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|color:#000"|
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|-
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|
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| <center>''Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we, the people of Utah, in order to secure and perpetuate the principles of free government, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION.''<ref name="ut">[http://le.utah.gov/UtahCode/chapter.jsp?code=Constitution ''Utah.gov'', "Utah Constitution," accessed March 30, 2014]</ref></center>
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|}
  
The Utah Constitution consists of a preamble followed by 22 articles.''(Last revised by the State of Utah: May 03, 2012)''
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==[[Article I, Utah Constitution|Article I: Declaration of Rights]]==
 +
Article I of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Declaration of Rights" and consists of 29 sections.
  
* [[Preamble, Utah Constitution|Preamble]]
+
==[[Article II, Utah Constitution|Article II: State Boundaries]]==
* [[Article I, Utah Constitution|Article I, Declaration of Rights]]
+
Article II of the Utah Constitution is entitled "State Boundaries" and consists of only one section.
* [[Article II, Utah Constitution|Article II, State Boundaries]]
+
 
* [[Article III, Utah Constitution|Article III, Ordinance]]
+
==[[Article III, Utah Constitution|Article III: Ordinance]]==
* [[Article IV, Utah Constitution|Article IV, Elections and Right of Suffrage]]
+
Article III of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Ordinance" and consists of four sections.
* [[Article V, Utah Constitution|Article V, Distribution of Powers]]
+
 
* [[Article VI, Utah Constitution|Article VI, Legislative Department]]
+
==[[Article IV, Utah Constitution|Article IV: Elections and Right of Suffrage]]==
* [[Article VII, Utah Constitution|Article VII, Executive Department]]
+
Article IV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Elections and Right of Suffrage" and consists of ten sections.
* [[Article VIII, Utah Constitution|Article VIII, Judicial Department]]
+
 
* [[Article IX, Utah Constitution|Article IX, Congressional and Legislative Apportionment]]
+
==[[Article V, Utah Constitution|Article V: Distribution of Powers]]==
* [[Article X, Utah Constitution|Article X, Education]]
+
Article V of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Distribution of Powers" and consists of a single section.
* [[Article XI, Utah Constitution|Article XI, Counties, Cities and Towns]]
+
 
* [[Article XII, Utah Constitution|Article XII, Corporations]]
+
==[[Article VI, Utah Constitution|Article VI: Legislative Department]]==
* [[Article XIII, Utah Constitution|Article XIII, Revenue and Taxation]]
+
Article VI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Legislative Department" and consists of 32 sections.
* [[Article XIV, Utah Constitution|Article XIV, Public Debt]]
+
 
* [[Article XV, Utah Constitution|Article XV, Militia]]
+
==[[Article VII, Utah Constitution|Article VII: Executive Department]]==
* [[Article XVI, Utah Constitution|Article XVI, Labor]]
+
Article VII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Executive Department" and consists of 19 sections.
* [[Article XVII, Utah Constitution|Article XVII, Water Rights]]
+
 
* [[Article XVIII, Utah Constitution|Article XVIII, Forestry]]
+
==[[Article VIII, Utah Constitution|Article VIII: Judicial Department]]==
* [[Article XX, Utah Constitution|Article XX, Public Lands]]
+
Article VIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Judicial Department" and consists of 16 sections.
* [[Article XXII, Utah Constitution|Article XXII, Miscellaneous]]
+
 
* [[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution|Article XXIII, Amendment and Revision]]
+
==[[Article IX, Utah Constitution|Article IX: Congressional and Legislative Apportionment]]==
* [[Article XXIV, Utah Constitution|Article XXIV, Schedule]]
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Article IX of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Congressional and Legislative Apportionment" and consists of two sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article X, Utah Constitution|Article X: Education]]==
 +
Article X of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Education" and consists of eight sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XI, Utah Constitution|Article XI: Counties, Cities and Towns]]==
 +
Article XI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Counties, Cities and Towns" and consists of nine sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XII, Utah Constitution|Article XII: Corporations]]==
 +
Article XII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Corporations" and consists of five sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XIII, Utah Constitution|Article XIII: Revenue and Taxation]]==
 +
Article XIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Revenue and Taxation" and consists of 8 sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XIV, Utah Constitution|Article XIV: Public Debt]]==
 +
Article XIV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Public Debt" and consists of seven sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XV, Utah Constitution|Article XV: Militia]]==
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Article XV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Militia" and consists of two sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XVI, Utah Constitution|Article XVI: Labor]]==
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Article XVI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Labor" and consists of eight sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XVII, Utah Constitution|Article XVII: Water Rights]]==
 +
Article XVII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Water Rights" and consists of one section.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XVIII, Utah Constitution|Article XVIII: Forestry]]==
 +
Article XVIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Forestry" and consists of one section.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XX, Utah Constitution|Article XX: Public Lands]]==
 +
Article XX of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Public Lands" and consists of two sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XXII, Utah Constitution|Article XXII: Miscellaneous]]==
 +
Article XXII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Miscellaneous" and consists of four sections.
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution|Article XXIII: Amendment and Revision]]==
 +
Article XXIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Amendment and Revision" and consists of three sections
 +
 
