Public education in Missouri

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K-12 Education in Missouri
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Chris Nicastro
Number of students: 916,584[1]
Number of teachers: 66,252
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:13.8
Number of school districts: 572
Number of schools: 2,408
Graduation rate: 86%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $9,410[3]
See also
Missouri Department of Education
Missouri school districts
List of school districts in Missouri
Missouri
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Missouri
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Missouri public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Missouri had 916,584 students enrolled in a total of 2,408 schools in 572 school districts. There were 66,252 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 14 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 294 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Missouri spent $9,410 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 31st highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 86 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Missouri Commissioner of Education
Missouri school districts
List of school districts in Missouri
Public education in Missouri
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education reads:[6]
The mission of the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education is to guarantee the superior preparation and performance of every child in school and in life.[7]

The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education is led by the Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner of Education is appointed by the Missouri State Board of Education. The current officeholder is Chris Nicastro.[8]

The State Board of Education is responsible generally for "the supervision of instruction in the public schools." The board is comprised of eight members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the state senate. The composition of the board must meet the following requirements:[9]

  • No more than four board members may belong to the same political party
  • No more than one member may reside within the same county or congressional district

Board members are appointed to eight-year terms.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education adopted the standards on June 15, 2010. Full implementation is scheduled to be achieved in the 2014-2015 academic year. Under pressure from opponents to Common Core, however, the Missouri Legislature passed House Bill 1490, which was signed by Governor Jay Nixon on July 14, 2014. This bill will replace the Common Core standards by the 2016-2017 school year with new state standards, to be developed with recommendations from educators and parents in the state.[10][11] [12]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Missouri compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Missouri 2,408 572 916,584 66,252 1:13.8 1:294.1 $9,410
Arkansas 1,108 289 483,114 33,983 1:14.2 1:271.3 $9,353
Illinois 4,336 1,075 2,083,097 131,777 1:15.8 1:283 $10,774
Iowa 1,411 361 495,870 34,658 1:14.3 1:277.2 $9,807
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Missouri as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[13]

Demographic information for Missouri's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 4,182 0.46% 1.10%
Asian 17,267 1.88% 4.68%
African American 153,711 16.77% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 1,470 0.16% 0.42%
Hispanic 44,581 4.86% 24.37%
White 680,249 74.22% 51.21%
Two or more 15,124 1.65% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Missouri attend rural schools. Approximately 53 percent of the state's students attend rural or town schools, compared to approximately 47 percent who attend city or suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Missouri 17.4% 29.9% 19.2% 33.5%
Arkansas 25.8% 9.6% 20.3% 44.3%
Illinois 31.3% 43.3% 10.3% 15.1%
Iowa 26.4% 8.2% 25.4% 40.1%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Arkansas, Illinois, and Iowa), Missouri has the second smallest share of eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.[14]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Missouri 39 33 35 36
Arkansas 39 28 32 30
Illinois 39 36 34 36
Iowa 48 36 38 37
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Missouri and surrounding states.[14][15][16]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Missouri 86% First 21.6 75% 1,773 4%
Arkansas 84% Second 20.3 88% 1,697 4%
Illinois 82% Third 20.9 100% 1,807 5%
Iowa 89% First 22.1 63% 1,763 3%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Missouri was higher than the national average at 3.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout rate was lower than the national average at 2.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[17]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Missouri

School choice options in Missouri include: charter schools, open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 11.50 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Missouri state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 22.6 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.60 percentage points, or 6.6 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 24.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[18][19][20][21][22]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Missouri 22.6% $9,410 13.75% 29.33% 56.92%
Arkansas 16.3% $9,353 16.02% 51.2% 32.77%
Illinois 15.8% $10,774 10.09% 32.42% 57.49%
Iowa 16.8% $9,807 10.15% 43.18% 46.66%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Missouri totaled approximately $10.1 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Missouri and surrounding states.[23]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Missouri $1,389,362 $2,963,196 $5,749,895 $10,102,453
Arkansas $834,685 $2,667,090 $1,707,234 $5,209,009
Illinois $2,895,524 $9,304,948 $16,499,969 $28,700,441
Iowa $596,688 $2,537,754 $2,742,378 $5,876,820
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Missouri totaled approximately $10.0 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Missouri and surrounding states.[23]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Missouri $8,664,338 $856,962 $462,300 $9,983,600
Arkansas $4,495,309 $607,962 $578,992 $5,682,263
Illinois $24,525,567 $1,884,976 $1,138,206 $27,548,749
Iowa $4,839,681 $861,361 $126,588 $5,827,630
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Missouri, the average salary decreased by 2.5 percent.[24]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Missouri $48,727 $48,373 $47,178 $47,517 -2.5%
Arkansas $45,625 $49,850 $47,085 $46,632 2.2%
Illinois $63,527 $66,264 $58,595 $59,113 -6.9%
Iowa $48,757 $52,973 $51,076 $51,528 5.7%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Missouri ranked 38th overall, or "weak," which was in the fourth of five tiers.[25]

