Keith Ellison

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Keith Ellison
Keith Ellison.jpg
U.S. House, Minnesota, District 5
In office
January 3, 2007-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 7
PredecessorMartin Olav Sabo (D)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$8.25 in 2012
First electedNovember 7, 2006
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$5,776,484
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Minnesota House of Representatives
Bachelor'sWayne State University
J.D.University of Minnesota
BirthdayAugust 4, 1963
Place of birthDetroit, Michigan
Net worth$6,003.50
Office website
Campaign website
Keith Maurice Ellison (b. August 4, 1963, in Detroit, MI) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing Minnesota's 5th Congressional District. Ellison was first elected to the House in 2006. He won re-election in 2012.[1] He is running for re-election to the U.S. House to represent the 5th Congressional District of Minnesota in 2014.[2] He ran uncontested for the Democratic nomination in the primary election on August 12, 2014.[3]

Ellison serves as one of the Chief Deputy Whips of the Democratic caucus for the 113th Congress.[4]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Ellison is one of the most reliable Democratic votes, meaning he can be considered a safe vote for the Democratic Party in Congress.


Ellison was born in 1963 in Detroit, Michigan. He earned his B.A. from Wayne State University in 1986 and his J.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1990. Prior to his political career, Ellison worked as an attorney.[5]

In January 2012, Ellison was named a "Top-20 US Progressive" according to The New Statesman, a magazine based in the United Kingdom. Other members of the list include Paul Krugman, Michael Moore, Noam Chomsky and Rachel Maddow.[6]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Ellison's political career:[5]

Committee assignments

U.S. House


Ellison serves on the following committees:[7]

  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit
    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises
    • Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations


Ellison served on the following House committees:[8]

  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises
    • Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

Key votes

113th Congress


The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[9] For more information pertaining to Ellison's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[10]

National security

American response in Syria

See also: United States involvement in Syria

On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements."[11][12] The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Ellison was one of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.[11][12]


Nay3.png Ellison voted in opposition of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[13]

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Ellison voted in opposition of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[13]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Yea3.png Ellison voted in favor of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[13]

CISPA (2013)

Nay3.png Ellison voted in opposition of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[14] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[13]


Farm Bill

See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

Nay3.png Ellison voted against the Farm Bill on July 11, 2013. The bill passed in a 216-208 vote.[15] The bill passed included farm policy, but did not include food stamps.[16]

King Amendment

Ellison signed a letter sent to Collin Peterson in August 2013, asking him to keep Steve King's amendment out of the final Farm Bill.[17] The "Protect Interstate Commerce Act" amendment prevents states from applying their own laws on agricultural products to agricultural products from another state.[18]. King introduced the amendment in response to a law in California, requiring a larger size cage for egg-producing chickens. King represents Iowa, which is a large egg producer.

SNAP challenge
See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

In June 2013, more than two dozen House Democrats, including Ellison, took part in a SNAP challenge, feeding themselves for a week on the average benefit level of a SNAP recipient.[19] Participants agreed to eat all meals from a limited food budget comparable to that of a SNAP participant, approximately $1.50 per meal, or $4.50 a day.[20]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[21] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[22] Ellison voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[21]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[23] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Ellison voted for HR 2775.[24]


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Ellison voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[25] The vote largely followed party lines.[26]

Arrest during immigration protest

See also: Gang of Eight

On October 8, 2013, eight Democratic members of Congress were arrested while attending a protest calling for comprehensive immigration reform in front of the U.S. Capitol.[27]

The eight included Ellison, John Lewis, Luis Gutierrez, Charlie Rangel, Raul Grijalva, Joe Crowley, Jan Schakowsky and Al Green.[27] The politicians, along with activists who attended an immigration rally on the National Mall, staged a sit-in near the west side of the Capitol.[27] Authorities arrested the lawmakers for crowding and disrupting the streets around the Capitol. Almost 200 people were arrested by police during the protest.[27]


Repealing Obamacare

Nay3.png Ellison has voted against all attempts to repeal or delay the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[28]

Social issues

Violence Against Women Act

Yea3.png Ellison voted to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act which provides aid to prosecute cases of violent acts against women and men.[29]


Nay3.png Ellison voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[30]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Ellison voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257-167 vote on January 1, 2013.[31]


On The Issues Vote Match

Keith Ellison's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Ellison is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Ellison received a score of 68 percent on social issues and 2 percent on economic issues.[32]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[33]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Neutral
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Strongly Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Unknown
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Strongly Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Strongly Favors
Privatize Social Security Strongly Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[32]

Campaign themes


The policy positions below were highlighted on Ellison's campaign website.

