|U.S. Secretary of Education|
|Elections and appointments|
|Nominated||December 15, 2008|
|Confirmed||January 20, 2009|
|Appointed by||Barack Obama|
|C.E.O. Chicago Public Schools|
|High school||University of Chicago Laboratory School|
|Birthday||November 6, 1964|
|Place of birth||Chicago, IL|
- 1 Biography
- 2 Career
- 3 Confirmation vote
- 4 Secretary of Education term initiatives
- 5 Analysis
- 6 Personal
- 7 Recent news
- 8 External links
- 9 References
Before his appointment, Duncan served as C.E.O. of Chicago Public Schools. During his time as C.E.O., Duncan closed under-performing schools while expanding access to after school programs, charter schools and other public-private education initiatives. Duncan is seen as a pragmatist and bridge between pro-union supporters of traditional public schools and the reform minded school-choice movement.
Duncan was born and raised in Hyde Park, Chicago, Illinois. His father was a psychology lecturer at the University of Chicago, and his mother ran an after school center. Duncan cites his early years at the Sue Duncan Children's Center as having a significant impact on his educational outlook.
Duncan attended the University of Chicago Laboratory School and then Harvard University, where he majored in sociology and played basketball.
- 1992-1998: With his sister, helped run Ariel Education Initiative on Chicago's South Side
- 1998-2001: Deputy to Chicago Public Schools C.E.O Paul Vallas and head of the systems' magnet programs
- 2001-2008: C.E.O. Chicago Public Schools
- 2009-Present: Secretary of Education
Secretary of Education term initiatives
Race to the Top
Race to the Top was the seminal policy of Duncan's Department of Education. It was a reform designed to induce competition among states and school districts for federally allocated grants. Duncan argued that the incentive to attain Federal grant money and the resulting competition would spur innovation and improve student achievement. The program was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and had an initial budget of $4.35 billion. To become eligible, states needed to satisfy a "Common Core" of achievement standards. States proposed sweeping reform objectives and then submit grant proposals for programs they believe would achieve the objectives outlined. Proposals were measured against a scoring criteria, and grants were awarded. The Department of Education then measured states' progress towards their target objectives as the grant renewal process proceeded. Several states were unable to meet proposed targets in Race to the Top funded programs. As a result, grant allocation slowed significantly after three initial rounds. In 2012, the Department of Education began a new grant allocation round-- Race to the Top-District-- in which school districts, rather than state school systems, may apply for Race to the Top program grants.
The Race to the Top Common Core Standards were developed by the National Association of Governors and the Council of Chief State School Officers. They were "informed by the highest, most effective models from states across the country and countries around the world and provide teachers and parents with a common understanding of what students are expected to learn" in order to "provide a clear and consistent framework to prepare our children for college and the workforce." Forty-five states and the District of Columbia, along with four territories, adopted Common Core Standards. Developed specifically for English Language Arts and Mathematics instruction, "the Standards are (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4) internationally benchmarked."
Grants are rewarded based on these scores and subsequent rankings:
- A. State Success Factors (125 points)
- (A)(1) Articulating State’s education reform agenda and LEAs’ participation in it (65 points)
- (A)(2) Building strong statewide capacity to implement, scale up, and sustain proposed plans (30 points)
- (A)(3) Demonstrating significant progress in raising achievement and closing gaps (30 points)
- B. Standards and Assessments (70 points)
- (B)(1) Developing and adopting common standards (40 points)
- (B)(2) Developing and implementing common, high-quality assessments (10 points)
- (B)(3) Supporting the transition to enhanced standards and high-quality assessments (20 points)
- C. Data Systems to Support Instruction (47 points)
- (C)(1) Fully implementing a statewide longitudinal data system (24 points)
- (C)(2) Accessing and using State data (5 points)
- (C)(3) Using data to improve instruction (18 points)
- D. Great Teachers and Leaders (138 points)
- (D)(1) Providing high-quality pathways for aspiring teachers and principals (21 points)
- (D)(2) Improving teacher and principal effectiveness based on performance (58 points)
- (D)(3) Ensuring equitable distribution of effective teachers and principals (25 points)
- (D)(4) Improving the effectiveness of teacher and principal preparation programs (14 points)
- (D)(5) Providing effective support to teachers and principals (20 points)
- E. Turning Around the Lowest-Achieving Schools (50 points)
- (E)(1) Intervening in the lowest-achieving schools and LEAs (10 points)
- (E)(2) Turning around the lowest-achieving schools (40 points)
- F. General Selection Criteria (55 points)
- (F)(1) Making education funding a priority (10 points)
- (F)(2) Ensuring successful conditions for high-performing charters and other innovative schools (40 points)
- (F)(3) Demonstrating other significant reform conditions (5 points)
The goals of the Race to the Top reforms were:
- to use data to inform instruction
- to raise achievement standards and graduation rates
- to turn around historically low-performing schools
- to improve teacher and principal quality.
