Difference between revisions of "Wyoming state budget"

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{{budget infobox2|
{{budget infobox|
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| state = Wyoming  
state = Wyoming |
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| image = Flag of Wyoming.png|
image = Flag of Wyoming.png|
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| budgetcal =Biennial
budgetcal = Biennial |
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| fiscalyear =2013-2014
fiscalyear = 2014 |  
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| credit=AAA as of May 2012
datelaw= May 8, 2013 |
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| percentchangedr =   
lasteraltered =  |
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| expenses = $3.7 billion
revenue 3.40 billion|
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| all funds expenses =$8.6 billion (FY 2013 estimate)
percentchangedr =  |
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| spending change =26.83%
expenses = $3.41 billion|
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| change =up
all funds expenses = |
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| governor = Matt Mead
percentchanged = |
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| % federal = 36.00%
}}
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| state debt = $9,951,523,000
On March 8, 2012, Gov. [[Matt Mead|Matt Mead]] signed the $3.2 billion budget bill for [[Wyoming]] that calls for maintaining a flat level of state spending for FY2013 and FY2013.<ref name=signs>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/gov-matt-mead-signs-wyoming-budget-bill/article_4c00cb10-7ffb-58d3-be3b-02a657fcc73b.html#ixzz1of5ZY1Wj The Billings Gazette "Gov. Matt Mead signs Wyoming budget bill" March 8, 2012]</ref>  The budget maintains spending for state agencies but also includes a provision requiring agencies to present plans to cut their budgets by 4 percent in 2013 in response to falling natural gas prices.<ref name=signs/> 
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| per cap debt = $17,265
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}}{{tnr|limit=3}}This page contains information about '''budget processes and policy issues''' in [[Wyoming]], including:
 +
* A summary of the budget drafting process
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* Trends in expenditures and revenues
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* Current and past fiscal year budget developments
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* Financial transparency measures
  
The state operates on a biennial budget cycle, which encompasses FY2013 and FY2014.<ref>[http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/budget/state-experiences-with-annual-and-biennial-budgeti.aspx National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting" April 2011]</ref> The fiscal year begins on July 1.
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Between fiscal year 2009 and fiscal year 2013, Wyoming's total expenditures increased by approximately $900 million, from $7.7 billion in 2009 to $8.6 billion in 2013. This represents a 10.47 percent increase, outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (9.06 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2009 and January 2013).<ref>[http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpid1402.pdf ''Bureau of Labor Statistics'', "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://inflationdata.com/Inflation/Inflation_Calculators/Cumulative_Inflation_Calculator.aspx ''InflationData.com'', "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014]</ref>
  
Wyoming had a total state debt of approximately $6,927,767,000 for FY2013, when calculated by adding the total of outstanding official debt, pension and other post-employment benefits (OPEB) liabilities, Unemployment Trust Fund loans, and the FY2013 state budget gap.<ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/state-budget-solutions-third-annual-state-debt-report-shows-total-state-debt-over-4-trillionState Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' third annual State Debt Report shows total state debt over $4 trillion" Aug. 28, 2012]</ref> The FY2013 state debt is similar to the FY2012 state debt of approximately $6,992,094,000<Ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/report-reveals-aggregate-state-debt-exceeds-4-trillion-2 State Budget Solutions “Report reveals aggregate state debt exceeds $4 trillion” Oct. 24, 2011]</ref>
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==Budget process==
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{{Wyoming budget process}}
  
Wyoming's total state debt per capita in FY2012 was $12,193.38.<ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/state-debt-more-than-37000-per-private-worker-13000-per-capita State Budget Solutions "State debt more than $37,000 per private worker, $13,000 per capita" Oct. 2, 2012]</ref>
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==Expenditures==
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===Definitions===
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{{Budget types background}}
 +
===2013 expenditures===
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[[File:Wyoming total expenditures 2013.png|right|thumb|500px|Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.<small><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>]]
 +
The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).<ref name=expenditures2013>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014]</ref> Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.
  
According to a 2012 study by 24/7 Wall Street, Wyoming is the 2nd best run state taking into account debt per capita, budget deficits, unemployment, median household income, and the percentage of the percentage of the population below the poverty line. The best run state is North Dakota and the worst run state is California.<ref> [http://finance.yahoo.com/news/the-best-and-worst-run-states-in-america-150415625.html/ Yahoo, The Best- and Worst-Run States in America, Nov. 27, 2012] </ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:55%;"
 +
! colspan="7" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)<ref name=expenditures2013/>
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | General fund
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Federal funds
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Other funds
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Bonds
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Total
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Per capita expenditures**
 +
|-
 +
|'''Wyoming''' || '''$3,709''' || '''$2,353''' || '''$2,549''' || '''$0''' || '''$8,611''' || '''$14,778.82'''
 +
|-
 +
|[[Colorado state budget|Colorado]] || $7,942 || $7,334 || $13,203 || $0 || $28,479 || $5,405.66
 +
|-
 +
|[[Idaho state budget|Idaho]] || $2,699 || $2,792 || $1,718 || $33 || $7,242 || $4,492.18
 +
|-
 +
|[[Montana state budget|Montana]] || $1,947 || $2,115 || $1,978 || $0 || $6,040 || $5,949.77
 +
|-
 +
|[[Utah state budget|Utah]] || $4,990 || $3,405 || $3,739 || $469 || $12,603 || $4,344.56
 +
|-
 +
|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.<ref name=2013census/><ref name=2009census>[https://www.census.gov/popest/data/historical/2000s/vintage_2009/index.html ''United States Census Bureau'', "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014]</ref><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>
 +
|}
  
==Federal Aid to State Budget==
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===Expenditures by function===
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[[File:Wyoming expenditures by type 2012.png|right|thumb|500px|Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.<small><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>]]
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State expenditures in Wyoming can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.
  
The chart below represents how much of the state’s budget comes from the federal government. The number is the corresponding ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (if #1, the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation):
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:55%;"
{| class="wikitable sortable"
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! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)<ref name=expenditures2013/>
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''State'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''2008'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''2009'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''2010'''
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| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''2011'''
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|-
 
|-
| Wyoming || 38.48% (#3) || 38.6% (#7) || 43.65% (#9) || 39.64% (#12)
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
|}
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Elementary and secondary ed.
*Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue.<ref>[http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/state_local_govt_finances_employment/federal_aid_to_state_and_local_governments.html '''US Census''' Federal Aid to State and Local Governments]</ref><ref>[http://taxfoundation.org/blog/monday-map-federal-aid-state-budgets ''Tax Foundation''' "Monday Map: Federal Aid to State Budgets. Accessed October 15, 2013]</ref>
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Higher ed.
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Public assistance
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Medicaid
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Corrections
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Transportation
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Other
 +
|-
 +
|'''Wyoming''' || '''3.9%''' || '''5.5%''' || '''0.0%''' || '''9.5%''' || '''4.6%''' || '''9.5%''' || '''66.9%'''
 +
|-
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|[[Colorado state budget|Colorado]] || 25.3% || 9.0% || 0.0% || 20.7% || 2.7% || 5.4% || 36.9%
 +
|-
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|[[Idaho state budget|Idaho]] || 25.7% || 8.1% || 0.3% || 27.2% || 3.7% || 10.9% || 24.2%
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|-
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|[[Montana state budget|Montana]] || 15.5% || 9.8% || 0.5% || 16.8% || 3.1% || 12.7% || 41.5%
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|-
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|[[Utah state budget|Utah]] || 24.7% || 11.9% || 0.9% || 17.5% || 2.0% || 9.2% || 33.9%
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|-
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|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>
 +
|}
  