  • Civil and Human Rights

Excerpt: "Keith supports the rights of all individuals to vote free of undue burden or harassment. Furthermore, he is also a tireless advocate for LGBT equality and the rights of workers to collectively bargain."[34]

  • Economy

Excerpt: "He believes that we need a tax system where the rich pay their share. As a member of the House Financial Service Committee, Keith authored legislation to protect borrowers from being penalized by lenders for defaulting or missing payments on other loans—an unfair practice known as Universal Default."[34]

  • Education, Housing, and Healthcare

Excerpt: "Keith believes that we must support children, families, teachers, and communities in the development of high quality educational opportunities. Keith has been a leading voice for safe and affordable housing for low-income Americans and seeks to ensure that our most vulnerable citizens can keep a roof over their heads."[34]

  • Energy and Environment

Excerpt: "Everyone has the right to drink clean water, breathe clean air, and eat food free of harmful toxins. For years, Keith has been actively involved in the environmental justice movement, which brings communities of color and low-income communities into the larger efforts of creating a cleaner world for our children and future generations."[34]

  • Immigration

Excerpt: "Keith supports comprehensive immigration reform such as the STRIVE Act that includes four components: a clear path to citizenship to those who are already in the U.S. working and paying taxes; expedited process for family reunification; workable employment verification system with strict penalties for employers who knowingly hire undocumented immigrants."[34]

  • Peace and Foreign Relations

Excerpt: "Keith firmly believes that peace should be a guiding principle in U.S. policy, both foreign and domestic. He is committed to fostering dialogue, engagement, and non-violent conflict resolution so we leave a safer world for our children and future generations."[34]

  • Veterans

Excerpt: "Every day, America’s men and women in uniform put their lives on the line to defend our freedoms. During his time in Congress, Keith has supported policies that ensure we provide our troops with the support they deserve after returning from duty."[34]

Political positions

Fast food strikes

In December 2013, Ellison stated his support for fast food workers strikes across America. He said, "I worked at McDonald's. I cooked. It was one of the toughest jobs I've ever had. These people earn every single penny they get. In fact, they earn way more than they get."[35]



See also: Minnesota's 5th Congressional District elections, 2014

Ellison is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He ran uncontested for the Democratic nomination in the primary election on August 12, 2014.[3] The general election takes place November 4, 2014.


See also: Minnesota's 5th Congressional District elections, 2012

Ellison won re-election in 2012.[36] He defeated Gary Boisclair and Gregg A. Iverson in the Democratic primary.[37] He defeated Republican challenger Chris Fields in the November general election.

U.S. House, Minnesota District 5 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngKeith Ellison Incumbent 74.5% 262,102
     Republican Chris Fields 25.2% 88,753
     NA Write-in 0.3% 1,114
Total Votes 351,969
Source: Minnesota Secretary of State, "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, Minnesota District 5 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngKeith Ellison Incumbent 89.6% 30,609
Gregg Iverson 6.3% 2,143
Gary Boisclair 4.1% 1,397
Total Votes 34,149

Full history

Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Ellison attends.

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Ellison is available dating back to 2006. Based on available campaign finance records, Ellison raised a total of $5,776,484 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[41]

Keith Ellison's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Minnesota, District 5) Won $2,053,544
2010 U.S. House (Minnesota, District 5) Won $1,397,497
2008 U.S. House (Minnesota, District 5) Won $1,530,396
2006 U.S. House (Minnesota, District 5) Won $795,047
Grand Total Raised $5,776,484

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Ellison's reports.[42]

Keith Ellison (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[43]April 15, 2013$56,569.76$185,609.42$(155,490.40)$86,688.78
July Quarterly[44]July 15, 2013$86,688.78$193,311.43$(139,967.94)$140,032.27
October Quarterly[45]October 15, 2013$140,032.27$309,887.37$(263,670.73)$186,248.91
Year-End Quarterly[46]December 31, 2113$186,248$188,441$(135,597)$163,624
April Quarterly[47]April 15, 2014$163,624.66$288,042.77$(222,207.15)$229,460.28
Running totals


Ellison won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Ellison's campaign committee raised a total of $2,053,544 and spent $2,160,554.[48]

Cost per vote

Ellison spent $8.25 per vote received in 2012.


Ellison won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that re-election cycle, Ellison's campaign committee raised a total of $1,397,497 and spent $1,295,839.[49]

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by, Ellison's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $-12,993 and $25,000. That averages to $6,003.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Ellison ranked as the 408th most wealthy representative in 2012.[50] Between 2006 and 2012, Ellison's calculated net worth[51] decreased by an average of 12 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[52]

Keith Ellison Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2006 to 2012:-72%
Average annual growth:-12%[53]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[54]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Ellison is a "far-left Democrat" as of July 2014.[55] This was the same rating Ellison received in June 2013.