 +
==[[Article XXIV, Utah Constitution|Article XXIV: Schedule]]==
 +
Article XXIV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Schedule" and consists of 16 sections.
  
 
== Amending the constitution ==
 
== Amending the constitution ==
 
[[Image:Dele95.jpg|400px|right|thumb|<center>'''Delegates to the 1895 convention'''</center>]]
 
[[Image:Dele95.jpg|400px|right|thumb|<center>'''Delegates to the 1895 convention'''</center>]]
 
:: ''See also: [[Amending state constitutions]] and [[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution]]''
 
:: ''See also: [[Amending state constitutions]] and [[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution]]''
 
 
The Utah Constitution can be amended in these two ways:
 
The Utah Constitution can be amended in these two ways:
  
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Whether a proposed amendment is offered by the state legislature or comes out of a convention, [[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution#Section 3|Section 3 of Article XXIII]] requires a vote of at least a "majority of the electors of the State voting at the next general election."  This means that more voters can vote "yes" on a particular amendment than "no" and it still might lose, depending on how many voters altogether vote in that election.
 
Whether a proposed amendment is offered by the state legislature or comes out of a convention, [[Article XXIII, Utah Constitution#Section 3|Section 3 of Article XXIII]] requires a vote of at least a "majority of the electors of the State voting at the next general election."  This means that more voters can vote "yes" on a particular amendment than "no" and it still might lose, depending on how many voters altogether vote in that election.
  
== Noteworthy provisions ==
+
==History==
 +
Utah's passage to statehood was long and eventful. Because of the Mormon's early belief in polygamous marriage and their self-exile from the rest of country, eastern politicians were wary of those "unpredictable" citizens. Early Mormon pioneers formed a political government which functioned as the State of Deseret between 1849-70, but their petitions for statehood were denied. In 1850, an "outside" form of government was imposed on the area by federal officials. A governor was sent to the new territory, called Utah, to oversee law and order.<ref name="ut hist">[http://www.utah.com/visitor/state_facts/statehood.htm ''Utah.com'', "Statehood," accessed March 30, 2014]</ref>
  
Greater individual protections under the Utah Constitution:
+
It took almost fifty years for lawmakers to admit Utah as an official member of the union. During that time Mormon leaders officially outlawed polygamy. On July 1894, the U.S. Congress enacted a law to enable the territory of Utah to be admitted into the Union as a state. A [[constitutional convention]] consisting of 95 delegates met from March 4, 1895  to May 7, 1895 to develop the state's original constitution, which is still largely in force.<ref name="ut hist"/><ref>[http://le.utah.gov/documents/conconv/utconstconv.htm ''Utah.gov'', "History of the Utah constitutional convention of 1895," accessed March 30, 2014]</ref> The Utah Constitution was drafted at a convention that opened on March 4, 1895 in Salt Lake City. The constitution was later approved by the citizens of [[Utah]].<ref name="free">[http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, ''Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?'', accessed March 30, 2014]</ref><ref name="ut hist"/>
  
