|U.S. House, Minnesota, District 8|
|January 3, 2013-Present|
|January 3, 2015|
|Years in position||1|
|Predecessor||Chip Cravaack (R)|
|Elections and appointments|
|Cost per vote||$6.41 in 2012|
|First elected||November 6, 2012|
|Next general||November 4, 2014|
|U.S. House of Representatives, Minnesota|
|High school||Brainerd High School|
|Bachelor's||University of Minnesota|
|J.D.||Georgetown Law School|
|Birthday||December 17, 1943|
|Place of birth||Brainerd, Minnesota|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Committee assignments
- 4 Key votes
- 4.1 113th Congress
- 4.2 National security
- 4.3 Economy
- 4.4 Immigration
- 4.5 Healthcare
- 4.6 Social issues
- 5 Issues
- 6 Elections
- 7 Campaign donors
- 8 Personal Gain Index
- 9 Analysis
- 10 Personal
- 11 Recent news
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 References
He is running for re-election to the U.S. House to represent the 8th Congressional District of Minnesota in 2014. He ran uncontested for the Democratic nomination in the primary election on August 12, 2014.
Nolan was one of nine individuals elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012 who had prior congressional experience. He served three terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, from 1974 to 1980.
Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Nolan is a more moderate left of center Democratic Party vote. As a result, he may break with the Democratic Party line more than his fellow members.
Upon graduating from Brainerd High School in 1962, Nolan attended St. John's University and then completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Minnesota in 1966. In addition to pursuing postgraduate work in public administration and policy formation at the University of Maryland, he also served as a staff assistant to Walter Mondale in the U.S. Senate. He also campaigned for Democratic presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968.
After deciding not to run for re-election, he became president of the U.S. Export Corporation. He was later appointed to the Minnesota World Trade Center (later becoming president) by Democratic Governor Rudy Perpich. The National Journal reported that opponents "criticized his $70,000 salary, which they considered high for a civil servant at the time, and the budget deficits the company ran up."
Below is an abbreviated outline of Nolan's academic, professional and political career:
- Social studies teacher in Royalton, MN, schools (1968-1972)
- Former president of Emily Forest Products, a sawmill and pallet factory in Emily, MN
- President of the Minnesota World Trade Center in St. Paul, MN (1987-1994)
Nolan serves on the following committees:
- Agriculture Committee
- Subcommittee on Conservation, Energy and Forestry
- Subcommittee on Livestock, Rural Development, and Credit
- United States House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure
- Subcommittee on Aviation
- Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management
- Subcommittee on Highways and Transit
- Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment
The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session. For more information pertaining to Nolan's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.
Nolan voted in opposition of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.
Nolan voted in opposition of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.
Keystone Pipeline Amendment
Nolan voted against of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.
Nolan voted in opposition of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.
2013 Farm Bill
Nolan opposed the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013. In a speech on the House floor on July 11, 2013, Nolan explained his vote. He said, "I am privileged to sit on the Agriculture Committee. During the markup of the farm bill earlier this year, my colleagues and I discussed and debated and deliberated for ten hours on every provision of this bill.
That bill included critical reform of the dairy program, reauthorization of the Rural Broadband program, as well as important provisions for organic producers, beginning farmers and ranchers, conservationists, and the forestry industry.
We reached a bipartisan consensus and 36 of us--myself included--cast a vote in support of the legislation.
Then, on the floor, the legislation was systematically dismantled, piece by piece, until it was barely recognizable as the same farm bill that came out of committee. It was no surprise that this bill failed."
- See also: United States Farm Bill 2013
In June 2013, more than two dozen House Democrats, including Nolan, took part in a SNAP challenge, feeding themselves for a week on the average benefit level of a SNAP recipient. Participants agreed to eat all meals from a limited food budget comparable to that of a SNAP participant, approximately $1.50 per meal, or $4.50 a day.
- See also: United States budget debate, 2013
On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201. At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference. Nolan voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.
The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies. The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Nolan voted for HR 2775.
Nolan introduced a bill that would withhold the pay of members of Congress during any shutdown, contra the 27th amendment to the United States Constitution, which prevents any change in congressional pay from taking effect until the start of the next term.
Immigration Executive Order
Morton Memos Prohibition
Nolan voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.
Nolan opposed repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Healthcare-Related Provisions in the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
Nolan opposed the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act, which prohibits abortions after 20 weeks.
On The Issues Vote Match
- See also: On The Issues Vote Match
On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Nolan is a Populist-Leaning Liberal. Nolan received a score of 73 percent on social issues and 23 percent on economic issues.