==State Budget Fiscal Years 2013-14==
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===Expenditure trends===
The FY2013-14 budget bill as enacted can be found online.<ref name=1314>[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/PDF/20132014Budget/IndividualBienniumStateBudget.pdf Wyoming State Budget, 2013-2014 Biennium, Accessed September 17, 2013].
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From 2008 to 2012, expenditures on elementary and secondary education decreased by 13.8 percent. Expenditures on Medicaid and transportation also decreased, by 0.7 percent and 2.1 percent respectively. During that time period, expenditures on higher education and corrections both increased, by 4.5 percent and 4.6 percent respectively. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.<ref name=expenditures2013/><ref name=expenditures2011>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2010%20State%20Expenditure%20Report_0.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2012>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report%20%28Fiscal%202010-2012%29.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2009>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2009-State-Expenditure-Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref><ref name=expenditures2008>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/FY08%20State%20Expenditure%20Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref> Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.
  
'''FY2014 Budget Cuts'''
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:65%;"
 +
! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Year
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Elementary and secondary ed.
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Higher ed.
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Public assistance
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Medicaid
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Corrections
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Transportation
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Other
 +
|-
 +
|2012 || 3.9% || 5.5% || 0.0% || 9.5% || 4.6% || 9.5% || 66.9%
 +
|-
 +
|2011 || 3.8% || 5.4% || 0.0% || 9.0% || 4.5% || 11.0% || 66.2%
 +
|-
 +
|2010 || 11.7% || 5.3% || 0.0% || 7.3% || 1.6% || 13.2% || 61.0%
 +
|-
 +
|2009 || 11.7% || 5.3% || 0.0% || 7.0% || 1.5% || 13.2% || 61.3%
 +
|-
 +
|2008 || 17.7% || 1.0% || 0.0% || 10.2% || 0.0% || 11.6% || 59.5%
 +
|-
 +
|style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''Change in %'''
 +
| style="background-color:black; color:white" align="center"|'''-13.80%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''4.50%'''|| align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"| '''N/A''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''-0.70%''' ||align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"| '''4.60%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''-2.10%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''7.40%'''
 +
|-
 +
|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>
 +
|}
  
With declining natural gas revenue, Gov. [[Matt Mead|Matt Mead]] asked state agency heads to prepare plans to cut 8 percent of their budgets for FY2014.<ref name=necessary>[http://trib.com/news/state-and-regional/govt-and-politics/wyoming-gov-mead-budget-cuts-necessary/article_df23f46a-78bc-53f3-9527-a2769c223ea9.html The Casper Star Tribune "Wyoming Gov. Mead: Budget cuts necessary" Nov. 8, 2012]</ref> The governor said he would cut his budget by 10%, saving over $636,000.<ref name=necessary/> Gov. Mead said that he did not wish to rely on reserve funds or savings to balance the budget, and opted for the cuts instead. He did, however, say he would consider using the 1 percent of the mineral severance tax that goes automatically into the Permanent Mineral Trust Fund, which can be diverted by the Legislature.<ref name=necessary/>
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==Revenues==
 +
===2013 revenues===
 +
[[File:Wyoming GF revenues 2013.png|right|400px|thumb|Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.<small><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>]]
 +
The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).<ref name=expenditures2013>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014]</ref> Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.  
  
As of April 2012, the Legislative Stabilization Reserve Account (also known as the "rainy day fund") held approximately $1.3 billion but the governor said he did not believe relying on the rainy day fund is not sustainable if revenues do fall.<ref>[http://www.wyomingnews.com/articles/2012/04/26/news/19local_04-26-12.txt The Wyoming News "Mead says he prefers budget cuts to tapping state savings" April 26, 2012]</ref> In December 2012, lawmakers reviewed Mead's request that they redirect roughly $130 million a year of energy revenues away from permanent savings into the state's "rainy day" fund, where it could be spent on state projects and operations.<ref>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/wyoming-lawmakers-review-mead-s-budget-proposal/article_f6fbb245-4800-5f20-a892-e2a059c64c6d.html#ixzz2FBbtPATX The Billings Gazette "Wyoming lawmakers review Mead's budget proposal" Dec. 14, 2012]</ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:55%;"
 +
! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)<ref name=expenditures2013/>
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Sales tax
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Personal income tax
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Corporate income tax
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Gaming tax
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Other taxes and fees
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Total
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! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Per capita revenue**
 +
|-
 +
|'''Wyoming''' || '''$499''' || '''$0''' || '''$0''' || '''$0''' || '''$549''' || '''$1,048''' || '''$1,798.65'''
 +
|-
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|[[Colorado state budget|Colorado]] || $2,186 || $5,642 || $640 || $13 || $111 || $8,592 || $1,630.87
 +
|-
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|[[Idaho state budget|Idaho]] || $1,152 || $1,313 || $194 || $0 || $140 || $2,799 || $1,736.21
 +
|-
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|[[Montana state budget|Montana]] || $62 || $1,048 || $177 || $57 || $734 || $2,078 || $2,046.96
 +
|-
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|[[Utah state budget|Utah]] || $1,633 || $2,652 || $313 || $0 || $495 || $5,093 || $1,755.68
 +
|-
 +
| align="left" colspan="8" | <small>**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.<ref name=2013census>[http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk ''United States Census Bureau'', "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014]</ref><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>
 +
|}
  
 +
===Revenue trends===
 +
The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.<ref name=expenditures2013/><ref name=expenditures2011/> Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.
  
The governor said in Nov. 2012 that he would decide within the month whether to recommend that legislators accept the federal Medicaid expansion offer, which could increase the state's Medicaid enrollment by 30,000 people.<Ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Budget-chairman-concerned-about-Medicaid-costs-4020657.php#ixzz2BhJO5Kle]</ref>
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:65%;"
 +
! colspan="8" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Revenue sources in the general fund, Wyoming ($ in millions)<ref name=expenditures2013/><ref name=expenditures2011>[http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2010%20State%20Expenditure%20Report_0.pdf ''National Association of State Budget Officers'', "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref>
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Year
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Sales tax
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Personal income tax
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Corporate income tax
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Gaming tax
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Other taxes and fees
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Total
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Per capita revenue**
 +
|-
 +
|2013 || $499 || $0 || $0 || $0 || $549 || $1,048 || $1,798.65
 +
|-
 +
|2012 || $498 || $0 || $0 || $0 || $706 || $1,204 || $2,088.01
 +
|-
 +
|2011 || $471 || $0 || $0 || $0 || $704 || $1,175 || $2,071.11
 +
|-
 +
|2010 || $413 || $0 || $0 || $0 || $635 || $1,048 || $1,857.42
 +
|-
 +
|2009 || $492 || $0 || $0 || $0 || $572 || $1,064 || $1,954.91
 +
|-
 +
|style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''Change in %'''
 +
| style="background-color:black; color:white" align="center"|'''1.42%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''N/A'''|| align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"| '''N/A''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''N/A''' ||align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"| '''-4.02%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''-1.50%''' || align="center" style="background-color:black; color:white"|'''-7.99%'''
 +
|-
 +
|align="left" colspan="8" | <small>**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.<ref name=2013census/><ref name=2009census>[https://www.census.gov/popest/data/historical/2000s/vintage_2009/index.html ''United States Census Bureau'', "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014]</ref><br>'''Source:''' [http://www.nasbo.org/ National Association of State Budget Officers]</small>
 +
|}
  