- Critics argued that the Race to the Top funding model would take resources from already struggling school systems and create vast disparities in achievement. Supporters maintained that only a "small but significant" portion of Race to the Top funds would go to states with the "best, homegrown plans for education reform," and that absent these incentives, the status-quo Federal funding model would continue to fail students by ignoring innovation.
- Other opponents questioned whether these reforms could adequately induce innovation. They saw Race to the Top as evidence of "cartel federalism" in line with the Bush administration's No Child Left Behind policy. They did not believe reform would be achieved by further centralization of standards because “the ends of the educational system are still set by the same small group of officials, who are protected from competition.”
- American Federation of Teachers president Randi Weingarten supported Race to the Top, but in May of 2013, she called for a moratorium on full implementation:
|“||Done right, Common Core standards will 'lead to a revolution in teaching and learning' that puts critical thinking, problem solving and teamwork ahead of rote memorization and endless test-taking, Weingarten said. Done wrong, 'they will end up in the overflowing dustbin of abandoned reforms, with people throwing up their hands, believing that public schools are too broken to save.||”|
- Supporters also pointed out that Race to the Top incentivized states to design and pursue serious reforms before any money was handed out. The competition for potential grants induced reforms to improve instruction in both quality and kind across the board, not just among states who ultimately receive grants.
- Round 1 (March 29, 2010): Delaware, Tennessee
- Round 2 (August 24, 2010): Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, District of Columbia
- Round 3 (December 23, 2011): Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
Race to the Top grant allocations slowed significantly after the first three rounds as many states faced delayed implementation of promised reforms.
In 2012, the Department of Education announced a new round of grant allocation-- Race to the Top-District-- in which individual school districts and charter school programs would be eligible for grants. Sixteen grant winners were selected in 2012. A second round of Race to the Top-District grants will be allocated, and in October 2013, 16 finalists for were announced.
Despite 45 states and four territories formally adopting Race to the Top's Common Core, public backlash against the new standards became a frequent occurance. On September 19, 2013, a group of parents in California protested the state's adoption of Common Core when Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited their city. Duncan later drew criticism in November 2013 when he described the opposition to Common Core as "white suburban moms who — all of a sudden — their child isn’t as brilliant as they thought they were, and their school isn’t quite as good as they thought they were," to a group of state school superintendents. On November 18, 2013, parents in South Carolina and New York chose to keep their children home from school as part of a "National Common Core Protest Day" to demonstrate opposition to Common Core's "one-size-fits all curriculum" and standardized testing methods. On December 8, 2013, the Buffalo Teachers Federation protested outside the residence of a state education regent in response to Common Core implementation and its emphasis on continually testing students.
In response to the public outcry, several states delayed implementation or rescinded adoption of the standards entirely. The Alabama state school board voted to revoke their agreement to adhere to the Common Core standards on November 14, 2013. However, their existing state standards were still in line with Common Core. Alabama is the only state to pull away entirely from its commitment to the Common Core standards. However, others such as Pennsylvania and Indiana have chosen to halt implementation. Louisiana chose to delay Common Core's accountability measures for two years, while Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Georgia and Michigan chose to delay or abandon Common Core testing.
Additionally, both Utah and Florida withdrew from the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and Smarter Balanced Assessment consortium, although both states plan to continue Common Core implementation. In Ohio, Representative Andrew Thompson introduced House Bill 237 to the Ohio House of Representatives in order to prevent the state from implementing Common Core.
|U.S. Department of Education Annual Budget|
|Year||Budget (in billions)||% Difference from previous year|
- Note: 2014 only represents the Department's budget request, not an enacted budget.
