|U.S. House, Texas, District 14|
|1979-1985, January 3, 1997-January 3, 2013|
|Elections and appointments|
|Last election||November 2, 2010|
|First elected||November 5, 1996|
|Birthday||August 20, 1935|
|Place of birth||Green Tree, PA|
Originally from the Pittsburgh suburb of Green Tree, Pennsylvania, he studied at Duke University School of Medicine; after his 1961 graduation and a residency in obstetrics and gynecology, he became a U.S. Air Force flight surgeon, serving outside the Vietnam War zone. He later represented Texas districts in the U.S. House of Representatives (1976–1977, 1979–1985, and 1997–present). He entered the 1988 presidential election, running as the Libertarian nominee while remaining a registered Republican, and placed a distant third.
Paul has been described as conservative, constitutionalist, and libertarian. He advocates a foreign policy of non-intervention, having voted against actions such as the Iraq War Resolution, but in favor of force against terrorists in Afghanistan. He favors withdrawal from NATO and the United Nations, citing the dangers of foreign entanglements to national sovereignty. Having pledged never to raise taxes, he has long advocated ending the federal income tax, scaling back government spending, abolishing many federal agencies, and removing military bases and troops from foreign soil; he favors hard money and opposes the Federal Reserve. He also opposes the PATRIOT Act, the federal War on Drugs, No Child Left Behind, and gun control. Paul is strongly pro-life, and has introduced bills to negate Roe v. Wade, but affirms states' rights to regulate or ban abortion, rather than federal jurisdiction.
While Paul was a leading 2008 presidential candidate in some Republican straw polls, he saw substantially less support in landline opinion polls and in the actual primaries. Strong internet grassroots support was indicated by the popularity of his name in search queries and the number of his campaign's YouTube subscriptions. His book commenting on the presidential run, The Revolution: A Manifesto, became a bestseller immediately upon release and went on to be #1 on the New York Times nonfiction best sellers list.
Paul was born in Green Tree, Pennsylvania, to Margaret "Peggy" Paul (née Dumont) and Howard Caspar Paul, the second son of a German immigrant. With an eighth-grade education, Howard co-owned Green Tree Dairy with his brothers Lewis and Arthur; the small-town truck farm stood just outside Pittsburgh. Paul was the third of five sons born during seven years in the Great Depression, and he shared one bedroom of their four-room house with his brothers William (the oldest), David, Jerrold, and Wayne. Paul began working at Harold's dairy at age five, and later delivered newspapers, worked in a drugstore, and became a milkman upon reaching driving age.
Excelling in track and field, he graduated from Dormont High School in 1953 with honors. He had a best mark in the 100-yard dash of 9.7 seconds(the record was then 9.4 seconds); as a junior, he was the 220-yard dash state champion and placed second in the 440-yard run. He also was on the wrestling team, played football and baseball, and was student council president. After surgery on a knee injury, he took up swimming as a form of therapy.
A major university offered Paul a full track scholarship, chancing he could regain his prior speed; he declined it, unwilling to involve the university in the risk himself. Rather, he paid for his first year at Gettysburg College with saved newspaper-delivery, lemonade-sale, and lawn-mowing money; he later received a small academic scholarship. He delivered mail and laundry in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; managed the college coffee shop (the Bullet Hole) for one year; and joined the swim team. Inducted into the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity, he served as pledge class president, house manager, and kitchen steward, planning and supervising cooks for all meals. By his senior year, he was running track again; he set the then-third-best marks in college history in the 100-yard dash (9.9 seconds) and 220-yard dash (21.8 seconds). He received his bachelor's in 1957, majoring in biology.
Paul considered becoming a Lutheran minister like two of his brothers. Instead he decided to pursue a medical degree at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina, attaining it in 1961. He interned and began residency training, both in internal medicine, at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit (1961–1962);
The medical training was soon interrupted when he received a draft notice and entered the U.S. Air Force during the Cuban Missile Crisis. He remained in the military during the early years of the Vietnam War. He served active duty as a flight surgeon from 1963 to 1965, attending to the ear, nose, and throat problems of pilots in South Korea, Iran, Ethiopia, and Turkey, but was never sent to Vietnam. Based out of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Paul achieved the rank of captain and obtained his private pilot's license. The experience of performing physicals on helicopter pilot candidates, at a time when he saw many copters being shot down, deeply affected Paul; he later considered his indirect association with Vietnam as a catalyst for his rejection of interventionist foreign policy.
While in San Antonio, he also moonlighted three nights a week in a local church hospital's emergency room for $3 per hour, and became involved with Barry Goldwater's presidential campaign. He then served in the Air National Guard while completing his residency (1965–1968), having switched to ob/gyn at the University of Pittsburgh. His residency research into causes of pregnancy toxemia was subsequently published in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology.
He moved to Surfside Beach, Texas, on July 31, 1968, and eventually delivered more than 4,000 babies. Assuming the practice of a retiring doctor in Lake Jackson, Texas, in a single day, Paul became the only ob/gyn doctor in Brazoria County, reportedly delivering 40–50 babies a month and frequently busy with surgery. His practice refused Medicare and Medicaid payments; he worked pro bono, arranged discounted or custom-payment plans for needy patients, or otherwise "just took care of them".
Paul has been described as conservative, Constitutionalist, and libertarian. His nickname "Dr. No" reflects both his medical degree and his insistence that he will "never vote for legislation unless the proposed measure is expressly authorized by the Constitution." One scoring method published in the American Journal of Political Science found Paul the most conservative of all 3,320 members of Congress from 1937 to 2002. Paul's foreign policy of nonintervention made him the only 2008 Republican presidential candidate to have voted against the Iraq War Resolution in 2002. He advocates withdrawal from the United Nations and NATO for reasons of maintaining strong national sovereignty. He supports free trade, rejecting membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) as "managed trade."He supports tighter border security and ending welfare benefits for illegal aliens, and opposes birthright citizenship and amnesty; he voted for the Secure Fence Act of 2006. He voted to authorize the use of military force against terrorists in response to the September 11, 2001, attacks, but suggested war alternatives such as authorizing the president to grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal targeting specific terrorists.
Paul adheres deeply to Austrian school economics; he has authored six books on the subject, and displays pictures of classical liberal economists Friedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard, and Ludwig von Mises (as well as of Grover Cleveland) on his office wall. He regularly votes against almost all proposals for new government spending, initiatives, or taxes; he cast two thirds of all the lone negative votes in the House during a 1995–1997 period. He has pledged never to raise taxes and states he has never voted to approve a budget deficit. Paul would abolish the individual income tax by scaling back the federal budget to its 2000 spending levels; he would also rely on excise taxes and tariffs. He would eliminate most federal government agencies as unnecessary bureaucracies. Paul also sharply opposes inflation as a longterm erosion of the U.S. dollar's purchasing power due to its lack of commodity backing. Paul "wouldn't exactly go back on the gold standard", but instead has pushed to legitimize gold and silver as legal tender and to remove the sales tax on them. He advocates gradual elimination of the Federal Reserve System for many reasons, believing that economic volatility is decreased when the free market determines interest rates and money supply. He favors allowing workers to opt out of Social Security to "protect the system for everyone".