'''Passage of the FY2013-14 Budget'''
+
==State budgets by year==
 +
{{Budget bill box
 +
|State = Wyoming
 +
|Year = 2014
 +
|Link =http://openstates.org/wy/bills/2012/SF1/ SEA0029
 +
|Introduced =February 16, 2012
 +
|Days =
 +
|State House =March 5, 2012
 +
|Vote lower house =52-6
 +
|State Senate =February 27, 2012
 +
|Vote upper house =29-1
 +
|Conference =
 +
|Conference upper house vote =
 +
|Conference lower house vote =
 +
|Governor = [[Matt Mead]]
 +
|Signed =March 8, 2012
 +
|Vetoed =
 +
}}
 +
{{See budget bill|Link=[http://legisweb.state.wy.us/2012/Bills/SF0001.pdf Wyoming Act No. 29]}}
 +
===Biennium 2013-2014===
 +
::''See also: [[Wyoming state budget (2013-2014)]]
  
On March 8, 2012, Gov. Mead signed the $3.2 billion budget bill that calls for keeping Wyoming's spending flat for FY2013 and FY2013.<ref name=signs>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/gov-matt-mead-signs-wyoming-budget-bill/article_4c00cb10-7ffb-58d3-be3b-02a657fcc73b.html#ixzz1of5ZY1Wj The Billings Gazette "Gov. Matt Mead signs Wyoming budget bill" March 8, 2012]</ref>  The budget maintains spending for state agencies but also includes a provision requiring agencies to present plans to cut their budgets by 4 percent in 2013 in response to falling natural gas prices.<ref name=signs/>  The [[Wyoming State Legislature|Wyoming Legislature]] approved the budget bill SF0001 on March 7, 2012, prior to the end of the legislative session.<ref>[http://kgab.com/from-the-legislature-audio-17/ KGAB.com "From The Legislature" March 9, 2012]</ref><ref>[http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cts=1331333060105&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Flegisweb.state.wy.us%2F2012%2FBills%2FSF0001.pdf&ei=q4daT-OrMOTk0QG5upitDw&usg=AFQjCNGNXktzt1vXPJRTub-ecX1Ff0r1dg Budget Bill SF0001]</ref>
+
===Biennium 2011-2012===
 +
::''See also: [[Wyoming state budget (2011-2012)]]
  
The governor's $3.4 billion 2013-14 biennial budget the he submitted on Dec. 1, 2011 can be found online.<ref name=1314/>  In January 2012, the governor cut $64 million from his proposed budget after state budget analysts said lower natural gas prices mean the state will likely receive $100 million less than anticipated in the biennial budget cycle.  His reductions include not giving any state employee a pay raise, which he said was preferable to layoffs.<ref name=cuts>[http://trib.com/news/state-and-regional/govt-and-politics/wyoming-gov-mead-cuts-million-from-budget-request/article_1e27355d-a249-54a6-85c0-d61328c749f4.html#ixzz1kOojaV6B The Casper Star-Tribune "Wyoming Gov. Mead cuts $64 million from budget request" Jan. 24, 2012]</ref>
+
===Biennium 2010-2011===
 +
::''See also: [[Wyoming state budget (2010-2011)]]
  
The budget makes a 5 percent reduction in most agency contract accounts.<ref name=approves>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/wyoming-legislative-committee-approves-budget/article_54ed12e8-5467-5a33-b6f2-a24799421898.html The Billings Gazette "Wyoming legislative Committee approves budget" Jan. 27, 2012]</ref>  Additional cuts in the governor's proposed budget include:
+
===Biennium 2009-2010===
*$13 million for capital construction at the Wyoming Boys’ School at Worland
+
::''See also: [[Wyoming state budget (2009-2010)]]
*$5 million from the $15 million request for landfills in the Department of Environmental Quality budget.
+
*$5 million from the capital construction project for infrastructure and improvement at University of Wyoming.<ref name=cuts/>
+
  
The Medicaid program served over 77,000 people in Wyoming at a cost of over $500 million split between the state and federal governments.<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Budget-chairman-concerned-about-Medicaid-costs-4020657.php#ixzz2BhFw1L3R The San Francisco Gate "Budget chairman concerned about Medicaid costs" Nov. 8, 2012]</ref>
+
==Historical spending==
 +
State budget historical spending below was compiled by the [[National Association of State Budget Officers]]. Figures reflect the reported "Total Expenditures" in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).<ref name=expenditures2013/><ref name=expenditures2012/>
 +
{{State budget historical spending
 +
|State=Wyoming
 +
|totalbudgets= 3
 +
|2011-2012genfund=2714
 +
|2011-2012otherfund=1765
 +
|2011-2012fedfund=1547
 +
|2011-2012bonds=0
 +
|2011-2012budgettotal=6026
 +
|2010-2011genfund=2726
 +
|2010-2011otherfund=1760
 +
|2010-2011fedfund=1547
 +
|2010-2011bonds=0
 +
|2010-2011budgettotal=6033
 +
|2009-2010genfund=3836
 +
|2009-2010otherfund=2391
 +
|2009-2010fedfund=1430
 +
|2009-2010bonds=0
 +
|2009-2010budgettotal=7657
 +
}}
  
The [[Appropriations Committee, Wyoming State Legislature|Joint Appropriations Committee]] approved the budget after setting aside $150 million from the rainy day fund in the event that sagging natural gas prices leave the state short on revenue. The committee also nixed the governor’s $37 million recommendation for the Medicaid program in the Wyoming Department of Health to make up for the loss of federal stimulus funds, instead setting aside $25 million in the state auditor’s office for the department to tap into in case of a Medicaid shortfall.<ref name=approves/>
+
==State debt==
 +
According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization [[State Budget Solutions]], Wyoming had a state debt of over $9 billion. Its state debt per capita was $17,265. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded [[public pensions]].<ref>[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/state-budget-solutions-fourth-annual-state-debt-report ''State Budget Solutions'', "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014]</ref><ref>[http://washingtonexaminer.com/exography-unfunded-public-employee-pensions-are-driving-state-debts-skyward/article/2542548 ''Washington Examiner'', "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014]</ref>
 +
{{State debt box
 +
|State = Wyoming
 +
|totaldebt=$9,951,523,000
 +
|totaldebtrank=47
 +
|percapdebt=$17,265
 +
|percapdebtrank=18
 +
|expenditures =$4,479,000,000
 +
|expendituresrank =47
 +
}}
  