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[56]

Ellison most often votes with:

Ellison least often votes with:

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Ellison missed 387 of 6,231 roll call votes from January 2007 to July 2014. This amounts to 6.2 percent, which is worse than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.[55]

Congressional Staff Salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Ellison paid his congressional staff a total of $1,022,608 in 2011. Overall, Minnesota ranked 26th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[57]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.


Ellison ranked 1st in the liberal rankings in 2013.[58]


Ellison ranked 47th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[59]


Ellison ranked 1st in the liberal rankings in 2011. This ranking was shared with 18 other representatives.[60]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.


Keith Ellison voted with the Democratic Party 93.7 percent of the time, which ranked 82nd among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.[61]


Keith Ellison voted with the Democratic Party 94 percent of the time, which ranked 129th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[62]


Ellison is the first Muslim to be elected to the United States Congress. He has four children.[63]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Keith + Ellison + Minnesota + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Keith Ellison News Feed

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See also

External links

Political Tracker has an article on:
Keith Ellison


  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map," accessed November 6, 2012
  2. Minnesota Secretary of State, "2014 State General Election Candidate Filings," accessed June 11, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 Associated Press, "Minnesota - 2014 Primary Results," accessed August 12, 2014
  4. Office of the Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer, "Hoyer Announces Whip Team for the 113th Congress," accessed January 4, 2013
  5. 5.0 5.1 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Keith Ellison," accessed December 10, 2011
  6. New Statesman, "Who's left? The top 20 US progressives," accessed January 11, 2012
  7., "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress"
  8. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "House of Representatives Committee Assignments," accessed December 8, 2011
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  10. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 Office of Barbara Lee, "Lee Letter to President Obama," accessed September 2, 2013
  12. 12.0 12.1 Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Project Vote Smart, "Representative Keith Ellison's Voting Records on National Security," accessed September 26, 2013
  14. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  15. Project Vote Smart, "Ellison on agriculture," accessed September 26, 2013
  16. New York Times, "House Republicans Push Through Farm Bill, Without Food Stamps," accessed September 17, 2013
  17. Project Vote Smart, "Letter to Ranking Member Collin Peterson, House Committee on Agriculture - Reject Rep. King's Provision on Farm Bill," accessed September 23, 2013
  18., "King Farm Bill Amendment Angers Animal Advocates," accessed September 18, 2013
  19. U.S., "Full Member List of Congressional Snap Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
  20. Feeding America, "Taking the SNAP Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
  21. 21.0 21.1 Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  23. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  24. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  25. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed August 28, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Keith Ellison's Voting Records on Immigration," accessed September 26, 2013
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 NBC News, "Democratic lawmakers arrested during immigration protest," accessed October 9, 2013
  28. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Keith Ellison's Voting Records on Issue: Health and Healthcare," accessed September 26, 2013
  29. On the Issues, "Ellison on Civil Rights," accessed September 11, 2013
  30. Project Vote Smart, "Ellison on abortion," accessed September 26, 2013
  31. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  32. 32.0 32.1 On The Issues, "Keith Ellison Vote Match," accessed June 17, 2014
  33. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 Keith Ellison for Congress, "Issues"
  35. Politico, "Pols back #FastFoodStrikes," accessed December 6, 2013
  36. OpenSecrets, "Keith Ellison Cycle Fundraising 2011-2012," accessed February 10, 2012
  37. CBS, "Primary Results 2012," accessed May 30, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. OpenSecrets, "Keith Ellison," accessed May 16, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Ellsion 2014 Summary reports," accessed July 18, 2013
  43. FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed July 18, 2013
  44. FEC, "July Quarterly," accessed July 18, 2013
  45. FEC, "October Quarterly," accessed October 23, 2013
  46. FEC, "Year-End Quarterly," accessed February 11, 204
  47. FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed May 16, 2014
  48. OpenSecrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  49. OpenSecrets, "Keith Ellison 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed December 11, 2011
  50. OpenSecrets, "Keith Ellison (D-MN), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  51. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  52. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  53. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  54. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  55. 55.0 55.1 GovTrack, "Keith Ellison," accessed July 28, 2014
  56. OpenCongress, "Keith Ellison," accessed July 28, 2014
  57. LegiStorm, "Keith Ellison," accessed October 8, 2012
  58. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 28, 2014
  59. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," accessed February 26, 2013
  60. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  61. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  62. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  63. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed December 10, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Martin Olav Sabo
U.S. House of Representatives - Minnesota, District 5
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minnesota House of Representatives
Succeeded by