After graduating from Harvard in 1987, Duncan had a tryout with the Boston Celtics. He was eventually cut from the team. He went on to play professionally in the Australian National Basketball League from 1987-1991. Duncan met his wife Karen while playing professional basketball in Tasmania.
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Arne + Duncan + Secretary + Education
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- New York Times, "The New Team" accessed December 3, 2013
- New York Times, "School's Chief from Chicago is Cabinet Pick," December 15, 2008
- The White House Blog, "Secretary Arne Duncan," accessed December 3, 2013
- Washington Post, "Arne Duncan, Secretary of Eduction," accessed December 3, 2013
- U.S. Department of Education, "Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education—Biography," accessed December 3, 2013
- Chicago Sun-Times, "Duncan's past rooted in education," June 27, 2000
- L.A. Times, "Senate quickly confirms 6 Obama Cabinet choices," January 21, 2009
- Huffington Post, "Race To The Top For Districts Piques Interest Of Chicago And Los Angeles Mayors," March 3, 2012
- Common Core State Standards Initiative, "About the Standards," accessed December 10, 2013
- ED.gov, "Race to the Top Executive Summary," accessed December 10, 2013
- NPR, "The New Republic: Defending Obama's Education Plan," July 29, 2010
- FEE, "Common Core: A Tocquevillean Education or Cartel Federalism?" May 14, 2013
- AFT, "AFT calls for moratorium on Common Core consequences," May 1, 2013
- Christian Science Monitor, "As Race to the Top competition intensifies, so do education reforms," July 27, 2010
- ED.gov, "Delaware and Tennessee Win First Race to The Top Grants," accessed December 10, 2013
- ED.gov, "Nine States and the District of Columbia Win Second Round Race to the Top Grants," August 24, 2010
- ED.gov, "Department of Education Awards $200 Million to Seven States to Advance K-12 Reform," December 23, 2011
- Huffington Post, "Race To The Top State Reports: New York, Florida, Hawaii Backtracked On Reform Commitments," Jauary 10, 2012
- ED.gov, "2012 Race to the Top—District Awards, Grantee Applications, Peer Reviewer Scores and Comments," accessed December 10, 2013
- ED.gov, "Race to the Top- District," December 23, 2011
- Susan Luzarro, San Diego Reader, "Chula Vista parents protest switch to Common Core State Standards," September 19, 2013
- Valerie Strauss, Washington Post, "Arne Duncan: ‘White suburban moms’ upset that Common Core shows their kids aren’t ‘brilliant’," November 16, 2013
- Allie Bidwell, U.S. News, "South Carolina Parents Remove Children From School to Protest Common Core," November 18, 2013
- Diane C. Lore, Staten Island Advance, "Some Staten Island parents planning to keep their children home from school Monday for National Common Core Protest Day," November 15, 2013
- Denise Jewell Gee, The Buffalo News, "BTF, parents picket Regent’s home in protest over state standards, tests," December 8, 2013
- AL.com, "Common Core: Alabama votes to distance itself from controversial standards (week in review)," November 16, 2013
- The Patriot-News, "Corbett orders delay in Common Core academic standards' implementation," May 21, 2013
- Indiana Public Media, "House Bill 1427: What 'Pausing' The Common Core Means For Indiana Schools," accessed December 10, 2013
- The Times Picayune, "Louisiana announces major changes to how students, schools held accountable under Common Core," November 21, 2013
- Education Week, "Two-Year Transition to Common-Core Tests Approved in Massachusetts," November 19, 2013
- Education Week, "Tech Challenges Lead Oklahoma to Opt Out of PARCC Exams," July 3, 2013
- Heartland, "Common Core Testing Costs Increase; Georgia Withdraws," July 22, 2013
- CBS Detroit, "Michigan Gives Final OK To Common Core Standards," November 2, 2013
- The Salt Lake Tribune, "Utah drops out of consortium developing Common Core tests," August 4, 2013
- Khristopher J. Brooks, The Florida-Times Union, "Common Core still moving ahead in Florida," October 16, 2013
- Lancaster Eagle Gazette, "Ohio Republicans target Common Core," November 29, 2013
- U.S. Department of Education, "Department Budget History," accessed February 7, 2014
|U.S. Secretary of Education
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