The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.
|On The Issues Vote Quiz|
|Economic Issues||Social Issues|
|Legally require hiring women & minorities||Strongly Favors||Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right||Strongly Favors|
|Expand ObamaCare||Strongly Favors||Comfortable with same-sex marriage||Strongly Favors|
|Vouchers for school choice||Strongly Opposes||Keep God in the public sphere||Unknown|
|Absolute right to gun ownership||Strongly Opposes||Human needs over animal rights||Strongly Favors|
|Higher taxes on the wealthy||Strongly Favors||Stricter punishment reduces crime||Unknown|
|Support & expand free trade||Favors||Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens||Favors|
|Stricter limits on political campaign funds||Strongly Favors||Maintain US sovereignty from UN||Unknown|
|Prioritize green energy||Unknown||Expand the military||Strongly Opposes|
|Stimulus better than market-led recovery||Neutral||Stay out of Iran||Strongly Favors|
|Privatize Social Security||Strongly Opposes||Never legalize marijuana||Unknown|
|Note: Information last updated: 2014.|
Taxes and Spending
Nolan has stated that the "super-rich" should be targeted for tax increases. He has also voiced support for the stimulus spending championed by President Obama. He has stated that, "It did in fact create good jobs in a whole wide range of areas, not the least of which is in the field of transportation."
Nolan voted in protest against the 2014 Veterans Affairs appropriations bill, which allocates $73.3 billion to veterans programs and military construction projects, "$1.4 billion more than what Congress budgeted" the previous year, because, he stated, "it under-funds veterans health and benefit programs."
American response in Syria
- See also: United States involvement in Syria
Rep. Scott Rigell wrote in the letter in August 2013, “engaging our military in Syria when no direct threat to the United States exists and without prior congressional authorization would violate the separation of powers that is clearly delineated in the Constitution.”
The members of Congress believed that Obama should have asked Congress for permission before engaging in Libya. “If the use of 221 Tomahawk cruise missles, [sic] 704 Joint Direct Attack Munitions, and 42 Predator Hellfire missiles expended in Libya does not constitute ‘hostilities,’ what does?” the letter asked.
“If you deem that military action in Syria is necessary, Congress can reconvene at your request. We stand ready to come back into session, consider the facts before us, and share the burden of decisions made regarding U.S. involvement in the quickly escalating Syrian conflict,” stated the letter.
On August 29, 2013, more than 50 House Democrats signed a letter written by California Rep. Barbara Lee that called for a congressional resolution on strikes, and cautioned that the dire situation in Syria "should not draw us into an unwise war—especially without adhering to our constitutional requirements." The letter also called on the Obama administration to work with the U.N. Security Council “to build international consensus” condemning the alleged use of chemical weapons. Nolan was one of the 50 Democrats in the House to sign the letter.
Comments on ISIS
- See also: ISIS insurgency in Iraq and Syria
Nolan urged President Barack Obama not to make a unilateral decision to mobilize the military against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) without the consent of Congress. On August 29, 2014, Nolan stated, "American blood and treasury should not be made without the full consideration by all 535 members of the Congress of the United States." He added, "When we get ourselves involved in that conflict, then we become a part of the problem and the solution becomes ours."
Shortly after making these comments, Nolan issued a statement regarding ISIS. Nolan wrote, "I encourage them to employ the same intelligence resources – and the same selective, highly effective means they used to bring down Osama Bin Laden. Special operations of this kind do not involve U.S. troops on the ground, the killing of innocent people, or the re-involvement of the United States in another terribly destructive, expensive, open-ended conflict in that region.”
Nolan's Republican challenger in the general election, Stewart Mills, disagreed with Nolan, stating, "Like it or not we have to play some role here. And for Congressman Nolan to take those positions, I think, leaves America in an even weaker position than we have been in the past. We can't lead from behind. We have to lead."
According to a poll published in The Washington Post, the majority of voters' views align closer with Mills than Nolan on the issue of taking action in the Middle East. About 91 percent of voters believed ISIS to be a serious threat, and 71 percent supported the U.S. government ordering air strikes against the Sunni insurgents in Iraq.
The campaign issues below were featured on Nolan's website.
- Jobs! Jobs! Jobs!
Excerpt: "With 8th District unemployment at over 10% (not counting the thousands of discouraged Minnesotans who have quit looking for jobs) we need a congressman who knows how to meet a payroll and balance a budget."
- Rebuilding America and Jobs
Excerpt: "Rebuilding America’s infrastructure – roads, bridges, wastewater treatment, mass transit and high-speed light-rail, would improve our quality of life, create millions of good paying jobs, and strengthen our economy. We can pay for this by ending the Bush tax cuts and loopholes for the rich, and by pulling back our military footprint in countries like Japan that pose no threat to us whatsoever."
Excerpt: "Don’t turn Medicare into a voucher system for insurance companies, which will mean higher costs and less treatment."
