Public education in Hawaii

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K-12 Education in Hawaii
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Kathryn Matayoshi
Number of students: 182,706[1]
Number of teachers: 11,458
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.9
Number of school districts: 1
Number of schools: 287
Graduation rate: 82%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $12,004[3]
See also
Hawaii State Department of Education
Hawaii school districts
List of school districts in Hawaii
Hawaii
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Hawaii
Glossary of education terms
The Hawaii public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Hawaii had 182,706 students enrolled in a total of 287 schools in one school district. There were 11,458 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 16 students, which was the same as the national average. There was roughly one administrator for every 315 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Hawaii spent $12,004 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 14th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 82 percent. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Hawaii Superintendent of Education
Hawaii school districts
List of school districts in Hawaii
Public education in Hawaii
School board elections portal
The Hawaii Department of Education represents the single public school district in the state.[6]

The mission statement of the Hawaii Department of Education reads:[7]

We serve our community by developing the academic achievement, character and social-emotional well-being of our students to the fullest potential. We work with partners, families and communities to ensure that all students reach their aspirations, from early learning through college, career and citizenship.[8]

The Hawaii State Board of Education has nine members, as well as a student council representative and a military liaison. The Board meets twice a month, unless special meetings are required, to formulate policy and oversee the public school and public library systems.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Hawaii State Department of Education adopted these standards on June 18, 2010. During the 2012-2013 school year, the standards were implemented in grades K-2 and 11-12, and during the 2013-2014 school year, they were fully implemented across all grades.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Hawaii compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Hawaii 287 1 182,706 11,458 1:15.9 1:315 $12,004
California 10,170 1,187 6,287,834 268,689 1:23.4 1:389.4 $9,139
Oregon 1,261 221 568,208 26,791 1:21.2 1:364.8 $9,682
Washington 2,365 316 1,045,453 53,119 1:19.7 1:373.1 $9,483
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states
See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Hawaii as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic Information for Hawaii's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 970 0.53% 1.10%
Asian 62,521 34.22% 4.68%
African American 4,387 2.4% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 61,959 33.91% 0.42%
Hispanic 11,758 6.44% 24.37%
White 26,081 14.27% 51.21%
Two or More 15,030 8.23% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Hawaii attend suburban schools. This is also the case in Washington, but in California and Oregon, students are more likely to attend city schools than suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
Hawaii 19.5% 42.7% 25.3% 12.5%
California 43.4% 39.3% 6.1% 11.3%
Oregon 32.6% 23.3% 26.3% 17.8%
Washington 29.1% 41.1% 12.3% 17.5%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Hawaii's students scored lower than the national average in eighth grade math, fourth grade reading and eighth grade reading, but the state's fourth grade math scores were higher. Those scores were also higher than California's and Oregon's, though Washington remained highest of the compared states with 48 percent of math students in fourth grade scoring at or above proficient.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Hawaii 46 32 30 28
California 33 28 27 29
Oregon 40 34 33 37
Washington 48 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Hawaii and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Hawaii 82% Second 21.3 27% 1453 64%
California 78% Fourth 22.1 25% 1505 57%
Oregon 68% Fifth 21.4 38% 1539 49%
Washington 77% Fourth 22.9 21% 1537 60%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Hawaii was higher than the national average at 5.1 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4.7 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Hawaii

Hawaii has the second highest private school attendance in the United States. Other school choice options in the state include charter schools, homeschooling, online learning and intra-district, voluntary public school open enrollment.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Hawaii state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 15.6 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 6.3 percentage points, a 28.8 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 21.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21] Over 83 percent of Hawaii's education revenue comes from state funding. Federal funding accounts for nearly 14 percent, and local funding accounts for approximately 2.5 percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Hawaii 15.6% $12,004 13.9% 83.57% 2.53%
California 19.9% $9,139 14.56% 55.06% 30.37%
Oregon 14% $9,682 14% 46.07% 39.93%
Washington 22.9% $9,483 11.57% 57.2% 31.23%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Hawaii totaled approximately $2.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Hawaii and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Hawaii $347,363 $2,088,870 $63,280 $2,499,513
California $9,995,705 $37,793,351 $20,848,699 $68,637,755
Oregon $848,637 $2,792,762 $2,420,619 $6,062,018
Washington $1,367,629 $6,758,505 $3,690,190 $11,816,324
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Hawaii totaled approximately $2.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Hawaii and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Hawaii $2,156,001 $85,476 $17,627 $2,259,104
California $56,784,812 $6,535,512 $3,579,908 $66,900,232
Oregon $5,418,357 $461,979 $325,080 $6,205,416
Washington $9,890,471 $1,467,334 $530,786 $11,888,591
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Hawaii, the average salary decreased by 2.1 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Hawaii $55,453 $58,777 $54,970 $54,300 -2.1%
California $65,159 $72,803 $69,672 $69,324 6.4%
Oregon $57,856 $58,948 $58,302 $58,758 1.6%
Washington $56,089 $56,578 $53,101 $53,571 -4.5%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Hawaii ranked first overall, or strongest, which was in the first tier of five.[24]

The Hawaii State Teachers Association (HSTA) was formally incorporated in 1971 to bring more focus on education and teacher issues to the state's agenda.[25]

The mission statement of the Hawaii State Teachers Association reads:[25]

The mission of the Hawaii State Teachers Association is to:
  • Support and enhance the professional roles of teachers;
  • Advocate teachers’ interests;
  • Collaborate with all segments of the community to assure quality public education for Hawaii’s youth; and
  • Promote human and civil rights to support and nurture diversity in our multifaceted community.[8]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Hawaii government sector lobbying

The Hawaii Board of Education does not have registered lobbyists and has stated that it does not lobby in a way that needs to be disclosed.[26]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Hawaii ballot measures

Ballotpedia staff have tracked 7 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Hawaii Acquisition of School Construction Projects, Amendment 2 (1996)
  2. Hawaii Board of Education Amendment, Question 1 (2010)
  3. Hawaii Board of Regents Candidates Act, Amendment 1 (2006)
  4. Hawaii Federal Financial Aid, Amendment 3 (1996)
  5. Hawaii Governor Appointed Board of Education, Ballot Measure 3 (1994)
  6. Hawaii Limit Board of Education Powers, Ballot Measure 4 (1994)
  7. Hawaii University of Hawaii Self-Governance, Amendment 1 (2000)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Hawaii + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Hawaii Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Hawaii State Department of Education, "Connect with Us," accessed May 19, 2014
  7. Hawaii State Department of Education, "Mission," accessed May 19, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  9. Hawaii Department of Education, "Board of Education," accessed May 19, 2014
  10. Common Core: State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed July 12, 2014
  11. Standards Toolkit, "About the Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. 25.0 25.1 Hawaii State Teachers Association, "About Us," accessed May 20, 2014
  26. Hawaii FOIA response, November 23, 2009