Paul strongly supports Constitutional rights, such as the right to keep and bear arms, jury nullification, and habeas corpus for political detainees. He opposes the PATRIOT Act, federal use of torture, presidential autonomy, a national ID card, domestic surveillance, and the draft. Citing the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Paul advocates states' rights to decide how to regulate social matters not directly found in the Constitution. Paul calls himself "strongly pro-life", "an unshakable foe of abortion", and believes regulation or ban on medical decisions about maternal or fetal health is "best handled at the state level". (He says his years as an obstetrician lead him to believe life begins at conception; his pro-life legislation, like the Sanctity of Life Act, is intended to negate Roe v. Wade for ethical reasons and to get "the federal government completely out of the business of regulating state matters.")
He opposes federal regulation of the death penalty, of education, and of marriage, and he would revise the military "don't ask, don't tell" policy to focus on disruptive sexual behavior (whether heterosexual or homosexual). A free-market environmentalist, he asserts private property rights in relation to environmental protection and pollution prevention. He also opposes the federal War on Drugs, desiring the states to decide whether to regulate or deregulate drugs, including medical marijuana. Paul pushes to eliminate federal involvement in and management of health care, which he argues would allow prices to drop due to the fundamental dynamics of a free market. He is an outspoken proponent for ballot access and numerous election law reforms.
Paul authors many more bills than the average representative, such as those that impose term limits, or abolish the income tax or the Federal Reserve; many do not escape committee review. He has written successful legislation to prevent eminent domain seizure of a church in New York, and a bill transferring ownership of the Lake Texana dam project from the federal government to Texas. By successfully amending other legislation, he has also barred funding for national identification numbers, funding for federal teacher certification, International Criminal Court jurisdiction over the U.S. military, American participation in any U.N. global tax, and surveillance on peaceful First Amendment activities by citizens.
In March 2001, Paul introduced a bill to repeal the 1973 War Powers Resolution (WPR) and reinstate the process of formal declaration of war by Congress. Later in 2001, Paul voted to authorize the president, pursuant to WPR, to respond to those responsible for the September 11, 2001, attacks. He also introduced Sunlight Rule legislation, which requires lawmakers to take enough time to read bills before voting on them, after the massive PATRIOT Act was passed within 24 hours of its introduction. As one of six Republicans to vote against the Iraq War Resolution, Paul (with Oregon representative Peter DeFazio) also sponsored a resolution to repeal the war authorization in February 2003. Paul's speech, 35 "Questions That Won't Be Asked About Iraq", was translated and published in German, French, Russian, Italian, and Swiss periodicals before the Iraq War began.
Paul says his fellow members of Congress have increased government spending by 75 percent during George W. Bush's administration. After a 2005 bill was touted as "slashing" government waste, Paul wrote that it decreased spending by a fraction of one percent and that "Congress couldn't slash spending if the members' lives depended on it." He said that in three years he had voted against more than 700 bills intended to expand government.
Paul has introduced several bills to apply tax credits toward education, including credits for parental spending on public, private, or homeschool students (Family Education Freedom Act); for salaries for all K–12 teachers, librarians, counselors, and other school personnel; and for donations to scholarships or to benefit academics (Education Improvement Tax Cut Act). In accord with his political positions, he has also introduced the Sanctity of Life Act, the We the People Act, and the American Freedom Agenda Act.
Paul serves on the House Foreign Affairs Committee (having been on the Western Hemisphere and the Asia and Pacific subcommittees); the Joint Economic Committee; and the Committee on Financial Services (as Ranking Member of the Domestic and International Monetary Policy, Trade and Technology subcommittee, and Vice-Chair of the Oversight and Investigations subcommittee).
Paul was honorary chair of, and is a current member of, the Republican Liberty Caucus, a political action committee which describes its goal as electing "liberty-minded, limited-government individuals". Paul also hosts a luncheon every Thursday as chair of the Liberty Caucus, composed of 20 members of Congress. He is a founding member of the Congressional Rural Caucus, which deals with agricultural and rural issues, and the 140-member Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus. He remains on good terms with the Libertarian Party and addressed its 2004 convention. He also was endorsed by the Constitution Party's 2004 presidential candidate, Michael Peroutka.
Paul was on a bi-partisan coalition of 17 members of Congress that sued President Bill Clinton in 1999 over his conduct of the Kosovo war. They accused Clinton of failing to inform Congress of the action's status within 48 hours as required by the War Powers Resolution, and of failing to obtain Congressional declaration of war. Congress had voted 427–2 against a declaration of war with Yugoslavia, and had voted to deny support for the air campaign in Kosovo. A federal judge dismissed the lawsuit, ruling that since Congress had voted for funding after Clinton had actively engaged troops in the war with Kosovo, legislators had sent a confusing message about whether they approved of the war. Paul said that the judge's decision attempted to circumvent the Constitution and to authorize the president to conduct a war without approval from Congress.
Paul did not cast a vote regarding the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. The bill was passed in the House by a 257/167 vote on January 1, 2013.
Paul officially declared his candidacy for the 2012 Republican nomination on May 13, 2011. On May 14, 2012, he said he would no longer be actively campaigning but that he would continue to seek delegates to send to the Republican National Convention.
- July 2011
- August 2011
- September 2011
- October 2011
- November 2011
- December 2011
- January 2012
- February 2012
- March 2012
Paul formally declared his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination on March 12, 2007, on C-SPAN. His campaign had grassroots support, and he had dozens of wins in GOP straw polls. He was popular in web searches and YouTube subscriptions, and "surprisingly strong" fundraising with several record-breaking events. Military contributions surpassed all other Republican candidates, and donations came from individuals, aided significantly by a concerted online presence and supporters' use of viral marketing. Supporter-organized "money bomb" fundraisers which overall netted millions over several months.
As had happened in previous congressional campaigns, some race-based newsletter passages once again resurfaced, being re-printed in 2007 by the New York Sun and the New York Times Magazine. However, on January 8, 2008, The New Republic released many previously unpublicized quotations attributed to Paul, charging him with "an obsession with conspiracies, sympathy for the right-wing militia movement, and deeply held bigotry." One issue (previously quoted by Charles Morris) was said to refer to the 1992 Los Angeles rioters as "barbarians" and to suggest that rioting only stopped when it came time for "blacks to pick up their welfare checks"; others reportedly gave tactical militia advice and advanced conspiracy theories. In a press release, Paul repeated that the quotations came from other writers associated with Paul but, "when I was out of Congress and practicing medicine full-time," and again denounced and disavowed the "small-minded thoughts", citing his 1999 House speech praising Rosa Parks for her courage; he said the charges simply "rehashed" the decade-old Morris attack. Paul was defended by a "shocked" Wolf Blitzer, and by Nelson Linder, president of the Austin, Texas chapter of the NAACP. Reason cited Paul's 1996 defense of the newsletters, but later published evidence from "a half-dozen longtime libertarian activists" that Lew Rockwell had been the chief ghostwriter.