The main unions related to the Missouri school system are the Missouri National Education Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and the Missouri Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). For the 2003 tax period, the Missouri National Education Association had: $7.52 million in total revenue, $7.47 million in total expenses and $3.13 million in total assets.[26] For the same period, the Missouri Federation of Teachers had: $373,550 in total revenue, $370,769 in total expenses and $82,638 in total assets.[27]

List of local Missouri school unions:[28]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Missouri government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Missouri School Boards Association.

Transparency

The Missouri Accountability Portal is the state's spending transparency database. It discloses information about state government spending, and includes data on state employee salaries, agency expenditures, and tax credit information. The Missouri Accountability Portal was created at the executive order of Governor Matt Blunt in July 2007.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Missouri ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 32 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Missouri Affecting the Tax Rate for School Purposes Amendment, Issue 1 (1918)
  2. Missouri Bonds for Educational Institutions, Amendment 1 (January 1956)
  3. Missouri Cigarette Tax for Schools, Referendum 1 (October 1955)
  4. Missouri County Board of Education Proposition, Issue 12 (1922)
  5. Missouri Education Tax Increase, Proposition B (1991)
  6. Missouri Free Public Schools Amendment, Issue 1 (1912)
  7. Missouri Gambling Loss Limits, Proposition A (2008)
  8. Missouri General Assembly Expenses, Issue 1 (1946)
  9. Missouri Impeachment Powers within State Education Amendment, Issue 8 (February 1924)
  10. Missouri Increase of School Taxes, Issue 1 (1950)
  11. Missouri Issue 8, Tax Assessments, Bonds and Public Education (1938)
  12. Missouri Kansas City School Operating Levy, Amendment 3 (April 1998)
  13. Missouri Lottery Proceeds for Education, Amendment 11 (August 1992)
  14. Missouri Maximum School Taxes Rate, Amendment 4 (August 1982)
  15. Missouri Organization of Public Education Amendment, Issue 15 (1924)
  16. Missouri Property and School Tax, Issue 8 (1938)
  17. Missouri Public School Fund Management, Issue 1 (1944)
  18. Missouri Repeal Separate Schools for White and Colored Children, Amendment 5 (August 1976)
  19. Missouri Revenue for School Purpose Amendment, Issue 2 (1918)
  20. Missouri School District Bond Limit, Amendment 2 (August 1996)
  21. Missouri School District Bond Limit, Amendment 4 (April 1998)
  22. Missouri School District Debt Limit, Amendment 2 (1952)
  23. Missouri School District Property Tax, Amendment 2 (January 1966)
  24. Missouri School Foundation Program, Referendum 2 (October 1955)
  25. Missouri School Operating Levy, Amendment 2 (1998)
  26. Missouri School Taxes, Issue 1 (1942)
  27. Missouri Student Assistance, Amendment 7 (August 1976)
  28. Missouri Tax Increase to Support Public Education Amendment, Issue 9 (1912)
  29. Missouri Tax Levy to Support Universities Amendment, Issue 11 (1910)
  30. Missouri Teacher Performance Evaluation, Amendment 3 (2014)
  31. Missouri Teachers Pensions, Issue 3 (1934)
  32. Missouri Teachers Pensions, Issue 3 (1936)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

See our recent news story: "Stipend scandal erupts in St. Joseph, Missouri" and "FBI narrows probe in St. Joseph stipend scandal."

News Feed

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Missouri + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Missouri Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, "Vision, Mission and Goals," accessed May 22, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, "Commissioner," accessed May 22, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, "About the State Board," accessed May 22, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Missouri Learning Standards, "About the Missouri Learning Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. Columbia Daily Tribune, "Governor vetoes teacher gun bill, signs Common Core reform measure," July 14, 2014
  13. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  17. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  25. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  26. Center for Union Facts, "Missouri National Education Association," accessed April 11, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Missouri Federation of Teachers," accessed April 11, 2010
  28. Center for Union Facts, "Missouri teachers unions," accessed April 11, 2010