In his State of the State address, delivered more than two months after the governor presented his proposed budget, Gov. Mead urged lawmakers not to make across the board cuts to agencies despite falling energy prices that mean less revenue for the state.<ref>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/mead-talks-budget-economy-in-state-of-the-state-address/article_c2ba766b-9659-5254-8962-51b8775b975f.html#ixzz1mMvxZ5bz The Billings Gazette "Mead talks budget, economy in State of the State address" Feb. 13, 2012]</ref>
+
===Public pensions===
 +
::''See also: [[Wyoming public pensions]] and [[Wyoming public employee salaries]]''
  
==State Budget Fiscal Years 2011-12==
+
A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that [[Wyoming public pensions|Wyoming's pension system]] was funded at 86 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, above the 80 precent funding level experts recommend. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as a "solid performer."<ref name=wypew>[http://www.pewstates.org/research/state-fact-sheets/widening-gap-update-wyoming-85899399362 ''Pew Center on the States'' "Widening Gap Update: Wyoming," June 18, 2012]</ref>
  
The 2011-12 budget can be found online.<ref>[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/IndvBudgetAppropriations11-12GS.aspx Wyoming State Budget, 2011-2012 Biennium]</ref>.
+
The funding ratio for the state's pension system decreased from 94.50 percent in January 2008 to 79.62 percent in January 2013, a 14.88 percent drop. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from approximately $376 million in January 2008 to nearly $1.7 billion in January 2013.  
  
The state ended FY2011 with a surplus of $427 million, $320 million  of which came from more revenue than originally the legislature had originally anticipated. Some lawmakers and Gov. [[Matt Mead|Matt Mead]] said they favor using much of any available extra funds for local governments as well as highways and infrastructure construction projects, whereas some lawmakers wanted to put the money into the state's existing rainy day fund. The Legislature previously stated that any revenues in excess of the $96 million budget reserve fund for FY2011 should sweep directly into the state's rainy day fund, officially called the Legislative Stabilization Reserve Account, which currently holds over $1 billion.<ref>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/article_4bee0712-e576-11e0-a741-001cc4c002e0.html The Billings Gazette "Wyoming lawmakers face save or spend decision" Sept. 22, 2011]</ref>
+
===Credit ratings===
 +
States sometimes sell general obligation bonds to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states, evaluating their ability to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest. Generally speaking, a higher credit ranking indicates lower risk for an investor, which in turn lowers costs for taxpayers.<ref name=credit>[http://www.pewstates.org/projects/stateline/headlines/infographic-sp-state-credit-ratings-20012012-85899404785 ''Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts'', "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012]</ref>
  
===Supplemental budget===
+
The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ranking for Wyoming from 2001 to 2012 (grades from surrounding states are provided for additional context).<ref name=credit/>
In 2010, then-Governor [[Dave Freudenthal|Dave Freudenthal]] announced  that the state had $1 billion in liquid savings<ref name=proposes>[The Billings Gazette "Freudenthal proposes more money for counties, cities, towns and highways" Nov. 16, 2010]</ref>  He then proposed a supplemental budget providing cities and counties with an additional $50 million and an extra $50 million for state highways.<ref name=eagle>[http://www.wyomingnews.com/articles/2010/11/16/news/19local_11-16-10.txt The Wyoming Tribune Eagle "Supplemental budget to include more for roads, municipalities" Nov. 16, 2010]</ref>  The supplemental budget also allocates $66.2 million toward making up a Medicaid funding shortfall and  $83 million for energy research at the University of Wyoming.<ref name=proposes/>
+
  
Gov. Matt Mead proposed a supplemental budget, but the Joint Appropriations Committee of the legislature drafted its own supplemental budget bill that included several critical departures from the governor's draft.  In particular, they diverged on funding for local governments and funding of the state's School Facilities Program.<ref>[http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-14/wyoming-legislature-to-tackle-budget-this-week.html Bloomberg "Wyoming Legislature to tackle budget this week" Feb. 14, 2011]</ref>
+
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:55%;"
 +
! colspan="6" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | S&P credit ratings from 2001 to 2012
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | '''Wyoming'''
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Colorado
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Idaho
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Montana
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Utah
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || AAA || AA || AA+ || AA || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || AAA || AA || AA+ || AA || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || AA+ || AA || AA || AA || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || AA+ || AA || AA || AA || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || AA+ || AA || AA || AA || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || AA || AA || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || AA || AA- || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || AA || AA- || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || AA || AA- || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || AA || AA- || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2002 || AA || AA- || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
| 2001 || AA || AA || AA || AA- || AAA
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
===Regular State Budget===
+
==Federal aid to state budget==
The state legislature finalized $2.9 billion state funds budget for the biennium that runs through mid-2012.<ref name=boosts>[http://www.latimes.com/business/nationworld/wire/sns-ap-wy-wyoming-revenues,0,7728113.story The Los Angeles Times "Rebounding Wyoming economy, led by energy industry, boosts state revenue projections" Oct. 22, 2010]</ref> The $2.9 billion does not include federal funds for highway projects and other projects.<ref name=boosts/>  It did not include pay raises for state employees.<ref name=boosts/>
+
::''See also: [[Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states]]''
 +
The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1," the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.<ref name=federalaid>[http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=COG_2012_FIN009&prodType=table ''United States Census Bureau'', "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014]</ref>
  
The [http://eadiv.state.wy.us/creg/creg.html Consensus Revenue Estimating Group], the state's budget analysts, raised state revenue projections in October 2010, estimating that the state would have $580 million more for its general operating and reserve accounts as well as an additional $392 million in school construction and operating funds in the budget cycle that runs through June 2012.<ref name=boosts/>  When lawmakers return to the Capitol in January 2011, they could choose to spend the additional funds on a more than $1.2 billion in a supplemental budget, although fiscal conservatives are expected to make the case for maintaining a substantial amount in reserve.<ref name=boosts/>
+
State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, [[Mississippi state budget#Federal aid to state budget|Mississippi]] received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, [[Alaska state budget#Federal aid to state budget|Alaska]] received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.<ref name=federalaid/>
  
The 2011-12 state budget can be found online.<ref>[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/pdf/11-12BudgetRequest/2011-12StateBudget.pdf 2011-2012 State Budget Request].
+
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:50%;"
 
+
! colspan="4" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State spending by agency for the 2010-12 biennium can be found online<ref>[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/pdf/11-12-BienAngnAppr/11-12%20WEBPAGE%20AGENCIES.pdf Wyoming State Budget 2010-2012 Spending by Agency]</ref>.
+
|-
 
+
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State
==State budget 2010==
+
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Federal aid as % of general revenue
Approximately $700 million was in available reserves at the end FY2010, which ended June 30, 2010.<ref name=boosts/>
+
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Total federal aid
 