Though projections of 2008 Republican delegate counts have varied widely, Paul's count has consistently been third among the three candidates remaining after Super Tuesday. According to CNN and the New York Times, through Super Tuesday, Paul had received five delegates in North Dakota, and was projected to receive two in Iowa, four in Nevada, and five in Alaska based on caucus results, totaling 16. However, Paul's campaign projected 42 delegates based on the same results, including delegates from Colorado, Maine, and Minnesota.
In the January Louisiana caucus, Paul placed second behind John McCain, but uncommitted delegates outnumbered both candidates' pledged delegates, since a registration deadline had been extended to January 12. Paul said he had the greatest number of pledged Louisiana delegates who had registered by the original January 10 deadline, and formally challenged the deadline extension and the Louisiana GOP's exclusion of voters due to an outdated list; he projected three Louisiana delegates. The Super Tuesday West Virginia caucus was won by Mike Huckabee, whose state campaign coordinators reportedly arranged to give three Huckabee delegates to Paul in exchange for votes from Paul's supporters.
Paul's preference votes in primaries and caucuses began at 10 percent in Iowa (winning Jefferson County) and eight percent in New Hampshire; on Super Tuesday they ranged from 25 percent in Montana and 21 percent in North Dakota, where he won several counties outright, to three in several states. After sweeping four states on March 4, McCain was widely projected to have a majority of delegates pledged to vote for him in the September party convention. Paul obliquely acknowledged McCain on March 6: "Though victory in the political sense [is] not available, many victories have been achieved due to hard work and enthusiasm." He continued to contest the remaining primaries, having added, "McCain has the nominal number ... but if you're in a campaign for only gaining power, that is one thing; if you're in a campaign to influence ideas and the future of the country, it's never over."
On June 12, 2008, Paul announced that he was suspending his presidential campaign, investing the more than $4.7 million of remaining campaign contributions to build up the new advocacy group Campaign for Liberty.
On September 5, 2008, the Constitution Party of Montana removed Chuck Baldwin from their presidential ticket, replacing him with Ron Paul for president and Michael Peroutka for vice president. Paul made an announcement stating that he "was aware that the party planned to do this, and has said that as long as he can remain passive and silent about the development, and as long as he need not sign any declaration of candidacy, that he does not object." However, Paul requested on September 11 that Montana take his name off the ballot, stating that that he did not "seek nor consent" to the Montana Constitution Party's nomination. He also suggested the Party list official Constitution Party nominee Baldwin on the Montana ballot instead. Five days later the Montana Secretary of State denied Paul's request for withdrawal, stating that the request was sent to them too late. On September 4, 2008 a list of electors in Louisiana using the label "Louisiana Taxpayers Party" filed papers and paid $500 with the Secretary of State's Office. They are pledged to Paul for President and Barry Goldwater, Jr. for Vice President.
Support for third party candidates
On September 4, 2008, Paul made a brief press statement: "On the heels of his historic three-day rally in Minneapolis that drew over 12,000 attendees, Congressman Ron Paul will make a major announcement next week in Washington at the National Press Club." The congressman had reportedly invited presidential candidates Chuck Baldwin of the Constitution Party, Bob Barr of the Libertarian Party, Cynthia McKinney of the Green Party, and independent Ralph Nader to the press conference, leading some to speculate that they would endorse Paul running for president on the ticket of either the Constitution, Libertarian or other third party.
On September 10, 2008, Paul confirmed his "open endorsement" (CNN) for the four candidates at a press conference in Washington, D.C. He also revealed that he had rejected a personal request for an endorsement from John McCain. He later appeared on CNN's The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer with Nader where they presented and briefly laid out the four principles that all the independent candidates had agreed on as the most important key issues of the presidential race.
Endorsement of Chuck Baldwin
On September 22, 2008, Paul abandoned his former neutral stance and announced his support of Chuck Baldwin in the 2008 presidential election. Paul says that he wishes both the Libertarian and Constitution Parties well, but that after Libertarian candidate Bob Barr admonishing him for "remaining neutral" he caved into this unsolicited advice by endorsing Baldwin over Barr. He also mentioned that he is a lifetime member of the Libertarian Party and also a Republican, and that it is not wrong to participate in multiple parties. He praised states like New York for allowing candidates to run under multiple parties, and stated that allowing this in other states would be a good project for his Campaign for Liberty.
In the 1988 presidential election, Paul defeated activist Russell Means (an Oglala Lakot) to win the Libertarian Party nomination for president. Though an early supporter of President Ronald Reagan, Paul criticized the unprecedented deficits incurred under Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush, Paul's opponent. On the ballot in 46 states and the District of Columbia, Paul placed third in the popular vote with 432,179 votes (0.5%), behind Bush and Michael Dukakis. Paul was kept off the ballot in Missouri, and received votes there only when written in, due to what the St. Louis Post-Dispatch called a "technicality".
As the "Libertarian standard bearer", Paul gained supporters nationwide who agreed with him on many positions —gun rights, fiscal conservatism, homeschooling, and abortion —and won approval from many who thought the federal government was misdirected elsewhere. This nationwide support base encouraged and donated to his later campaigns. 2008 campaign chair Kent Snyder first worked for Paul on the 1988 campaign — when U.S. Senator John McCain told him, "You're working for the most honest man in Congress."
Paul said he sought more during his presidential run than reaching office —he spread his libertarian ideas, often to school and university groups regardless of vote eligibility: "We're just as interested in the future generation as this election. These kids will vote eventually, and maybe, just maybe, they'll go home and talk to their parents." He traveled the country for a year speaking about issues such as free market economics and the rising government deficits: "That's why we talk to a lot of young people. They're the ones who are paying these bills, they're the ones who are inheriting this debt, so it's most likely these young people who will move into this next generation in government."
After the election, Paul continued his medical practice until he returned to Congress. He also co-owned a coin dealership, Ron Paul Coins, for twelve years with Burt Blumert, who continued to operate it after Paul returned to office. He spoke multiple times at the American Numismatic Association's 1988 convention. He worked with FREE on such projects as establishing the National Endowment for Liberty, producing the At Issue public policy series that aired on Discovery Channel and CNBC, and continuing publication of Dr. Ron Paul's Freedom Report.