- Social Security
Excerpt: "Social Security is a compact with the American people that must be honored. Don’t turn it over to Wall Street. Stabilize the Social Security Fund for generations to come by requiring the very rich to pay Social Security taxes on a higher percentage of their income."
- Education for America’s Future
Excerpt: "Fix a broken college loan system that saddles many graduates with crushing debt they will spend most of their working lives attempting to repay. Higher education must be a right for all – not simply a privilege for the well off."
- Support the ERA for Women
Excerpt: "America has come a long way in advancing civil rights for all citizens. Yet women still face significant gender discrimination in a host of areas including education, employment, health care, pensions and social security benefits."
- Wars in the Middle East
Excerpt: "America is deeply involved in expensive wars with no apparent plan for winning them or concluding them. We need to devote those resources to jobs and the economy here at home. So bring the troops home now."
Nolan is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He ran uncontested for the Democratic nomination in the primary election on August 12, 2014. The general election takes place November 4, 2014. He will be challenged by Republican nominee Stewart Mills. Politico reports that Nolan is vulnerable in what is deemed a competitive race.
Nolan ran in the 2012 election for the U.S. House to represent Minnesota's 8th District. He defeated Jeff Anderson and Tarryl Clark in the August 14 Democratic primary. He defeated Chip Cravaack (R) in the general election on November 6, 2012. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee spent $2 million dollars on his campaign, and the Democratic-focused House Majority PAC spent another $1.5 million.
|U.S. House, Minnesota District 8 General Election, 2012|
|Republican||Chip Cravaack Incumbent||45.4%||160,520|
|Source: Minnesota Secretary of State, "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"|
|Minnesota's 8th Congressional District Democratic Primary, 2012|
The following organizations and individuals endorsed Nolan for the 2012 election:
- Walter Mondale
- Governor Mark Dayton
- Congressman Jim Oberstar
- Democratic Party’s 8th District, Minnesota
- Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party
The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Nolan attends.
Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.
Comprehensive donor history
Comprehensive donor information for Nolan is available dating back to 2012. Based on available campaign finance records, Nolan raised a total of $1,256,440 during that time period. This information was last updated on June 17, 2013.
|Rick Nolan's Campaign Contribution History|
|2012||U.S. House (Minnesota, District 8)||$1,256,440|
|Grand Total Raised||$1,256,440|
|Rick Nolan (2014) Campaign Finance Reports|
|Report||Date Filed||Beginning Balance||Total Contributions|
for Reporting Period
|Expenditures||Cash on Hand|
|April Quarterly||April 26, 2013||$26,207.62||$120,703.67||$(27,972.83)||$118,938.46|
|July Quarterly||July 15, 2013||$118,938.00||$134,764.34||$(59,126.31)||$194,576.03|
|October Quarterly||October 15, 2013||$194,576.49||$129,472.26||$(62,989.02)||$261,059.73|
|Year-End Quarterly||December 31, 2013||$261,059||$143,147||$(94,514)||$298,061|
|April Quarterly||April 15, 2014||$315,001.22||$265,772.54||$(102,557.79)||$478,215.97|
Cost per vote
Nolan spent $6.41 per vote received in 2012.
|U.S. House, Minnesota District 8, 2012 - Rick Nolan Campaign Contributions|
|Total Raised by Election Runner-up||$2,374,759|
|Total Spent by Election Runner-up||$2,377,366|
|Top contributors to Rick Nolan's campaign committee|
|Machinists/Aerospace Workers Union||$10,500|
|United Transportation Union||$10,500|
|Intl Brotherhood of Electrical Workers||$10,250|
|American Federation of Teachers||$10,000|
|Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee|
|Public Sector Unions||$58,250|
To view the breakdown of campaign funding by type click [show] to expand the section.
Personal Gain Index
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
- See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)
The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:
- Changes in Net Worth
- The K-Street Metric
- The Donation Concentration Metric
- The Stock Oversight and Trades Metric
PGI: Change in net worth
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Nolan's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $696,008 and $1,515,000. That averages to $1,105,504, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Nolan ranked as the 200th most wealthy representative in 2012. Between 2011 and 2012, Nolan's calculated net worth decreased by an average of 4 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.
|Rick Nolan Yearly Net Worth|
|Year||Average Net Worth|
|Growth from 2011 to 2012:||-4%|
|Average annual growth:||-4%|
|Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.|
Ideology and leadership
The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.
Nolan most often votes with:
Nolan least often votes with:
Lifetime voting record
According to the website GovTrack, Nolan missed 726 of 5,161 roll call votes from January 1975 to July 2014. This amounts to 14.1 percent, which is worse than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of July 2014.
National Journal vote ratings
- See also: National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.
Nolan ranked 102nd in the liberal rankings in 2013.
Voting with party
The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.
