Where to find information about local school bond and tax elections

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State agency collects information
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Private organization collects information
States with no central database

Voting on school bond and tax measures
School bond and tax election approval rates

This page provides information about what kind of information is available in each state about local school bond and tax elections.

The information that is available, ideally, in a database for any local school bond or tax vote includes:

  • The date of the election.
  • Official election results.
  • The official ballot name or title of the school bond or tax levy vote.
  • The official name of the school district that the vote is relevant to.
  • The full text of the ballot question.
  • Information about how the measure came to be on the ballot. In most cases, the ballot question came to be on the ballot because the local school board voted it onto the ballot, but there are cases where local school votes are the local version of a veto referendum or where a state education agency has to approve the vote.

State databases

Looking at the databases of information available in different states, the main differences from state-to-state are:

  • Does a state agency provide whatever information is available? For example, in Michigan, the answer is "yes," because the state treasurer's department provides information on all school bond votes going back to 1996.
  • In some states, information about local school bond elections is maintained by county election officials. In these states, the information is much harder to come by, since it requires reviewing election records on a county-by-county basis. County election officials in a specific state may not all keep the same information, or for the same period of time. For example, in California, where county election officials do keep information about local school bond and tax elections, there is a significant difference between the 58 counties. A few counties have information online going back to 1990 but most counties did not start putting these election records online until after 2000.
  • In some states, a database of election results on school bond and tax votes is kept, but it is kept by a private organization. For example, in New Jersey, no government agency provides a central repository of local school bond and tax votes, but the New Jersey Association of School Boards releases results for every election dating back to 2000 in a press release format.

States where a state agency collects information

States where a private organization collects information

States with no central data collection point

Note: Before a state is listed here, many stones should be overturned seeking a database.

Alabama

See also: School bond and tax elections in Alabama

In Alabama, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Alaska

See also: School bond and tax elections in Alaska

In Alaska, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Arizona

See also: School bond and tax elections in Arizona

In Arizona, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 15 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online

Arkansas

See also: School bond and tax elections in Arkansas

In Arkansas, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 75 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

California

The California Secretary of State does not list local election results. Each of the 58 counties has a database of local ballot measure election results, including results on local school bond and tax measures. The quality and quantity of the information available on the county-sponsored election databases varies widely from county-to-county.

"California City Finance," a project of the League of California Cities, collects information about school bond and tax votes, and about other local revenue measures:

Colorado

See also: School bond and tax elections in Colorado

In Colorado, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 64 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Connecticut

See also: School bond and tax elections in Connecticut

The Connecticut Secretary of State lists all election information for all school bond referendums conducted through the state. Note that in Connecticut, school bond measures can be treated the same as municipal bond measures so that they are on the ballot together and are voted on as one proposition.

Delaware

See also: School bond and tax elections in Delaware

In Delaware, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Florida

See also: School bond and tax elections in Florida

In Florida, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Georgia

See also: School bond and tax elections in Georgia

In Georgia, there is a central election database for tax elections.

Hawaii

See also: School bond and tax elections in Hawaii

In Hawaii, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Idaho

See also: School bond and tax elections in Idaho

In Idaho, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Illinois

See also: School bond and tax elections in Illinois

The Illinois State Board of Education lists all school bond and tax election data from 1972 to 2009. There are more comprehensive lists from 2004 to 2009 for elections involving the Illinois Property Tax Cap Act.

Indiana

See also: School bond and tax elections in Indiana

In Indiana, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes, often under the "Special Election" sub-heading.

Iowa

In Iowa, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes, except for a list of the Physical Plant and Equipment Levy (PPEL) elections. For other tax and bond elections, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 64 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Kansas

See also: School bond and tax elections in Kansas

The Kansas School Boards Association provides a yearly summary of which districts have voted for and against school bond measures

Kentucky

See also: School bond and tax elections in Kentucky

In Kentucky, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 120 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Louisiana

See also: School bond and tax elections in Louisiana

In Louisiana, there is a central election database, but it does not organize votes by subject. To find school bond votes, a researcher would need to go into the database's election results by year and then search within that year to determine whether any votes that year were about local school bonds or taxes.

Maine

See also: School bond and tax elections in Maine

In Maine there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 16 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Maryland

See also: School bond and tax elections in Maryland

In Maryland there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 25 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Massachusetts

See also: School bond and tax elections in Massachusetts

In Massachusetts there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 14 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Michigan

See also: School bond and tax elections in Michigan

The Michigan Department of Treasury provides online lists of every school bond vote taken in the state. The lists go back to 1996. The database allows readers to search by county, school district and election date.

Minnesota

See also: School bond and tax elections in Minnesota

The Minnesota School Boards Association has information on all school bond and tax elections in the State of Minnesota from 2000 to present.