In 1985 Ron Paul & Associates (RP&A), Inc. (minority-owned by Paul), also began publishing The Ron Paul Investment Letter and The Ron Paul Survival Report; it added the more controversial Ron Paul Political Report in 1987. Articles were largely unbylined but often invoked Paul's name or persona. In 1992, RP&A earned $940,000 and employed Paul's family as well as Lew Rockwell (its vice-president and sometime editor) and seven other workers. An American Libertarian editor publicly named Rockwell as a ghostwriter for Paul in 1988, conveying a "common belief" suggested by Murray Rothbard and current among other libertarians; Rockwell later acknowledged involvement in writing subscription letters, but attributed the newsletters to "seven or eight freelancers".
Paul considered running for President in 1992 , but instead chose to support Pat Buchanan that year, and served as an advisor to his Republican presidential campaign against incumbent President George H.W. Bush.
In 1998 and again in 2000, Paul defeated Loy Sneary, a Democratic Bay City rice farmer and former Matagorda County judge, by running ads warning voters to be "leery of" Sneary. Paul accused Sneary of voting to raise his pay by 5%, increasing his travel allotment by 400% in one year, and using increased taxes to start a new government bureaucracy to handle a license plate fee he enacted. Sneary's aides said he had voted to raise all county employees' pay by five percent in a cost-of-living increase. Paul countered that he had never voted to raise Congressional pay. In both campaigns, the national Democratic Party and major unions had continued targeting Paul with heavy spending.
In 2001, Paul took "moral responsibility" for the comments printed in the "Ron Paul" newsletters, telling Texas Monthly that they were written by unnamed contributors and did not represent his views. He said newsletter remarks referring to U.S. Representative Barbara Jordan (which called her a "fraud" and a "half-educated victimologist" whose "race and sex protect her from criticism") were "the saddest thing, because Barbara and I served together and actually she was a delightful lady." The magazine defended Paul's decision to protect the writer's confidence in 1996, concluding, "In four terms as a U.S. congressman and one presidential race, Paul had never uttered anything remotely like this." RP&A, the chief publisher, was dissolved the same year.
An online grassroots petition to draft Paul for the 2004 presidential election garnered several thousand signatures. On December 11th 2001, he told the independent movement that he was encouraged by the fact that the petition had spread the message of Constitutionalism, but did not expect a White House win at that time. Further prompting in early 2007 led him to enter the 2008 race.
Unlike many political candidates, Paul receives the overwhelming majority of his campaign contributions from individuals (97 percent in the 2006 cycle), and receives much less from political action committees (PAC's) than others, ranging from two percent (2002) to six percent (1998). The group Clean Up Washington, analyzing from 2000 to mid-2006, listed Paul as seventh-lowest in PAC receipts of all House members; one of the lowest in lobbyist receipts; and fourth-highest in small-donor receipts. He has the lowest PAC receipts percentage of all the 2008 Republican presidential candidates.
Paul continued to be re-elected to Congress, starting his tenth term in January 2007. In the March 4th 2008, Republican primary for his Congressional seat, he defeated Friendswood city councilman Chris Peden, obtaining 70.18 percent of the vote.
In 1996, Paul was re-elected to Congress after a tougher battle than he had faced in the 1970s. Since the Republicans had taken over both houses of Congress in the 1994 election, Paul entered the race hopeful that his Constitutionalist goals of tax cuts, closing agencies, and curbing the UN would have more influence, but he quickly concluded "there was no sincere effort" toward his goals. The Republican National Committee focused instead on encouraging Democrats to switch parties, as Paul's primary opponent, incumbent Greg Laughlin, had done in 1995. The party threw its full weight behind Laughlin, including support from House Speaker Newt Gingrich, Governor George W. Bush, and the National Rifle Association. Paul responded by running newspaper ads quoting Gingrich's harsh criticisms of Laughlin's Democratic voting record 14 months earlier. Paul won the primary with support from baseball pitcher, constituent, and friend Nolan Ryan (as honorary campaign chair and ad spokesman), as well as tax activist Steve Forbes and and conservative commentator Pat Buchanan (both of whom had run strong presidential campaigns that year).
Paul's Democratic opponent in the fall election, trial lawyer Charles "Lefty" Morris, received assistance from the AFL-CIO, but Paul's large contributor base outraised Morris two-to-one, giving the third-highest amount of individual contributions received by any House member (behind Gingrich and Bob Dornan].
While Paul was able to paint Morris as a tool of trial lawyers and big labor, Morris ran numerous ads about Paul's advocacy of federal drug law repeal, and about the views Paul published in his newsletters, some of which had contained derogatory comments concerning race and other politicians, making them a public issue for the first time. After the Los Angeles riots of 1992, the Political Report proposed "that 95 percent of the black males in Washington DC are semi-criminal or entirely criminal", and stated that "the criminals who terrorize our cities ... largely are" young black males, who commit crimes "all out of proportion to their numbers". Paul's campaign replied at the time that voters might not understand the "tongue-in-cheek, academic" quotes out of context, and rejected Morris' demand to release back issues. Paul said he was alluding to a contemporary scientific study finding that "of black men in Washington ... about 85 percent are arrested at some point in their lives". Paul went on to win the election in a close margin. It became the third time Paul had been elected to Congress as a non-incumbent.
House of Representatives
Paul was the first member of Congress to propose term limits legislation in the House, where he also declined to attend junkets or register for a Congressional pension while serving four terms. His chief of staff (1978–1982) was Lew Rockwell. In 1980, when a majority of Republicans favored President Jimmy Carter's proposal to reinstate the draft, Paul argued that their views were inconsistent, stating they were more interested in registering their children than they were their guns. He also proposed legislation to decrease Congressional pay by the rate of inflation; he was a regular participant in the annual Congressional baseball game; and he continued to deliver babies on Mondays and Saturdays during his entire 22nd district career.
During his first term, Paul founded a think tank, the Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (FREE). Also in 1976, the foundation began publication of the first monthly newsletter connected with Paul, Dr. Ron Paul's Freedom Report (or Special Report). It also publishes monographs, books, radio spots, and (since 1997) a new series of the monthly newsletter, Ron Paul's Freedom Report, all of which seek to create a greater public awareness of the principles of limited government.
On the House Banking Committee, Paul blamed the Federal Reserve for inflation, and spoke against the banking mismanagement that led to the savings and loan crisis. The U.S. Gold Commission created by Congress in 1982 was his and Jesse Helms's idea, and Paul's commission minority report was published by the Cato Institute in The Case for Gold; it is now available from the Mises Institute, to which Paul is a distinguished counselor.
In 1984, Paul chose to run for the U.S. Senate instead of re-election to the House, but lost the Republican primary to Phil Gramm. He returned to full-time medical practice and was succeeded by former state representative Tom DeLay. In his House farewell address, Paul said, "Special interests have replaced the concern that the Founders had for general welfare. Vote trading is seen as good politics. The errand-boy mentality is ordinary, the defender of liberty is seen as bizarre. It's difficult for one who loves true liberty and utterly detests the power of the state to come to Washington for a period of time and not leave a true cynic."