+
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | National rank
==Budget Background==
+
|-
Wyoming operates on a biennium budget. The biennium includes a 24-month period from July 1st of odd-numbered years to June 30th of odd-numbered years, such as the 2010-12 biennium, which runs from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011.  All state agencies present their requests and past revenue and expenditure data by September or October for the Governor's consideration. The Consensus Revenue Estimating Group meets in October and develops revenue forecasts for the upcoming biennium. Following this, the Governor compiles a recommended budget that must be presented to the [[Wyoming_Legislature|Legislature]] by December 1 of each year. Both the [[Wyoming_House_of_Representatives|House]] and the [[Wyoming_Senate|Senate]] host a series of hearings to work through the budget. The entire budget working process takes 4 or 5 weeks and is completed at least one week before the budget session begins. Once both houses agree on the final budget bill the bill is passed into law.<ref>[http://legisweb.state.wy.us/budget/budproc.htm ''State of Wyoming'',"Explanation of Wyoming's budget process," accessed August 9, 2010]</ref>
+
| '''Wyoming''' || '''36.00%''' || '''$2,213,249,000''' || '''13'''
 
+
|-
==Accounting principles==
+
| [[Colorado state budget|Colorado]] || 28.85% || $6,310,538,000 || 35
''See also:'' [[Wyoming government accounting principles]] 
+
|-
 
+
| [[Idaho state budget|Idaho]] || 34.90% || $2,479,094,000 || 16
[http://www.truthinaccounting.org/ The Institute for Truth in Accounting] (IFTA) rates Wyoming “Tardy” in filing the state’s [[Comprehensive Annual Financial Report]] (CAFR) – The annual report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states timely, 22 states tardy, and 6 states as worst. IFTA does not consider Wyoming's CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations of the state’s financial condition because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis does not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care.<ref>[http://truthinaccounting.org/news/listing_article.asp?section=451&section2=451&CatID=3&ArticleSource=567 ''Institute for Truth in Accounting'', “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35]</ref> Wyoming's [http://sao.state.wy.us/CAFR/cafr_report.htm CAFRs] are prepared by the [http://sao.state.wy.us/ Wyoming State Auditor]. Rita C. Meyer was elected in 2006 Wyoming State Auditor, a constitutional office elected for a four year term by the general electorate of Wyoming. The Auditor is the State’s chief fiscal control officer. She maintains the central fiscal accounts, acts as the official custodian of accounting records, serves as the state payroll officer, and orders all payments into and out of the funds held in the state treasury.<ref>[http://sao.state.wy.us/ ''Wyoming State Auditor Web site'', retrieved November 18, 2009]</ref>
+
|-
<BR>
+
| [[Montana state budget|Montana]] || 38.46% || $2,202,444,000 || 6
===Credit Rating===
+
In February of 2013, Standard & Poor's (S&P) renewed Wyoming's AAA credit rating, the highest possible rating, which the state has maintained since 2011.<ref>[http://governor.wy.gov/media/pressReleases/Pages/WyomingMaintainsHighestCreditRating.aspx Press Release: Wyoming Maintains Highest Credit Rating, Accessed September 17, 2013]</ref><ref name=ratings/>
+
 
+
{| {{table}}
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Credit Rating'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Fitch'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Moody's'''
+
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''S&P'''
+
 
|-
 
|-
| Wyoming ||NR||NR||AAA
+
| [[Utah state budget|Utah]] || 31.61% || $4,481,494,000 || 31
 
|-
 
|-
|
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
===Stimulus===
 +
Wyoming received $618.1 million in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.<ref>[http://www.recovery.gov/Pages/default.aspx ''Recovery.gov'', "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014]</ref>
  
 
==Budget transparency==
 
==Budget transparency==
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:1em 1em 1em 1em; text-align:center; width:15%;"
 +
! colspan="2" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Transparency evaluation
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" |
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | State of Wyoming official website
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Searchability]] || {{Yes (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Grants]] || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Contracts]] || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Line item expenditures]] || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Dept./agency budgets]] || {{Yes (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|[[Criteria for evaluating databases|Public employee salaries]] || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="2"|<small>Last evaluated in 2010.</small>
 +
|}
 +
::''See also: [[Evaluation of Wyoming state website]] and [[Constitutional provisions regarding reading of bills]]''
  
The [[judgepedia:Wyoming Supreme Court|Wyoming Supreme Court]] held in June 2010 that Gov. Dave Freudenthal wrongly withheld draft budget documents regarding proposed budget cuts from a Cheyenne newspaper last year.  The Supreme Court upheld a Laramie County district judge's earlier decision that the budget information was public.<ref>[http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/wyoming/article_cedc4d00-7e25-11df-86a6-001cc4c03286.html The Billings Gazette "Wyoming Supreme Court rules records should be open" June 22, 2010]</ref>
+
The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by the [http://www.wyo.gov/ official website] of the Wyoming state government.
  
===Government tools===
+
===Multi-measure budget transparency profile===
The following table is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by a state spending and transparency database:
+
The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Wyoming created a multi-measure transparency profile for Wyoming, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations.  These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency.  In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.<ref>[http://igpa.uillinois.edu/ ''Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Wyoming'', "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014]</ref><ref name=allstates>[http://igpa.uillinois.edu/system/files/50_States_Transparency_Profiles.pdf ''Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Wyoming'', "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011]</ref>
  
{|style="width:100%" class=wikitable
+
IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. Wyoming tied for 46th in the nation with three other states, earning three out of eight possible points.<ref name=allstates/>
|+ '''Criteria for evaluating spending databases'''
+
 
!State Database!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Searchability]]!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Grants]]!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Contracts]]!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Line Item Expenditures]]!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Dept/Agency Budgets]]!![[Criteria for evaluating databases|Public Employee Salary]]
+
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:55%;"
 +
! colspan="2" align="center" style="background-color:#008000; color: white;" | Wyoming - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
 +
|-
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Budget transparency indicator
 +
! valign="bottom" style="background-color:#444; color: white;" | Yes or no?
 +
|-
 +
| Performance measures || {{Yes}}
 +
|-
 +
| "Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget || {{Yes}}
 +
|-
 +
| Multi-year forecasting || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
| Annual cycle || {{no (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
| Binding revenue forecast || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
| Legislative revenue forecast || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
| Non-partisan staff || {{Yes}}
 +
|-
 +
| Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations || {{No (Sunshine Review)}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''TOTAL''' || '''3'''
 
|-
 
|-
|align=center|[http://www.wyoming.gov/transparency.html Transparency in Government]||{{yes}}||{{no (Sunshine Review)}}||{{no (Sunshine Review)}}||{{no (Sunshine Review)}}||{{yes}}||{{no (Sunshine Review)}}
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.<ref name=allstates/>
  
===Multi-Measure Budget Transparency Profile===
 
 
The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Illinois created a multi-measure transparency profile for Wyoming, which measures state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations.  These indicators measure both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency.  In addition, IGPA presents four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.<ref>[http://igpa.uillinois.edu/ Institute of Government and Public Affairs]</ref><ref> [http://igpa.uillinois.edu/system/files/Wyoming_Profile_IGPA_093011.pdf University of Illinois Transparency Profile for Wyoming]</ref>
 
 
In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.<ref>[ [http://igpa.uillinois.edu/system/files/50_States_Transparency_Profiles.pdf University of Illinois 50 State Transparency Comparison]</ref><ref>[http://igpa.uillinois.edu/content/state-transparency-profiles University of Illinois State Transparency Profiles]</ref>
 
 
===U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report===
 
===U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report===
 
{{Following the Money 2014 Report by State|State=Wyoming|Grade=C-|Score=68|Level=middling}}
 
