New York Electronic Bills Amendment, Proposal 2 (2014)
The New York Electronic Bills Amendment, Proposal 2 was on the November 4, 2014 ballot in the state of New York as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, where it was approved. The measure was designed to allow legislative bills to be distributed in an electronically written format rather than as paper copies.
Prior to Proposal 2's approval, Section 14 of Article III of the New York Constitution made using a laptop, tablet or other electronic means to distribute a bill unconstitutional. All bills needed to be printed. The constitutional law mandating printed bills was established in 1938.
Below are the official, certified election results:
|New York Proposal 2|
Election results via: New York Board of Elections
Text of measure
The official ballot text appeared as follows:
|“||Permitting Electronic Distribution of State Legislative Bills
The proposed amendment to section 14 of Article 3 of the State Constitution would allow electronic distribution of a state legislative bill to satisfy the constitutional requirement that a bill be printed and on the desks of state legislators at least three days before the Legislature votes on it. It would establish the following requirements for electronic distribution: first, legislators must be able to review the electronically-sent bill at their desks; second, legislators must be able to print the bill if they choose; and third, the bill cannot be changed electronically without leaving a record of the changes. Shall the proposed amendment be approved?
- See also: Article III, New York Constitution
|S 14. No bill shall be passed or become a law unless it shall have been printed and upon the desks of the members, in its final form, at least three calendar legislative days prior to its final passage, unless the governor, or the acting governor, shall have certified, under his or her hand and the seal of the state, the facts which in his or her opinion necessitate an immediate vote thereon, in which case it must nevertheless be upon the desks of the members in final form, not necessarily printed, before its final passage; nor shall any bill be passed or become a law, except by the assent of a majority of the members elected to each branch of the legislature; and upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereof shall be allowed, and the question upon its final passage shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the ayes and nays entered on the journal.
For purposes of this section, a bill shall be deemed to be printed and upon the desks of the members if: it is set forth in a legible electronic format by electronic means, and it is available for review in such format at the desks of the members. For the purposes of this section “electronic means” means any method of transmission of information between computers or other machines designed for the purpose of sending and receiving such transmissions and which: allows the recipient to reproduce the information transmitted in a tangible medium of expression; and does not permit additions, deletions or other changes to be made without leaving an adequate record thereof.
Prior to Proposal 2's passage, Section 14 of Article III of the New York Constitution stated: “No bill shall be passed or become a law unless it shall have been printed and upon the desks of the members, in its final form, at least three calendar legislative days prior to its final passage…” In sum, the provision mandated that bills needed to be delivered in print and paper form. Utilizing a tablet, laptop or other electronic means to deliver a bill was therefore unconstitutional.
On average, the New York Legislature printed 19 million pages every two years, including the full text of all legislative bills. Officials estimated that the legislature spent $325,000 on paper and ink for printing bills during each legislative session.
The measure was sponsored in the New York Legislature by Rep. Sandy Galef (D-95) and Sen. Carl Marcellino (R-5).
- Sen. Carl Marcellino (R-5)
- Rep. Sandy Galef (D-95)
- Rep. Didi Barrett (D-106)
- Rep. Anthony Brindisi (D-119)
- Rep. David Buchwald (D-93)
- Rep. Karim Camara (D-43)
- Rep. William Colton (D-47)
- Rep. Jane Corwin (R-144)
- Rep. Michael DenDekker (D-34)
- Rep. Jeffrey Dinowitz (D-81)
- Rep. Dennis Gabryszak (D-143)
- Rep. Brian Kavanagh (D-74)
- Rep. Ellen Jaffee (D-97)
- Rep. William Magnarelli (D-129)
- Rep. Nicole Malliotakis (R-64)
- Rep. Steven Otis (D-91)
- Rep. N. Nick Perry (D-58)
- Rep. Samuel Roberts (D-128)
- Rep. Angelo Santabarbara (D-111)
- Rep. Frank Skartados (D-104)
- Rep. James Skoufis (D-99)
- Rep. Phil Steck (D-110)
- Rep. James Tedisco (R-112)
- Rep. David Weprin (D-24)
- Rep. Keith Wright (D-95)
- Rep. Kenneth Zebrowski (D-96)
- He complained about the excessive amount of paper, saying, "It’s on our desk, it’s underneath our desk, it’s in our desk, it’s in the hallways, it’s in the document rooms — we’re surrounded by paper."