During his early days, Paul was influenced by Friedrich Hayek’s Road to Serfdom, which led him to read many works of Ayn Rand and Ludwig von Mises while still a medical resident in the 1960s. He came to know economists Hans Sennholz and Murray Rothbard well, and credits to them his interest in the study of economics. He clearly remembers August 15 1971, when President Richard Nixon closed the "gold window" by implementing the U.S. dollar's complete departure from the gold standard, as the day he realized what the Austrian school economists wrote was coming true. That same day, the young physician decided to enter politics, saying later, "After that day, all money would be political money rather than money of real value. I was astounded."
Inspired by the monetary crisis he saw predicted by the Austrian school, Vietnam War funding, rampant inflation, and wholesale welfare, Paul became a delegate to the Texas Republican convention and a Republican candidate for Congress. Incumbent Robert R. Casey defeated him in the 22nd district; Democrats won 1974 heavily. When President Gerald Ford appointed Casey to head the Federal Maritime Commission, Paul won a 1976 special election to fill the empty seat. Paul lost some months later in the general election, to Democrat Robert Gammage, by fewer than 300 votes (0.2%), but defeated Gammage in a 1978 rematch and won new terms in 1980 and 1982.
Paul was the first Republican representative from the area; he also led the Texas Reagan delegation at the national Republican convention. His successful campaign against Gammage surprised local Democrats, who had expected to retain the seat easily in the wake of the Watergate scandal. Gammage underestimated Paul's support among local mothers: "I had real difficulty down in Brazoria County, where he practiced, because he'd delivered half the babies in the county. There were only two obstetricians in the county, and the other one was his partner."
Relationship with district
After a 2003 Texas redistricting, Paul's district became larger than Massachusetts, with 675 miles (1,086 km) of Gulf of Mexico coastline between Houston and Corpus Christi, Texas, covering some 22 counties. Even so, Paul opposes programs like federally funded flood insurance (typically supported by coastal and rural representatives) because it requires those outside flood zones to subsidize those within, but prohibits those within from choosing their own insurers. In an overwhelmingly rural region known for ranching and rice farms, Paul opposes farm subsidies because they are paid to large corporations rather than small farmers. Despite his voting against heavily supported legislation like farm bills, Paul's devotion to reducing government resonates with 14th district voters: in a survey, 54% of his constituency agreed with his goal of eliminating the U.S. Department of Education.
Paul has shifted hundreds of millions of dollars into his home district by conveying constituents' earmark requests to committee, such as for Texas shrimp promotion, but he routinely votes against most spending bills returned by committee. Earmarks permit members of Congress, rather than executive branch civil servants, to designate spending priorities for previously authorized funds directed otherwise. Paul compared his practice to objecting to the tax system yet taking all one's tax credits: "I want to get their money back for the people."
In The Revolution: A Manifesto, Paul states his views on earmarks this way: "The real problem, and one that was unfortunately not addressed in the 2007's earmark dispute, is the size of the federal government and the amount of money we are spending in these appropriations bills. Cutting even a million dollars from an appropriations bill that spends hundreds of billions will make no appreciable difference in the size of government, which is doubtless why politicians and the media are so eager to have us waste our time on [earmarks]."
Paul also spends extra time in the district to compensate for "violat[ing] almost every rule of political survival you can think of". He often logs over 300 miles (480 km)daily, and is famous for attending civic ceremonies for veterans, graduates, and Boy Scouts, often accompanied by his grandchildren. His staff helps senior citizens obtain free or low-cost prescription drugs through a little-known drug company program; procures lost or unreceived medals for war veterans, holding dozens of medal ceremonies annually; is known for its effectiveness in tracking down Social Security checks; and sends out birthday and condolence cards.
In 2001, he was one of only eight doctors in the House; even fewer had continued to practice while in office. He is occasionally approached by younger area residents to thank him for attending their births.
Congressional staff salaries
The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Paul paid his congressional staff a total of $1,194,577 in 2011. Overall, Texas ranked 27th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.
Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org - The Center for Responsive Politics, Paul's net worth as of 2010 was estimated between $1,939,039 to $5,213,999. That averages to $3,576,519 which is lower than the average net worth of Republican Representatives in 2010 of $7,561,133.
National Journal vote ratings
- See also: National Journal vote ratings
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of congress voted in the previous year. Information on Paul's votes in 2012 is unavailable.
Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of congress voted in the previous year. Paul ranked 191st in the liberal rankings among members of the U.S. House.
While at Dormont, schoolmate Carol Wells had asked Paul to escort her to a sweet-16 Sadie Hawkins party, which was their first date. In 1956, Paul proposed marriage to Wells; the couple were wed on February 1, 1957, at Dormont Presbyterian Church.
They have five children, who were baptized Episcopalian: Ronnie, Lori, Rand, Robert, and Joy. They also have eighteen grandchildren. His daughter Joy is an ob/gyn like her father. Paul supported his children during their undergraduate and medical school years, preventing their participation in federal student loans because the program was taxpayer-subsidized. He has rejected a Congressional pension for the same reason.