{{Following the Money 2014 Report by State|State=Wyoming|Grade=C-|Score=68|Level=middling}}
  
==Stimulus==
+
==Accounting principles==
Wyoming received $618.1 million in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.<ref>[http://www.recovery.gov/Pages/default.aspx ''Recovery'', "Stimulus Spending by State" Accessed September 17, 2013]</ref>
+
::''See also: [[Wyoming government accounting principles]]''
 
+
[http://www.truthinaccounting.org/ The Institute for Truth in Accounting] (IFTA) rates Wyoming “tardy” in filing the state’s [[Comprehensive Annual Financial Report]] (CAFR) – the annual report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states timely, 22 states tardy, and six states as worst. IFTA does not consider Wyoming's CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations of the state’s financial condition because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis does not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care.<ref>[http://truthinaccounting.org/news/listing_article.asp?section=451&section2=451&CatID=3&ArticleSource=567 ''Institute for Truth in Accounting'', “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35]</ref> Wyoming's [http://sao.state.wy.us/CAFR/cafr_report.htm CAFRs] are prepared by the [[Wyoming State Auditor]]. [[Cynthia Cloud]] was elected in 2010 as Wyoming State Auditor, a constitutional office elected for a four year term by the general electorate of Wyoming. The Auditor is the State’s chief fiscal control officer. She maintains the central fiscal accounts, acts as the official custodian of accounting records, serves as the state payroll officer, and orders all payments into and out of the funds held in the state treasury.<ref>[http://sao.state.wy.us/ ''Wyoming State Auditor Website'', accessed November 18, 2009]</ref>
==Public Employees==
+
::''See also:'' [[Wyoming public employee salaries]]  
+
  
::''See also:'' [[Wyoming public pensions]]
+
==Contact information==
 +
Wyoming Department of Administration and Information<br>
 +
Budget Division<br>
 +
2800 Central Avenue<br>
 +
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002<br>
 +
Phone: (307) 777-6045<br>
 +
[https://sites.google.com/a/wyo.gov/ai/budget-division Website]
  
According to 2012 Census data, the state of Wyoming employed a total of 15,968 people.<ref name=census>[http://www2.census.gov/govs/apes/11stlwy.txt 2011 Wyoming Public Employment U.S. Census Data]</ref> Of those employees, 12,522 were full-time employees receiving a net pay of $53.2 per month and 3,446 were part-time employees paid $3.0 per month.<ref name=census/>  More than 38% of those employees, or 6,203 employees, were in education or higher education.<ref name=census/>
+
==See also==
 +
* [[Wyoming government sector lobbying]]
 +
* [[Wyoming public pensions]]
 +
* [[Governor of Wyoming]]
 +
* [[Wyoming State Legislature]]
 +
* [[Wyoming State Senate]]
 +
* [[Wyoming House of Representatives]]
 +
* [[Wyoming State Auditor]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
{{colbegin|3}}
 
 
*[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/state/detail/wyoming State Budget Solutions, Wyoming]
 
*[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/state/detail/wyoming State Budget Solutions, Wyoming]
*Model transparency legislation from the [[American Legislative Exchange Council]] is available [http://www.showmethespending.org/uploads/Taxpayer_Transparency_Act.pdf at this link.]
+
*[http://www.showmethespending.org/uploads/Taxpayer_Transparency_Act.pdf American Legislative Exchange Council]
 
*[http://www.wyomingbusinessalliance.com/ Wyoming Heritage Foundation]
 
*[http://www.wyomingbusinessalliance.com/ Wyoming Heritage Foundation]
 
*[http://www.wyliberty.org/ Wyoming Liberty Group]
 
*[http://www.wyliberty.org/ Wyoming Liberty Group]
 
*[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/index.asp Wyoming Administration and Information, Budget Division]
 
*[http://ai.state.wy.us/budget/index.asp Wyoming Administration and Information, Budget Division]
*[http://legisweb.state.wy.us/ Wyoming state legislature]
+
*[http://legisweb.state.wy.us/ Wyoming State Legislature]
*[http://uspolitics.einnews.com/news/wyoming-government-spending Wyoming Government spending]
+
*[http://uspolitics.einnews.com/news/wyoming-government-spending Wyoming government spending]
{{colend (Sunshine Review)}}
+
*[http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/state/detail/wyoming The Wyoming State Budget on State Budget Solutions]
+
  
==Additional reading==
+
===Additional reading===
*[http://governor.wy.gov/Media.aspx?MediaId=745 ''Gov. Freudenthal'',"2009 State of the state," January 14,2009]
+
*[http://uspirg.org/reports/usp/following-money-2014 ''U.S. PIRG'', "Report: Transparent & Accountable Budgets," April 8, 2014]
 +
*[http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/03/us/battles-loom-in-many-states-over-what-to-do-with-budget-surpluses.html?hp&_r=0 ''The New York Times'', "Battles loom in many states over what to do with budget surpluses," February 3, 2014]
 +
*[http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3067 ''Center on Budget and Policy Priorities'', "Policy Basics: The ABCs of State Budgets," February 7, 2013]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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[[category:Wyoming]]
 
[[category:Wyoming]]
[[category:state salary]]
 
 
[[Category:Budget information by state]]
 
[[Category:Budget information by state]]

Revision as of 12:23, 7 May 2014

Wyoming state budget

Flag of Wyoming.png
Budget calendar:  Biennial
Fiscal year:  2013-2014
State credit rating:  AAA as of May 2012
Current governor:  Matt Mead
Financial figures
GF expenses[1]:  $3.7 billion
All funds expenses:  $8.6 billion (FY 2013 estimate)
Spending % change:  Green Arrow Up Darker.svg26.83%[2]
% from federal funding:  36.00%
State debt:  $9,951,523,000
Per capita state debt:  $17,265
Other state budgets
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Policypedia Budget Policy-logo-no background.png
This page contains information about budget processes and policy issues in Wyoming, including:
  • A summary of the budget drafting process
  • Trends in expenditures and revenues
  • Current and past fiscal year budget developments
  • Financial transparency measures

Between fiscal year 2009 and fiscal year 2013, Wyoming's total expenditures increased by approximately $900 million, from $7.7 billion in 2009 to $8.6 billion in 2013. This represents a 10.47 percent increase, outpacing the cumulative rate of inflation during the same period (9.06 percent, calculated using the Consumer Price Indices for January 2009 and January 2013).[3][4]

Budget process

The state operates on a biennial budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[5][6]

  1. Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies on or before June 15.
  2. State agencies submit their budget requests in September.
  3. Agency hearings are held by November 20.
  4. The Wyoming State Legislature adopts a budget in March. A simple majority is required to pass a budget.
  5. The biennial budget cycle begins in July.

Wyoming is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[6]

In Wyoming, the governor is constitutionally required to submit a balanced budget. In addition, the legislature is constitutionally required to pass a balanced budget.[6]

Expenditures

Definitions

Although each state executes its budget process differently, the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) breaks down state expenditures into four general categories. This allows for comparisons among the 50 states. NASBO's categories are as follows:[7]

  • General fund: "The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state."[7]
  • Other funds: "Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds."[7]
  • Federal funds: "Funds received directly from the federal government."[7]
  • Bonds: "Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects."[7]

2013 expenditures

Breakdown of expenditures in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down expenditures for fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita expenditures" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita expenditures" have not been abbreviated.