- He noted, “With the hubbub over passing a constitutional amendment to allow for casino gambling in New York, there's been little discussion about another amendment that could really save tax dollars; enabling state government to go digital. Our founding fathers were wise but they never envisioned iPads, laptops, and smart phones as a means of delivering information.”
- Tedisco noted that the measure would saves tax dollars and is environmentally friendly. He argued, "We're moving the state government into the 21st century with its communications. With passage of this legislation, in November 2014, voters will have the opportunity to save tax dollars and make mother earth smile."
The New York City 2014 Voter Guide included arguments in favor and in opposition to Proposal 2. The following was the guide's argument in favor:
—New York City 2014 Voter Guide
Other arguments included the following:
The New York City 2014 Voter Guide included arguments in favor and in opposition to Proposal 2. The following were the guide's arguments in opposition:
—New York City 2014 Voter Guide
Media editorial positions
- See also: Endorsements of New York ballot measures, 2014’'
- Adirondack Daily Enterprise endorsed a "yes" vote on Proposal 2.
- The Journal News said, "The bipartisan legislation is smart and timely. Primary sponsors State Assemblywoman Sandy Galef, D-Ossining, and state Sen. Carl Marcellino, R-Syosset, deserve kudos. The paper-and-ink savings is pegged at $350,000 a year, according to the Poughkeepsie Journal."
- Newsday said, "Proposal 2 would help usher the State Legislature into the digital age... Albany votes on more than a thousand bills a year. "Printing" them electronically would be more efficient, and the savings should be considerable. Vote yes on proposal No. 2."
- The Post Standard said, "The Legislature prints 19 million pages, on average, per two-year legislative session. Switching to digital would save an estimated $325,000 per session -- and a heck of a lot of trees. It's a no-brainer. Vote yes on Proposition 2."
Path to the ballot
- See also: Amending the New York Constitution
The measure was referred to the ballot after being approved by both houses in successive terms by simple majority. A7868 was approved for a second time by the New York State Assembly on June 18, 2013. S4417A was approved for a second time by the New York State Senate on June 20, 2013.
June 18, 2013 Assembly vote
|New York A7868 Assembly Vote|
June 20, 2013 Senate vote
|New York S4417A Senate Vote|
- New York State Assembly, "A07868 Summary," accessed January 20, 2013
- New York State Assembly, "S04417 Summary," accessed January 20, 2014
- New York State Board of Elections, "Proposal Number Two," accessed August 3, 2014
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- New York Times, "Albany, Long Buried in Paper, Resolves to Save a Small Forest," August 10, 2013
- Legislative Gazette, "Legislature votes to go paperless," June 24, 2013
- New York City, "New York City 2014 Voter Guide," accessed October 29, 2014
- Adirondack Daily Enterprise, "Yes to digital bills, Brighton raffles," October 29, 2014
- The Journal News, "Editorial: Save trees, pass Proposal 2," October 26, 2014
- Newsday, "Editorial: How Newsday votes on New York ballot propositions," October 16, 2014
- The Post Standard, "New York Proposition 2: Vote yes on electronic bills (Editorial)," October 30, 2014
State of New York
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Comptroller | Commissioner of Education | Superintendent of Insurance | Commissioner of Agriculture | Commissioner of Environmental Conservation | Commissioner of Labor | Chairman of Public Service Commission |
New York Supreme Court | Trial Court | Supreme Court, Appellate Division | Civil Courts | County Courts | Surrogate Courts | Family Courts | Civil Courts | Court of Statewide Claims | Town Courts | Village Courts | City Civil Court | City Criminal Court | District Court Nassau & Suffolk | City Courts (Outside New York City) | Judicial Nominating Commission | Judicial news | Judicial activist organizations |