- Campaign for Liberty
- Endorsements by state officials of presidential candidates in the 2012 election
- Ron Paul for president, 2012
- Ron Paul on Facebook
- Ron Paul on Twitter
- Ron Paul on YouTube
- Ron Paul blog 2012
- Ron Paul on the issues 2012
- Campaign for Liberty
- Campaign for Liberty on Facebook
- Campaign for Liberty on Twitter
- Campaign for LIberty on YouTube
- The Daily Paul blog
- ↑ CBS News, "Ron Paul announces third presidential run," May 13, 2011
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 The Antiwar, Anti-Abortion, Anti-Drug-Enforcement-Administration, Anti-Medicare Candidacy of Dr. Ron Paul by Christopher Caldwell, New York Times Magazine, July 22, 2007
- ↑ Pro-Life Action Must Originate from Principle by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, June 04, 2006
- ↑  Ron Paul, political loser, now best-selling author] by Andrew Malcolm, Los Angeles Times Blog
- ↑ The Road to Paulville by Christopher Weber, AOL News, May 03, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul's 'Revolution:' Box Office] by Whitney Wyckoff, Baltimore Sun, May 01, 2008
- ↑ But If You Want Money for People With Minds That Hate... by David Weigel, Reason Magazine, Apr. 30, 2008
- ↑ Paul No. 1 on Amazon.com CNN, Mar. 30, 2008
- ↑ Hardcover Nonfiction New York Times Best Sellers List, The New York Times, May 18, 2008
- ↑ Gov Track "Higgins" Accessed May 24, 2012
- ↑ Margaret (Peggy) Dumont by David Hinckley, GEDview
- ↑ Running on Angry by Eli Sanders, Aug. 09, 2007
- ↑ One brother in pulpit, another seeks White House by Ted Roelofs, Grand Rapids Press, Oct. 19, 2007
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 The American Dream - Through the Eyes of Mrs. Ron Paul by Carol Paul, Daily Paul, Mar. 16, 2007
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Profile: Republican Ron Paul Seattle Times, July 29, 2007
- ↑ Alameda Sprinter Rates with Greatest Prep Runners Alameda Times-Star, May 25, 1954
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Presidential candidate Ron Paul drawing diverse crowds by Mike Wereschagin, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, June 17, 2007
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 An Interview with Ron Paul's Brother by Dan Treul, Huffington Post, Nov. 06, 2007
- ↑ Past Order of Achievement Award Recipients Lambda Chi Alpha
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Ron Paul's Presidential Bid by Chris Barrick, November 2007, Lambda Chi Alpha, Cross and Crescent
- ↑ Gettysburg Men’s Track & Field: All-Time Top Ten Outdoor Performers Gettysburg College, June 01, 2007
- ↑ Paul, Ronald Ernest by Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, May 20, 2007
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Congressman Ron Paul Announces Presidential Run while taking LIVE calls on C-SPAN (Video) Capitol Hill Broadcasting Network, The Hill, Mar. 20, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul — A True Patriot! by Ian Brockwell, American Chronicle, July 15, 2007
- ↑ Representative Ronald Ernest "Ron" Paul (TX) Project Vote Smart
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 In Defense of our "Unalienable Rights" by Jay Taylor, J. Taylor's Gold & Technology Stocks, May 11, 2000
- ↑ Congressman Ron Paul — "Fighting For Our Country" Committee to Re-Elect Ron Paul, 2007
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 About Ron Paul RonPaul2008.com, 2007
- ↑ 29.00 29.01 29.02 29.03 29.04 29.05 29.06 29.07 29.08 29.09 29.10 29.11 29.12 29.13 29.14 29.15 29.16 29.17 29.18 Dr. No by Sam C. Gwynne, Texas Monthly, Oct. 01, 2001
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 10 Things You Didn't Know About Ron Paul by Danielle Burton, Mar. 23, 2007, U.S. News & World Report
- ↑ Many Awakenings: Ron Paul is as surprised as anyone at the near messianic zeal he inspires by Sarah Liebowitz, Concord Monitor, Sep. 30, 2007
- ↑ Estimating a Basic Space From A Set of Issue Scales by Keith T. Poole, American Journal of Political Science, July 1998
- ↑ Is John Kerry A Liberal? by Keith T. Poole, VoteView, Oct. 13, 2004
- ↑ Patriotism Congressional Record, May 22, 2007
- ↑ Issue: Border Security and Immigration Reform by Ron Paul
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 36.2 A Cheerful Anachronism by George Will, Feb. 18, 2007, Newsweek
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 Paul's Legislative Strategy? He'd Rather Say Not by Libby Copeland, Washington Post, July 09, 2006
- ↑ Rep. Ron Paul Signs Presidential Taxpayer Protection Pledge by John Kartch, Americans for Tax Freedom, Apr. 24, 2007
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 End the Income Tax — Pass the Liberty Amendment by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, Jan. 30, 2003
- ↑ Paul Want Less Government, Less Taxes, and Abolish IRS Antiwar President, Sep. 13, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul in New Hampshire (Video) YouTube, June 05, 2007
- ↑ Question and Answer session following Keynote speech at the Johns Hopkins Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies forum "Foreign Policy: A View from a Presidential Candidate (M3U File) by Ron Paul, Sep. 11, 2007
- ↑ Providing for Consideration of H.R. 2260, Pain Relief Promotion Act of 1999 by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, Oct. 27, 1999
- ↑ Life and Liberty by Ron Paul, 2007
- ↑ Federalizing Social Policy by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, Jan. 31, 2006
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 Excerpts From Our Exclusive Ron Paul Interview by John Lofton, American View, August 2007
- ↑ Paul says merger plans must be derailed: 'You cannot amend the Constitution with a treaty' WorldNetDaily, July 10, 2007
- ↑ An Interview with Presidential Candidate Congressman Ron Paul by Joseph Murtagh, Muckraker Report, June 28, 2007
- ↑ Who had the right to rule? by Thomas Eddlem, New American, May 02, 2005
- ↑ Ron Paul on Education: Republican Representative (TX-14) On the Issues, Sep. 01, 2007
- ↑ Candidates@Google: Ron Paul (Video) Google/YouTube, July 14, 2007
- ↑ Transcript of June 5 "CNN/WMUR/New Hampshire Union Leader" Republican presidential debate CNN, June 05, 2007
- ↑ Paul says Americans' freedoms under siege by John Bresnahan, The Politico, Oct. 10, 2007
- ↑ Bill would restore Congress' war powers by John Dougherty, Mar. 13, 2001, WorldNetDaily
- ↑ Key Vote (How all members voted): Authorization for Use of Military Force Feb. 03, 2005
- ↑ The Sunlight Rule by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, Sep. 16, 2007
- ↑ Questions That Won't Be Asked About Iraq by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, Sep. 10, 2002
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 A Far-Right Texan Inspires Antiwar Left by Murray Shailagh, Mar. 10, 2003, Wall Street Journal
- ↑ Taxes by Ron Paul, October 2007
- ↑ Too Little Too Late by Ron Paul, LewRockwell.com, Nov. 15, 2005
- ↑ An Evening With Dr. Ron Paul by Steven Yates, Ph.D., LewRockwell.com, Apr. 07, 2004
- ↑ Rep. Paul Introduces Education Package Education Exchange, March 1999
- ↑ Tell your U.S. Representative to co-sponsor the American Freedom Agenda Act American Freedom Campaign, Oct. 15, 2007
- ↑ Who is Ron Paul? U.S. House of Representatives
- ↑ Frequently Asked Questions Republican Liberty Caucus, 2002
- ↑ The Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus National Wildlife Refuge Association, Jan. 15, 2008
- ↑ President's Corner Liberator Online, Vol. 9, Issue 10, Advocates for Self-Government, June 09, 2004
- ↑ Ron Paul Triple Nomination Threat? Staff Selections, Free Market News, Sep. 26, 2007
- ↑ Judge sides with Clinton by Ron Paul, U.S. House of Representatives, June 09, 1999
- ↑ U.S. House "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff" Accessed January 4, 2013.