Mississippi

See also: School bond and tax elections in Mississippi

In Mississippi there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 82 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Missouri

See also: School bond and tax elections in Missouri

The Missouri State Auditor's Office has a searchable bond database for all county bonds that have been issued:

This database includes no information about votes on bond measures that lost. It is not clear from the database as it stands whether a particular general obligation bond issued by a school district was approved by the district's school board or by the district's voters.

Montana

See also: School bond and tax elections in Montana

In Montana there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax votes. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 56 counties in the state, and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Nebraska

See also: School bond and tax elections in Nebraska

In Nebraska, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the state's 93 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online."

Nevada

See also: School bond and tax elections in Nevada

The Nevada Secretary of State has a central election results portal. In order to reach the results, a researcher must go to the year of the election and select the county where the election was held. Then scroll down to the local ballot questions. Note, school bond ballot questions are kept together with other local referendums.

Note: There are 15 counties in Nevada. To do the research this way, a researcher has to go to a year, and then click on each of the 15 counties, and scroll to the end of the county report for that year to see if any school votes were on the ballot in that county/year. The researcher than has to repeat this for each of the remaining 14 counties for that year, and then go through the same process for each year. School bond votes only appear to be reported on this state government website back to the year 2000.

New Hampshire

See also: School bond and tax elections in New Hampshire

New Hampshire does not require school bond or tax elections. Therefore, there is no elections results database for New Hampshire.

New Jersey

See also: School bond and tax elections in New Jersey

In New Jersey, no government agency provides a central repository of local school bond and tax votes. However, the New Jersey Association of School Boards releases results for every election dating back to 2000. All the results are sorted in a press release format.

2009

2008

New Mexico

See also: School bond and tax elections in New Mexico

The New Mexico Bonds authority website lists election results for school bond elections from 2000 to 2010. The bond election results are posted all on one page listing all approved and defeated ballot measures.

New York

See also: School bond and tax elections in New York

The New York State Education Department maintains a database of school district tax levy votes going back to 2000. It also has a historical overview chart going back to 1969.

North Carolina

See also: School bond and tax elections in North Carolina

The North Carolina Department of Education's School Construction Clearinghouse lists results of all school construction elections since 1995

North Dakota

See also: School bond and tax elections in North Dakota

In North Dakota, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 53 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Ohio

See also: School bond and tax elections in Ohio

The Ohio Department of Education has a website listing all bond election results from 2004 to present. In order to get results, click on the web link associated with the election year in most cases the results are lined up by county, along with historical summaries, and bond elections that were decided by a small percentage margin.

Oregon

See also: School bond and tax elections in Oregon

The Oregon School Boards Association has a comprehensive database listing all school bond election results. This lists all results from 1997 to 2010:

Oklahoma

See also: School bond and tax elections in Oklahoma

In Oklahoma, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 77 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Pennsylvania

See also: School bond and tax elections in Pennsylvania

In Pennsylvania, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 67 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Rhode Island

See also: School bond and tax elections in Rhode Island

Rhode Island does not require school bond or tax elections. Therefore, there is no elections results database for Rhode Island.

South Carolina

See also: School bond and tax elections in South Carolina

The South Carolina School Boards Association lists all bond referendums from 1978 to the present.

South Dakota

See also: School bond and tax elections in South Dakota

The South Dakota Secretary of State lists all local referendum data from 1988 to 2009 on its website:

Tennessee

See also: School bond and tax elections in Tennessee

Tennessee does not require school bond or tax elections. Therefore, there is no elections results database for Tennessee.

Texas

See also: School bond and tax elections in Texas

The Texas Bond Review Board has a searchable database for school bond elections in the State of Texas. A researcher can find election results for bond issues by county, school district, a range of dates, or in a certain dollar amount.

Utah

See also: School bond and tax elections in Utah

In Utah, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 29 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Vermont

See also: School bond and tax elections in Vermont

Vermont does not require school bond or tax elections. Therefore, there is no elections results database for Vermont.

Virginia

See also: School bond and tax elections in Virginia

There is no central database for school election results in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Virginia State Board of Elections has a website that lists all local referendum data from 1995 to 2009, but not all school referendums are posted. In most cases, a researcher must contact the local elections authority in Virginia's 95 counties and 39 independent city-counties.

Washington

See also: School bond and tax elections in Washington

The Washington State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction provides a database of election results for all school bond and tax elections. Elections results from 2000 to 2010 are posted.

West Virginia

See also: School bond and tax elections in West Virginia

In West Virginia, there is no one central repository of information about local school bond and tax elections. Instead, a researcher would need to consult the election office of each of the 55 counties and then drill down within a particular county's election results by year to determine if, in a given year, that county election office administered any local school bond and tax votes. Counties in this state vary by whether they provide this information online or not, and they also vary by how many years of election data they provide online.

Wisconsin

See also: School bond and tax elections in Wisconsin

The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction has a searchable bond database. Also, the database allows citizens to customize referendum reports. Reports can be customized by referendum type, date range, and a individual school district. The database lists all elections from 1990 to present.

Wyoming

See also: School bond and tax elections in Wyoming