Beginning with Hansen v. Owens, 619 P.2d 315 (Utah 1980), the Utah Supreme Court embarked upon a short-lived venture during which the court interpreted Article I, § 12 of the Utah Constitution as providing greater protection against self-incrimination than that which is provided by the Fifth Amendment.  The Hansen decision was based upon the unique language of Article I, § 12, which speaks in terms being compelled "to give evidence against [one]self" rather than being compelled "to be a witness against [one]self."  A mere five years later the court retreated from this position and in American Fork City v. Crosgrove, 701 P.2d 1069 (Utah 1985), overruled Hansen.  This, however, did not put an end to the notion that the Utah Constitution may provide greater protection than does the federal Bill of Rights.
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In the autumn of 1895 a constitution was approved, which included granting women the right to vote (one of the first such concessions in the nation). Several months later, on January 4, 1896, Utah was admitted as the 45th state in the union. Utahns had drafted seven previous constitutions starting in 1849 as part of repeated attempts to become a state. However, Congress refused to admit Utah, or Deseret as the territory originally wanted to be called, until the Mormon settlers of Utah renounced polygamy.<ref name="free"/>
  
It is now clear that Article I, § 14 of the Utah Constitution provides greater protection to the privacy of the home and automobiles than does the Fourth Amendment.  See State v. Debooy, 2000 UT 32, ¶12, 996 P. 2d 546, 549, and State v. Larocco, 794 P.2d 460 (Utah 1990).  Interestingly, the expansion of the protection afforded by the state constitution has not been based upon distinctions in the language used, nor has it been the result of Utah’s unique political and religious history.  The Utah Supreme Court has embraced broader constructions as “an appropriate method for insulating this state’s citizens from the vagaries of inconsistent interpretations given to the fourth amendment by the federal courts.”  State v. Watts, 750 P.2d 1219 (Utah 1988).
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==See also==
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[[File:StateConstitutions Ballotpedia.jpg|right|175px]]
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* [[State constitution]]
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* [[Constitutional article]]
 +
* [[Constitutional amendment]]
 +
* [[Constitutional revision]]
 +
* [[Constitutional convention]]
 +
* [[Amendment|Amendments]]
 +
** [[Initiated constitutional amendment]]
 +
** [[Legislatively-referred constitutional amendment]]
 +
** [[Publication requirements for proposed state constitutional amendments]]
 +
** [[Rules about constitutional conventions in state constitutions]]
 +
** [[State constitutional articles governing state legislatures]]
  
The Utah Supreme Court has repeatedly invited litigants to raise and adequately brief state constitutional issues. See Kenneth R. Wallentine, Heeding the Call: Search and Seizure Jurisprudence Under the Utah Constitution, Article I, Section 14, 17 J. Contemp. L. 267 (1991).  In Brigham City v. Stuart, 2005 UT 13, ¶10, 122 P. 3d 506, 510, the Utah Supreme Court expressed “surpris[e]” in “[t]he reluctance of litigants to take up and develop a state constitutional analysis,” ibid., the court expressly invited future litigants to bring challenges under the Utah Constitution to enable it to fulfill its “responsibility as guardians of the individual liberty of our citizens” and “undertak[e] a principled exploration of the interplay between federal and state protections of individual rights,” id., at 511. See Brigham City v. Stuart, 547 U.S. (2006), (Stevens, J., concurring).
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==External links==
 
+
{{submit a link}}
 
+
* [http://le.utah.gov/UtahCode/chapter.jsp?code=Constitution ''Utah.gov'', "Utah Constitution"]
The original and current editions of the constitution have some unusual or unique provisions:
+
* [http://www.uvu.edu/ccs/ ''Utah Valley University'', "Center for Constitutional Studies"]
 +
* [http://archivesresearch.wordpress.com/2011/01/19/utah-state-constitution-online/ ''Researching the Utah State archives'', "Utah State Constitution Online"]
 +
* [http://mwdl.org/collections/1834.php ''Mountain West Digital Library'', "Collection: Utah Statehood Constitutional Convention (1895) Records"]
  
* Originally, a jury was to be eight people at most (Unless it was a capital offense), seven for a grand jury and 4 for inferior courts.
 
* In addition to the normal right concerning people accused and tried to not be required to incriminate themselves, spouses are allowed to "take the Fifth" when their partners are on trial.
 
* Possibly as a result of impressions of Mormonism, an ordinance was added which required the consent of the United States (Presumably the Federal Congress) as well as the state's to revoke or alter. In part:
 
** Besides the normal (And previously stated) freedom of religion, polygamy and "plural marriages" are "forever prohibited."
 
** Public schooling is required and must be "free from sectarian control."
 
*** This is stated TWICE, once in the Ordinance, and once in Article X ("Education").
 
* Women's suffrage and equality is guaranteed in all matters.
 