- ↑ CNN "Rep. Ron Paul announces candidacy for president," May 13, 2011
- ↑ CBS News, "Ron Paul suspends active campaigning," May 14, 2012
- ↑ YouTube, "Ron Paul Conviction" ad, July 13, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "The One Who Can Beat Obama" ad, August 15, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Trust" ad, September 6, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "He served" ad, September 21, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Secure" ad, October 6, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Life" ad, October 12, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Consistent" ad, October 18, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Plan" ad, October 18, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "BIG DOG" ad, November 30, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Newt Gingrich, Serial Hypocrisy" ad, November 30, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Newt Gingrich -Selling Access" ad, December 11, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Staying on the Right Path" ad, December 19, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "The One You Can Trust" ad, December 19, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Washington Machine" ad, December 26, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Believe" ad, December 28, 2011
- ↑ YouTube, "Betrayal" ad, January 6, 2012
- ↑ YouTube, "Three of a Kind" ad, January 16, 2012
- ↑ YouTube, "Rick Santorum a Conservative?" ad, February 20, 2012
- ↑ Paul formally launches presidential bid by Gary Martin, San Antonio Express-News, Mar. 12, 2007
- ↑ Texas Congressman Ron Paul Hopes to Garner Support for Presidential Bid with Internet, Debates Associated Press, May 17, 2007, Fox News
- ↑ YouTube stats TechPresident, Personal Democracy Forum, Mar. 27, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul Tops McCain in Cash on Hand ABC News, July 06, 2007, George Stephanopolous
- ↑ Why the US Military Loves Ron Paul by T.Englehardt, The Nation, July 23, 2007
- ↑ Paul leads in donations from military voters, with Obama next by Bennett Roth, David Chase & Richard S. Dunham, Houston Chronicle, Aug. 06, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul Campaign Money Center for Responsive Politics, Race for the White House, Open Secrets, Feb. 01, 2008
- ↑ The Ron Paul Effect by Rick Klein, ABC News, May 05, 2007
- ↑ News shocker: Ron Paul was biggest GOP fundraiser last quarter by Andrew Malcolm, Top of the Ticket, Los Angeles Times Blog, Feb. 01, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul's Online Rise by Chris Wilson, U.S. News & World Report, May 09, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul's Race Problem by Ryan Sager, May 16, 2007, New York Sun
- ↑ Ron Paul's explosive newsletters by Charlie Savage, Boston Globe, Jan. 08, 2008
- ↑ Angry White Man by James Kirchick, The New Republic, Jan. 08, 2008
- ↑ Selections from Ron Paul's Newsletters The New Republic, Jan. 08, 2008
- ↑ More Selections From Ron Paul's Newsletters The New Republic, Jan. 14, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul Statement on The New Republic Article Regarding Old Newsletters by Ron Paul, Reuters Jan. 08, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul Addresses Charges of Racism; F-15s Grounded Forever? by Wolf Blitzer, CNN, The Situation Room, Jan. 10, 2008: "I've got to tell you, congressman, you and I, we have talked a lot over these past several months. And when I saw these newsletters, I didn't know anything about them until I saw that article in 'The New Republic,' I was pretty shocked. Certainly didn't sound like the Ron Paul that I've come to know and our viewers have come to know all this time."
- ↑ NAACP Director Comes To Ron Paul's Defense (Video) YouTube, Jan. 13, 2008
- ↑ "Old News"? "Rehashed for Over a Decade by Matt Welch, Reason Magazine, Jan. 11, 2008
- ↑ 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 Who Wrote Ron Paul's Newsletters? Libertarian movement veterans, and a Paul campaign staffer, say it was "paleolibertarian" strategist Lew Rockwell by Julian Sanchez & David Weigel, Reason Magazine, Jan. 16, 2008
- ↑ RESULTS: Ron PaulCNN Election Center 2008 Primaries and Caucuses
- ↑ Primary Season Election Results The New York Times, Feb. 13, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul National Delegate Count Now 42 or More Ron Paul 2008, Feb. 06, 2008
- ↑ Louisiana Votes Clarified nu Ko, Geraghty, National Review, Jan. 23, 2008
- ↑ Paul Alleges Boondoggle on the Bayou by Z. Byron Wolf, ABC News, Jan. 24, 2008
- ↑ Paul contests delegate credentials in Louisiana Associated Press, Houston Chronicle, Jan. 26, 2008
- ↑ Old-fashioned deal-making wins in W.Va.: Huckabee freezes out Romney for GOP victory with ‘backroom’ agreement] by Alex Johnson, et al, MSNBC, Feb. 05, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul's Bowling Green Son Gives Campaign Update by Forest Sanders, WBKO, Mar. 09, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul's Intentions CNN, Mar. 10, 2008
- ↑ Ron Paul to End Campaign, Launches New Effort by Z. Byron Wolf, ABC News, June 12, 2008
- ↑ Paul suspends presidential campaign; forms new organization CNN, June 12, 2008
- ↑ 122.0 122.1 Ballot Access News: "Montana Constitution Party Submits Presidential Electors Pledged to Ron Paul and Michael Peroutka".
- ↑ 123.0 123.1 123.2 Ron Paul Wants Off Montana Ballot by Matt Gouras, Associated Press, Sep. 11, 2008: "Republican Ron Paul does not want to be on the Montana ballot as the Constitution Party presidential candidate, but state election officials said Thursday it may be too late to remove his name. [...] Paul also said the national Constitution Party candidate, Chuck Baldwin, should be on the ballot instead."
- ↑ Montana Verifies That Ron Paul Will Remain On Ballot by Richard Winger, Ballot Access News, Sep. 15, 2008: "The Montana Secretary of State has told Ron Paul that his request to be removed from the ballot arrived too late."
- ↑ 125.0 125.1 125.2 Winger, Richard. Louisiana Asked to Print Ron Paul on Ballot as Presidential Candidate Ballot Access News, 2008-09-04. Accessed 2008-09-08. "On September 4, a slate of presidential electors was filed at the Louisiana Secretary of State's office, in person. The electors are pledged to Ron Paul for president, and former Congressman Barry Goldwater, Jr., for vice-president. The partisan label for this slate is 'Louisiana Taxpayers Party.' The filing, and the $500 was accepted"
- ↑ 126.0 126.1 Reason Online: "Ron Paul's Surprise?" by David Weigel.