Total state expenditures, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State General fund Federal funds Other funds Bonds Total Per capita expenditures**
Wyoming $3,709 $2,353 $2,549 $0 $8,611 $14,778.82
Colorado $7,942 $7,334 $13,203 $0 $28,479 $5,405.66
Idaho $2,699 $2,792 $1,718 $33 $7,242 $4,492.18
Montana $1,947 $2,115 $1,978 $0 $6,040 $5,949.77
Utah $4,990 $3,405 $3,739 $469 $12,603 $4,344.56
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total expenditures and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8][9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditures by function

Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State expenditures in Wyoming can be further broken down by function (elementary and secondary education, public assistance, etc.). Fiscal year 2012 data is included in the table below (information from neighboring states is provided for additional context). Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures by function, FY 2012 (as percents)[7]
State Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
Wyoming 3.9% 5.5% 0.0% 9.5% 4.6% 9.5% 66.9%
Colorado 25.3% 9.0% 0.0% 20.7% 2.7% 5.4% 36.9%
Idaho 25.7% 8.1% 0.3% 27.2% 3.7% 10.9% 24.2%
Montana 15.5% 9.8% 0.5% 16.8% 3.1% 12.7% 41.5%
Utah 24.7% 11.9% 0.9% 17.5% 2.0% 9.2% 33.9%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Expenditure trends

From 2008 to 2012, expenditures on elementary and secondary education decreased by 13.8 percent. Expenditures on Medicaid and transportation also decreased, by 0.7 percent and 2.1 percent respectively. During that time period, expenditures on higher education and corrections both increased, by 4.5 percent and 4.6 percent respectively. The table below details changes in expenditures from 2008 to 2012.[7][10][11][12][13] Figures are rendered as percents, indicating the share of the total budget spent per category.

Expenditures from 2008 to 2012 (as percents)
Year Elementary and secondary ed. Higher ed. Public assistance Medicaid Corrections Transportation Other
2012 3.9% 5.5% 0.0% 9.5% 4.6% 9.5% 66.9%
2011 3.8% 5.4% 0.0% 9.0% 4.5% 11.0% 66.2%
2010 11.7% 5.3% 0.0% 7.3% 1.6% 13.2% 61.0%
2009 11.7% 5.3% 0.0% 7.0% 1.5% 13.2% 61.3%
2008 17.7% 1.0% 0.0% 10.2% 0.0% 11.6% 59.5%
Change in % -13.80% 4.50% N/A -0.70% 4.60% -2.10% 7.40%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenues

2013 revenues

Breakdown of general fund revenue sources in FY 2013.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

The table below breaks down general fund revenues by source in fiscal year 2013 (comparable figures from surrounding states are also provided to give additional context).[7] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, FY 2013 ($ in millions)[7]
State Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
Wyoming $499 $0 $0 $0 $549 $1,048 $1,798.65
Colorado $2,186 $5,642 $640 $13 $111 $8,592 $1,630.87
Idaho $1,152 $1,313 $194 $0 $140 $2,799 $1,736.21
Montana $62 $1,048 $177 $57 $734 $2,078 $2,046.96
Utah $1,633 $2,652 $313 $0 $495 $5,093 $1,755.68
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates for 2013.[8]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

Revenue trends

The table below details the change in revenue sources in the general fund from 2009 to 2013.[7][10] Figures for all columns except "Per capita revenue" are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000). Figures in the column labeled "Per capita revenue" have not been abbreviated.

Revenue sources in the general fund, Wyoming ($ in millions)[7][10]
Year Sales tax Personal income tax Corporate income tax Gaming tax Other taxes and fees Total Per capita revenue**
2013 $499 $0 $0 $0 $549 $1,048 $1,798.65
2012 $498 $0 $0 $0 $706 $1,204 $2,088.01
2011 $471 $0 $0 $0 $704 $1,175 $2,071.11
2010 $413 $0 $0 $0 $635 $1,048 $1,857.42
2009 $492 $0 $0 $0 $572 $1,064 $1,954.91
Change in % 1.42% N/A N/A N/A -4.02% -1.50% -7.99%
**Per capita figures are calculated by taking the state's total revenues and dividing by the number of state residents according to United States Census estimates.[8][9]
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

State budgets by year

Wyoming state budget -- 2014
Wyoming State Legislature
Text:SEA0029
Legislative history
Introduced:February 16, 2012
House:March 5, 2012
Vote (lower house):52-6
Senate:February 27, 2012
Vote (upper house):29-1
Governor:Matt Mead
Signed:March 8, 2012

DocumentIcon.jpg See budget bill: Wyoming Act No. 29

Biennium 2013-2014

See also: Wyoming state budget (2013-2014)

Biennium 2011-2012

See also: Wyoming state budget (2011-2012)

Biennium 2010-2011

See also: Wyoming state budget (2010-2011)

Biennium 2009-2010

See also: Wyoming state budget (2009-2010)

Historical spending

State budget historical spending below was compiled by the National Association of State Budget Officers. Figures reflect the reported "Total Expenditures" in Table 1. Figures for all columns are rendered in millions of dollars (for example, $2,448 translates to $2,448,000,000).[7][11]

Historical state budget spending in Wyoming ($ in millions)
Fiscal year General Fund Other funds Federal funds Bonds Budget totals
Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget Total % of Budget
2011-2012 $2,714 45% $1,765 29.3% $1,547 25.7% $0 0% $6,026
2010-2011 $2,726 45.2% $1,760 29.2% $1,547 25.6% $0 0% $6,033
2009-2010 $3,836 50.1% $2,391 31.2% $1,430 18.7% $0 0% $7,657
Averages: $3,092 47% $1,972 30% $1,508 23% $0 0% $6,572
General Fund: The predominant fund for financing a state’s operations. Revenues are received from broad-based state taxes. However, there are differences in how specific functions are financed from state to state.
Other funds: Expenditures from revenue sources that are restricted by law for particular governmental functions or activities. For example, a gasoline tax dedicated to a highway trust fund would appear in the “Other funds” column. For Medicaid, other state funds include provider taxes, fees, donations, assessments, and local funds.
Federal funds: Funds received directly from the federal government.
Bonds: Expenditures from the sale of bonds, generally for capital projects.

State debt

According to a January 2014 report by the nonprofit organization State Budget Solutions, Wyoming had a state debt of over $9 billion. Its state debt per capita was $17,265. The report revealed that state governments faced a combined $5.1 trillion in debt, 33 percent of annual gross state product. The obligation amounts to $16,178 per capita in the nation. A bulk of the state debt -- 79 percent -- was linked to unfunded public pensions.[14][15]

Total state debt in Wyoming[16]
Type Totals U.S. rank
Total state debt $9,951,523,000 47
Per capita debt $17,265 18
State and other fund expenditures $4,479,000,000 47

Public pensions

See also: Wyoming public pensions and Wyoming public employee salaries

A 2012 report from the Pew Center on the States noted that Wyoming's pension system was funded at 86 percent at the close of fiscal year 2010, above the 80 precent funding level experts recommend. Consequently, Pew designated the state's pension system as a "solid performer."[17]

The funding ratio for the state's pension system decreased from 94.50 percent in January 2008 to 79.62 percent in January 2013, a 14.88 percent drop. Likewise, unfunded liabilities increased from approximately $376 million in January 2008 to nearly $1.7 billion in January 2013.