* Voting machines (referred to as "mechanical contrivance[s]") are allowed provided they be secret.
 
* No legislator can become an officer if the office was created, or salary changed, during his term.
 
* Once an impeachable official is served a notice of their impeachment, they automatically lose their powers of office until acquitted.
 
* A two thirds supermajority is required to specify the enactment of an act at a time other than the default.
 
* Lotteries under any form are banned, despite the fact that one is needed to select the senatorial classes after the first election.
 
* The Governor may call the whole legislature or just the Senate into extraordinary session, but not the House of Representatives by itself.
 
* The Governor, [[Attorney-General]] with the Auditor comprise the Board of Prison Commissioners and Insane Asylum Commissioners, with the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Board of Reform School Commissioners.
 
* No Judge can appoint a relative closer than a cousin to his court.
 
* A judge out of state for more than 90 days running automatically loses his bench.
 
* The article on public education makes some interesting requirements, including:
 
** The requirement that there be an Agricultural College.
 
** That the Legislature and State Board of Education are forbidden from selecting the textbooks to be used.
 
** That the schools of the State teach the metric system, Article X § 11 (repealed [http://beta.law.utah.edu/faculty/bios/greenwoodd/pdf/UtahConst.pdf]).
 
* Corporations running prior to the adoption of the constitution had to explicitly agree (by filing an affidavit with the [[Secretary of State]]) to the new constitution.
 
* No one may bring an "armed ... bod[y] of men" into the state without approval.
 
* Labor blacklisting is explicitly outlawed.
 
* The constitution has a balanced budget requirement built in, preventing the expenditures overhauling the revenue.
 
* Certain restrictions on labor are introduced:
 
** Women are prohibited from working in mines
 
** Prison labor is prohibited outside of the prison, unless it's for public work projects with the State.
 
** Not only are blacklists prohibited, so is their exchange!
 
** When working on public works, eight hours is a full day.
 
* Forests of the state get a one section article (XVIII) requiring they be preserved.
 
* Besides the state capitol, the location of the state fair, special schools, state prison, reform school, and insane asylum are explicitly set down, and "permanently located."
 
* When voting for or against the draft constitution, voters were to be given a ballot with both "yes" ''and'' "no." They then had to erase the word they ''dis''agreed with (EG. Erase "no" to vote "yes").
 
 
==External links==
 
{{wikipedia}}
 
* [http://le.utah.gov/~code/const/const.htm Utah Constitution, Utah Code]
 
 
* [http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]
 
* [http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]
 
* [http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]
 
* [http://www.xmission.com/~wake/section27.html Paul Wake, Fundamental Principles, Individual Rights, and Free Government: Do Utahns Remember How to Be Free?]
 +
 +
==Additional reading==
 +
* [http://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-utah-state-constitution-9780199779284?cc=us&lang=en& White, Jean Bickmore. (2011). ''The Utah State Constitution'', New York, New York: Oxford University Press]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/Utah-State-Constitution-Reference-Constitutions/dp/0313293511 White, Jean Bickmore. (1998). ''Utah State Constitution: A Reference Guide'', Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing]
 +
* [http://www.amazon.com/Charter-Statehood-Constitution-Centennial-Series/dp/0874805295 White, Jean Bickmore. (1996). ''Charter for Statehood: The Story of Utah's State Constitution'', Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
 +
 
{{Utah Constitution}}
 
{{Utah Constitution}}
 
{{State constitutions}}
 
{{State constitutions}}
 
{{Utah}}
 
{{Utah}}

Latest revision as of 04:59, 7 April 2014

Utah Constitution
Flag of Utah.png
Preamble
Articles
IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIIIXXXIXIIXIIIXIVXVXVIXVIIXVIIIXXXXIIXXIIIXXIV
The Utah Constitution is the basic governing document of the state of Utah.

Features

The Utah Constitution defines the basic form and operation of government of the state of Utah. It consists of a preamble followed by 22 articles.

Preamble

See also: Preambles to state constitutions

The preamble to the Utah Constitution states:

Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we, the people of Utah, in order to secure and perpetuate the principles of free government, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION.[1]

Article I: Declaration of Rights

Article I of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Declaration of Rights" and consists of 29 sections.

Article II: State Boundaries

Article II of the Utah Constitution is entitled "State Boundaries" and consists of only one section.

Article III: Ordinance

Article III of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Ordinance" and consists of four sections.