- ↑ EconomicPolicyJournal.com: Ron Paul to Make Major Announcement Next Week Economicpolicyjournal.com, September 5, 2008
- ↑ (2008-09-10) Ron Paul urges voters to skip McCain, Obama, CNNPolitics.com. Retrieved on 2008-09-10
- ↑ Gamboa, Suzanne (2008-09-10), Associated Press. Retrieved on 2008-09-10
- ↑ The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer, CNN, September 10, 2008 
- ↑ A New Alliance by Ron Paul, Campaign for Liberty, Sep. 22, 2008
- ↑ 132.0 132.1 132.2 Paul vs. Laughlin — Ron Paul's campaign against Representative Greg Laughlin by David Beiler, June 1996, Campaigns and Elections
- ↑ 133.0 133.1 Now for a Real Underdog: Ron Paul, Libertarian, for President by Andrew Rosenthal, The New York Times, Oct. 17, 1988
- ↑ 1988 VOTE: The Final Word The New York Times, Dec. 29, 1988
- ↑ If You Don't Like Bush Or Dukakis by Franklin M. Nugent, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p.3C, Nov. 07, 1988
- ↑ 136.0 136.1 The perils of punditry: The US election campaign The Economist, Nov. 05, 1988
- ↑ news Warning: Political Campaigns set to Tackle Texas by Sam Attlesey, p.46A, Dallas Morning News, Sep. 04, 1988
- ↑ The Elephant in the Room by Nate Blakeslee, Texas Monthly, Aug. 01, 2007
- ↑ Interview with Ron Paul (Video) YouTube
- ↑ Eminentoes: A principled maverick by Brihan Doherty, American Spectator, November 1999, Vol. 32, Issue 11
- ↑ 141.0 141.1 Presidential candidate Paul passionate over hard money: Texas legislator once ran investment coin firm (PDF) by Al Doyle, Coin World, July 23, 2007
- ↑ Congressman Ron Paul Talks About Gold, Oil & the Economy by Jay Taylor, J. Taylor's Gold & Technology Stocks, Mar. 17, 2006
- ↑ 143.0 143.1 Introduction to FREE and NEFL
- ↑ "Conservatives" Join Trilateral Commission (PDF) The Ron Paul Investment Letter, Ron Paul & Associates, Vol. 2, Issue 12, Dec. 15, 1986
- ↑ Our 10th Year! (PDF) The Ron Paul Survival Report, Ron Paul & Associates, Vol. 10, Issue 11, Nov. 15, 1994
- ↑ Poor Andy Roony! (PDF) Ron Paul Political Report, Ron Paul & Associates, Vol. 4, Issue 3, Mar. 15, 1990
- ↑ Say Yes to Gary Allen (PDF) The Ron Paul Investment Letter, Vol. 4, Issue 5, May. 15, 1988
- ↑ Who Wrote Ron Paul's Newsletters? by James Kirchick, The New Republic, Jan. 10, 2008
- ↑ A; Nation; Inside the Beltway. Washington Times, Oct. 16, 1991
- ↑ Rothbard, Murray. "Weighing the Buchanan factors; Ideals for the heartland." LewRockwell.com. 1992-01-10
- ↑ 151.0 151.1 Paul vs. Sneary Human Events, June 26, 1998
- ↑ Foes lock horns over Paul's radio ads by Alan Bernstein, Houston Chronicle Campaign Notebook, Aug. 14, 1998
- ↑ Ron Paul Race Smear Erased? Free Market News, May 22, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul for President 2004 by Allan Sterling, Petition Online
- ↑ Ron Paul's Response to "Ron Paul for President 2004" Petition by Allan Sterling, Draft Ron Paul for United States President 2004
- ↑ Ron Paul: Campaign Finance/Money Contributions, Open Secrets
- ↑ PAC Contributions to Paul, Ron (R-TX) Open Secrets
- ↑ Under the Influence: Highlights from Public Citizen's Special Interest Index (PDF) Public Citizen, October 2006
- ↑ 2008 Presidential Election: Ron Paul Campaign Money Open Secrets
- ↑ 2008 Presidential Election: Banking on Becoming President Open Secrets
- ↑ State Races: Texas Elections 2006, CNN
- ↑ Paul Vows to Remain a Republican in Race Associated Press, San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 09, 2007
- ↑ Paul gets primary challenger by Gary Martin, May 22, 2007, San Antonio Express-News
- ↑ 2008 Republican Party Primary Election Texas Secretary of State, Mar. 04, 2008
- ↑ Paul for President? by Brian Doherty, Jan. 22, 2007, Reason Magazine
- ↑ Newsletter excerpts offer ammunition to Paul's opponent by Alan Bernstein, Campaign '96 U.S. House, Houston Chronicle, May 22, 1996
- ↑ The Congressman Who Voted Against a Congressional Medal for Rosa Parks Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Summer 1999, Vol. 24, p.38-39
- ↑ This is America, 1992 (PDF) Ron Paul Political Report, Ron Paul & Associates, Vol. 6, Issue 6
- ↑ 42% of Young Black Males Go Through Capital's Courts by Jason Deparle, The New York Times, Apr. 18, 1992
- ↑ Hobbling a Generation: African American Males in the District of Clumbia's Criminal Justice System by Jerome G. Miller, 1992
- ↑ 171.0 171.1 The Libertarian Congressman Is Back Wall Street Journal, Jan. 13, 1997, p.A18
- ↑ 172.0 172.1 Insight on the News by John Berlau, Jan. 10, 1997
- ↑ 173.0 173.1 The Ron Paul Story (video) YouTube
- ↑ Dr. Ron Paul's Freedom Report (PDF) The absence of force and toleration of others is the key to peace and prosperity by Ron Paul, Apr. 1978, Vol. 3, Issue 4 (reprint)
- ↑ The Presidential Field: Ron Paul Washington Post, Nov. 06, 2007
- ↑ Ron Paul, George and Ringo by Ken Rudin, Political Junkie, National Public Radio, July 26, 2007
- ↑ Members and leaders of the Texas Legislature Legislative Reference Library of Texas
- ↑ Paul Has Long Drawn Support from Unlikely Places National Public Radio, Oct. 07, 2007, Wade Goodwyn
- ↑ GOP House Candidate Responds to Charges by Sue Ann Pressley, May 26, 1996, Washington Post
- ↑ Ron Paul, the Real Republican? by Radley Balko, Feb. 20, 2007, Fox News, Straight Talk
- ↑ Parents must have control of education by Ron Paul, Congressional Record, July 20, 1997
- ↑ Can Congress Be Embarrassed into Ending Wasteful Pork-Barrel Spending? by Ronald D. Utt, Ph.D & Christopher B. Summers, Mar. 15, 2002, Backgrounder, The Heritage Foundation
- ↑ Ron Paul defends asking for special projects Associated Press, MSNBC, Dec. 23, 2007
- ↑ The Revolution: A Manifesto by Ron Paul, 2008, p.81-82
- ↑ LegiStorm, "Ron Paul," Accessed September 17, 2012
- ↑ OpenSecrets.org, "Ron Paul (R-Texas), 2010," Accessed September 17, 2012
- ↑ National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," March 7, 2013
- ↑ National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," February 23, 2012
- ↑ Carol and Ron Paul Marriage Profile by Bob & Sheri Stritof, July 25, 2007, About.com
- ↑ http://blog.ronpaul2008.com/ron_paul_2008/2007/09/message-from--1.html Message from Ron Paul] Ron Paul 2008, Sep. 20, 2007
- ↑ Lone Star: Maverick Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul finds that being right is the one thing his party won't forgive by Michael Brendan Dougherty, American Conservative, June 18, 2007
- ↑ Potomac Fever by Chris Edwards, National Review, Dec. 12, 2005
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