Nolan voted with the Democratic Party 91.1 percent of the time, which ranked 145th among the 204 House Democratic members as of July 2014.
Nolan voted with the Democratic Party 91.3 percent of the time, which ranked 162nd among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.
Nolan is married to Mary. They have children and grandchildren. He hunts, harvests wild rice, boils maple syrup and enjoys fishing.
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Rick + Nolan + Minnesota + House
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- United States House of Representatives
- Minnesota's 8th Congressional District elections, 2014
- Minnesota's 8th Congressional District
- Social media:
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Congressional profile at CongressMerge.com
- Summary, biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Profile at Wikipedia
- Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission
- Voting record maintained by The Washington Post
- ABC News, "General Election Results 2012-Minnesota," accessed November 7, 2012
- Minnesota Secretary of State, "2014 State General Election Candidate Filings," accessed June 11, 2014
- Associated Press, "Minnesota - 2014 Primary Results," accessed August 12, 2014
- The New York Times, "Election brings seasoned politicians to congress," accessed December 8, 2012
- Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, "NOLAN, Richard Michael," accessed March 18, 2014
- Minnesota Legislators Past & Present, "Nolan, Richard Michael," accessed March 18, 2014
- National Journal, "Minnesota, 8th House District" November 1, 2012
- Congress, "NOLAN, Richard Michael, (1943 - )", accessed August 23, 2014
- Minnesota State Legislature, "Nolan, Richard Michael", accessed August 23, 2014
- Rick Nolan for Congress, "Who's Rick Nolan?," accessed March 18, 2014
- CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress"
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
- Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
- Project Vote Smart, "Representative Rick Nolan's Voting Records on National Security," accessed September 26, 2013
- The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013 Floor Speech," accessed September 12, 2013
- U.S. House.gov, "Full Member List of Congressional Snap Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
- Feeding America, "Taking the SNAP Challenge," accessed September 25, 2013
- Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
- Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
- The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
- U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
- International Business Times, "Government Shutdown 2013: Bill To Stop Congress From Getting Paid Introduced By Rep. Rick Nolan", October 1, 2013
- The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed August 28, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "Representative Rick Nolan's Voting Records on Immigration," accessed September 26, 2013
- Project Vote Smart, "Nolan on the issues," accessed September 12, 2013
- On The Issues, "Rick Nolan Vote Match," accessed June 17, 2014
- The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
- Duluth News Tribune, "Nolan, Cravaack spar over economy in final debate", November 1, 2012
- Minnesota Public Radio, "Cravaack, Nolan tussle over health care, jobs in 3rd debate", October 16, 2012
- MinnPost, "Nolan's 'protest' vote one of four against VA budget bill", June 5 2013
- Yahoo, "65 Lawmakers Ask Obama to Consult on Syria," accessed August 28, 2013
- Politico, "33 lawmakers: Congress must approve Syria action," accessed August 28, 2013
- Washington Post, "More than 50 House Democrats also want Syria strike resolution," accessed September 2, 2013
- Northland News Center, "Rick Nolan urges President Obama to resist military involvement in Syria," accessed September 12, 2014
- Slate, "The ISIS-Bedwetter Watch Continues," accessed September 12, 2014
- Minnesota Public Radio News, "Strategy against Islamic State could play big in 8th District," accessed September 12, 2014
- The Washington Post, "Wide support for striking ISIS, but weak approval for Obama," accessed September 12, 2014
- Rick Nolan for Congress, "Rick on the Issues," accessed October 10, 2012
- Politico, "Ads hit vulnerable Dems on Obamacare", December 26, 2013
- CBS, "Primary Results 2012," accessed May 30, 2013
- Associated Press, "Minnesota - Summary Vote Results"
- Boston Globe, "Lawmaker finds new realities in return to Congress", May 28, 2013
- Rick Nolan for Congress, "Rick in the News," accessed October 10, 2012
- OpenSecrets, "Rick Nolan," accessed May 16, 2013
- Federal Election Commission, "Nolan 2014 Summary reports," accessed July 18, 2013
- FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed July 18, 2013
- FEC, "July Quarterly," accessed July 18, 2013
- FEC, "October Quarterly," accessed October 23, 2013
- FEC, "Year-End Quarterly," accessed February 11, 2014
- FEC, "April Quarterly," accessed May 16, 2014
- OpenSecrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
- OpenSecrets, "Rick Nolan (D-MN), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
- This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
- This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
- This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
- This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
- GovTrack, "Rick Nolan," accessed July 29, 2014
- OpenCongress, "Rick Nolan," accessed July 29, 2014
- GovTrack, "Rick Nolan," accessed July 29, 2014
- National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed July 29, 2014
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
- OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
|U.S. House of Representatives - Minnesota District 8
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