Article IV: Elections and Right of Suffrage

Article IV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Elections and Right of Suffrage" and consists of ten sections.

Article V: Distribution of Powers

Article V of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Distribution of Powers" and consists of a single section.

Article VI: Legislative Department

Article VI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Legislative Department" and consists of 32 sections.

Article VII: Executive Department

Article VII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Executive Department" and consists of 19 sections.

Article VIII: Judicial Department

Article VIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Judicial Department" and consists of 16 sections.

Article IX: Congressional and Legislative Apportionment

Article IX of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Congressional and Legislative Apportionment" and consists of two sections.

Article X: Education

Article X of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Education" and consists of eight sections.

Article XI: Counties, Cities and Towns

Article XI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Counties, Cities and Towns" and consists of nine sections.

Article XII: Corporations

Article XII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Corporations" and consists of five sections.

Article XIII: Revenue and Taxation

Article XIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Revenue and Taxation" and consists of 8 sections.

Article XIV: Public Debt

Article XIV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Public Debt" and consists of seven sections.

Article XV: Militia

Article XV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Militia" and consists of two sections.

Article XVI: Labor

Article XVI of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Labor" and consists of eight sections.

Article XVII: Water Rights

Article XVII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Water Rights" and consists of one section.

Article XVIII: Forestry

Article XVIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Forestry" and consists of one section.

Article XX: Public Lands

Article XX of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Public Lands" and consists of two sections.

Article XXII: Miscellaneous

Article XXII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Miscellaneous" and consists of four sections.

Article XXIII: Amendment and Revision

Article XXIII of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Amendment and Revision" and consists of three sections

Article XXIV: Schedule

Article XXIV of the Utah Constitution is entitled "Schedule" and consists of 16 sections.

Amending the constitution

Delegates to the 1895 convention
See also: Amending state constitutions and Article XXIII, Utah Constitution

The Utah Constitution can be amended in these two ways:

Via the legislatively-referred constitutional amendment process:

  • An amendment can be proposed in either chamber of the Utah State Legislature.
  • A two-thirds vote is necessary in the state legislature to place a proposed amendment before the state's voters.
  • Votes on proposed amendments must take place at general elections.
  • If more than one proposed amendment is on a ballot, the amendments must be placed on the ballot in such a way that voters can register their opinion on them separately.

Via a constitutional convention:

  • A ballot question about whether to hold a convention can go on the ballot if two-thirds of the members of the state legislature vote to put it on the ballot.
  • Votes on whether to hold conventions must go on a general election ballot.

Whether a proposed amendment is offered by the state legislature or comes out of a convention, Section 3 of Article XXIII requires a vote of at least a "majority of the electors of the State voting at the next general election." This means that more voters can vote "yes" on a particular amendment than "no" and it still might lose, depending on how many voters altogether vote in that election.

History

Utah's passage to statehood was long and eventful. Because of the Mormon's early belief in polygamous marriage and their self-exile from the rest of country, eastern politicians were wary of those "unpredictable" citizens. Early Mormon pioneers formed a political government which functioned as the State of Deseret between 1849-70, but their petitions for statehood were denied. In 1850, an "outside" form of government was imposed on the area by federal officials. A governor was sent to the new territory, called Utah, to oversee law and order.[2]

It took almost fifty years for lawmakers to admit Utah as an official member of the union. During that time Mormon leaders officially outlawed polygamy. On July 1894, the U.S. Congress enacted a law to enable the territory of Utah to be admitted into the Union as a state. A constitutional convention consisting of 95 delegates met from March 4, 1895 to May 7, 1895 to develop the state's original constitution, which is still largely in force.[2][3] The Utah Constitution was drafted at a convention that opened on March 4, 1895 in Salt Lake City. The constitution was later approved by the citizens of Utah.[4][2]

In the autumn of 1895 a constitution was approved, which included granting women the right to vote (one of the first such concessions in the nation). Several months later, on January 4, 1896, Utah was admitted as the 45th state in the union. Utahns had drafted seven previous constitutions starting in 1849 as part of repeated attempts to become a state. However, Congress refused to admit Utah, or Deseret as the territory originally wanted to be called, until the Mormon settlers of Utah renounced polygamy.[4]

See also

StateConstitutions Ballotpedia.jpg

External links

BallotpediaAvatar bigger.png
Suggest a link

Additional reading

References