Credit ratings

States sometimes sell general obligation bonds to investors in order to finance large-scale undertakings (e.g., road construction and other public works projects). Credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's, assign grades to states, evaluating their ability to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Standard and Poor's grades range from AAA, the highest available, to BBB, the lowest. Generally speaking, a higher credit ranking indicates lower risk for an investor, which in turn lowers costs for taxpayers.[18]

The table below lists the Standard and Poor's credit ranking for Wyoming from 2001 to 2012 (grades from surrounding states are provided for additional context).[18]

S&P credit ratings from 2001 to 2012
Wyoming Colorado Idaho Montana Utah
2012 AAA AA AA+ AA AAA
2011 AAA AA AA+ AA AAA
2010 AA+ AA AA AA AAA
2009 AA+ AA AA AA AAA
2008 AA+ AA AA AA AAA
2007 AA AA AA AA- AAA
2006 AA AA- AA AA- AAA
2005 AA AA- AA AA- AAA
2004 AA AA- AA AA- AAA
2003 AA AA- AA AA- AAA
2002 AA AA- AA AA- AAA
2001 AA AA AA AA- AAA

Federal aid to state budget

See also: Federal aid to budgets in the 50 states

The chart below notes how much of the state’s general revenues come from the federal government. Figures were calculated by dividing each state’s federal intergovernmental revenue into its general revenue. The number in the rightmost column indicates the state's ranking in relation to the rest of the nation (e.g., if "1," the state receives the highest percentage of federal funding in the nation). Figures from neighboring states are included to provide additional context.[19]

State governments receive aid from the federal government to fund a variety of joint programs, such as Medicaid. Federal aid varies considerably from state to state. For example, Mississippi received approximately $7.7 billion in federal aid in 2012, which accounted for more than 45 percent of the state's general revenues. By contrast, Alaska received roughly $2.9 billion in federal aid in 2012, just under 20 percent of the state's general revenues.[19]

Federal aid to state budgets in 2012
State Federal aid as % of general revenue Total federal aid National rank
Wyoming 36.00% $2,213,249,000 13
Colorado 28.85% $6,310,538,000 35
Idaho 34.90% $2,479,094,000 16
Montana 38.46% $2,202,444,000 6
Utah 31.61% $4,481,494,000 31

Stimulus

Wyoming received $618.1 million in federal stimulus funding between February 2009 and June 2013.[20]

Budget transparency

Transparency evaluation
State of Wyoming official website
Searchability Y
600px-Yes check.png
Grants N
600px-Red x.png
Contracts N
600px-Red x.png
Line item expenditures N
600px-Red x.png
Dept./agency budgets Y
600px-Yes check.png
Public employee salaries N
600px-Red x.png
Last evaluated in 2010.
See also: Evaluation of Wyoming state website and Constitutional provisions regarding reading of bills

The table to the right is helpful in evaluating the level of transparency provided by the official website of the Wyoming state government.

Multi-measure budget transparency profile

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs at the University of Wyoming created a multi-measure transparency profile for Wyoming, which measured state transparency as of September 2011 using indicators from a range of organizations. These indicators measured both website transparency and other recognized facets of governmental transparency. In addition, IGPA presented four unique indicators of non-transparency based on the observation that transfers or reassignments between general and special funds can obscure the true fiscal condition of a state.[21][22]

IGPA devised a budget transparency index based on information available from the National Association of State Budget Officers. Wyoming tied for 46th in the nation with three other states, earning three out of eight possible points.[22]

Wyoming - IGPA score for budget process, contents and disclosure
Budget transparency indicator Yes or no?
Performance measures
{{{1}}}
"Generally Accepted Accounting Principles" budget
{{{1}}}
Multi-year forecasting N
600px-Red x.png
Annual cycle N
600px-Red x.png
Binding revenue forecast N
600px-Red x.png
Legislative revenue forecast N
600px-Red x.png
Non-partisan staff
{{{1}}}
Constitution or statutory tax/spend limitations N
600px-Red x.png
TOTAL 3

In addition to the individual state profile, IGPA offers a 50-state comparison and profiles for other states.[22]

U.S. PIRG "Following the Money" report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[23] According to the report, Wyoming received a grade of C- and a numerical score of 68, indicating that Wyoming was "middling" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[23]

Accounting principles

See also: Wyoming government accounting principles

The Institute for Truth in Accounting (IFTA) rates Wyoming “tardy” in filing the state’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) – the annual report of state and local governmental entities. IFTA rated 22 states timely, 22 states tardy, and six states as worst. IFTA does not consider Wyoming's CAFRs, and those of the other states, to be accurate representations of the state’s financial condition because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis does not include significant liabilities for the pension plans and for other post employment benefits, such as health care.[24] Wyoming's CAFRs are prepared by the Wyoming State Auditor. Cynthia Cloud was elected in 2010 as Wyoming State Auditor, a constitutional office elected for a four year term by the general electorate of Wyoming. The Auditor is the State’s chief fiscal control officer. She maintains the central fiscal accounts, acts as the official custodian of accounting records, serves as the state payroll officer, and orders all payments into and out of the funds held in the state treasury.[25]

Contact information

Wyoming Department of Administration and Information
Budget Division
2800 Central Avenue
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002
Phone: (307) 777-6045
Website

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. Refers to General Fund spending. Typically in state budgets the General Fund is spending that is most directly controlled by state legislators.
  2. This figure is derived by calculating the percent difference between the prior two years' spending levels according to the National Association of State Budget Officers.
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "CPI Detailed Report Data for February 2014," accessed April 9, 2014
  4. InflationData.com, "Cumulative Inflation Calculator," February 28, 2014
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 National Association of State Budget Officers "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 United States Census Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013," accessed February 26, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 United States Census Bureau, "Vintage 2009: Annual Population Estimates," accessed February 26, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  12. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  13. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  14. State Budget Solutions, "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  15. Washington Examiner, "EXography: Unfunded public employee pensions drive state debts skyward," January 21, 2014
  16. State Budget Solutions "State Budget Solutions' Fourth Annual State Debt Report," January 8, 2014
  17. Pew Center on the States "Widening Gap Update: Wyoming," June 18, 2012
  18. 18.0 18.1 Stateline: The Daily News Service of The Pew Charitable Trusts, "Infographic: S&P State Credit Ratings, 2001-2012," July 13, 2012
  19. 19.0 19.1 United States Census Bureau, "State Government Finances: 2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. Recovery.gov, "Stimulus Spending by State," accessed February 21, 2014
  21. Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Wyoming, "Home page," accessed February 21, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Institute of Government and Public Affairs at University of Wyoming, "Budget Transparency Profiles - All 50 States," September 2011
  23. 23.0 23.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  24. Institute for Truth in Accounting, “The Truth About Balanced Budgets—A Fifty State Study,” Page 35
  25. Wyoming State Auditor Website, accessed November 18, 2009